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உமாபதி சிவாசாரியார் அருளிய திருவருட்பயன்
Explanation of Tiruvarutpayan of umApati civAccAriyAr
THE FRUIT OF DIVINE GRACE
நற்குஞ் சரக்கன்று நண்ணிற் கலைஞானம்
கற்குஞ் சரக்கன்று காண்.
To one who approaches Vinayaka Who, as the young elephant, is the embodiment of Grace, works bearing on Philosophy and Religion (Scriptures) will not be difficult to understand.
[The Deity with the head of an elephant is generally invoked at the commencement of any work for its completion. Approaching Him means worshipping Him in thought, word and deed. A total dedication to Him enables one to grasp philosophical truths with ease and clarity of understanding.]1. பதிமுது நிலை
I. THE NATURE OF THE SUPREME LORD
அகர வுயிர்போ லறிவாகி யெங்கும்
நிகரிலிறை நிற்கும் நிறைந்து. 1
What is Siva’s essential nature?
Like the vowel a, the Lord Who is incomparable, pervades and abides everywhere in the form of wisdom.
[The Lord cannot be compared with anything. He is matchless. Yet, to enable us to have a glimpse of His Nature, He is compared with the letter a which is involved in the utterance of all other letters. Though associated inseparably with other letters, it is distinct from them. So, also, the Lord Who pervades all existence (animate and inanimate) is distinct therefrom.
In the form of wisdom, the Lord knows by Himself without any extraneous aid and enables souls to know. Even as the first vowel pervades other vowels and consonants, the Lord pervades sentient and non-sentient entities. Thus He is the Supreme Being owning all existence.]
தன்னிலைமை மன்னுயிர்கள் சாரத் தருஞ்சத்தி
பின்னமிலான் எங்கள் பிரான். 2
If Siva is neither without form (arUpa) nor with form (rUpa) how can He perform the five functions to enable souls to get rid of their impurity?
Our Lord is inseparable from His Sakti (Energy) in order that souls which are eternal may attain His state (may become like unto Him)--all the same, the Lord is One and Indivisible.
பெருமைக்கும் நுண்மைக்கும் பேரருட்கும் பேற்றின்
அருமைக்கும் ஒப்பின்மை யான். 3
Is there any one comparable to Him? Is there anyone, apart from the Lord, capable of thus helping souls?
He is the Incomparable in respect of His greatness (inbringing everything under His pervasion);- of His subtle Nature (in being at the heart of even the minutest of things); of His exceeding Grace; and of His state, difficult of attainment (by others without His Grace).
ஆக்கி எவையும் அளித்தா சுடனடங்கப்
போக்குமவன் போகாப் புகல். 4
Why call Him the Incomparable? Is He not one of three? As Destroyer how is He greater than the other two, namely the Creator and Preserver?
He creates and maintains everything. He removes totally (all) impurity. He is the Refuge that never fails.
அருவும் உருவும் அறிஞர்க் கறிவாம்
உருவம் உடையான் உளன். 5
What is the form of such a Lord? Is He formless or has He a form?
He is formless. He has form. To the wise, He has a form of wisdom. (Verily such a One exists.)
[Siva, Sakti, n^Ada and bindu are said to be His formless aspect. Mahesa, Rudra, Visnu and are His form-aspect. SadAsiva is form - formless aspect. The Lord is beyond all these, as existing in the form of wisdom.]
பல்லா ருயிருணரும் பான்மையென மேலொருவன்
இல்லாதான் எங்கள் இறை. 6
If He has a form of wisdom, is there one above Him to give Him this form?
Souls which are many, know (as informed by the Lord). There is none above Him (to impart knowledge to Him likewise).
[In other words, He is unlike souls which, though intelligent entities, can have knowledge only if He illumines their understanding.
As per couplet one, there is none to equal Him. As per this couplet (6), there is none to excel Him.]
ஆனா அறிவாய் அகலான் அடியவர்க்கு
வானாடார் காணாத மன். 7
Where does such a Lord, Who has none to equal or excel Him, abide?
The Lord Who cannot be known even by the celestials, abides in the intelligence of devotees, without ever departing from them.
எங்கும் எவையும் எரியுறுநீர் போல்ஏகம்
தங்குமவன் தானே தனி. 8
If He abides in devotes (alone), how could he be all-pervading?
The Lord Who abides everywhere and in everything (animate and inanimate) as one therewith (invisibly), like heat in (warm) water, is yet apart from them (different from them and unaffected by their limitations and defects).
நலமிலன் நண்ணார்க்கு நண்ணினர்க்கு நல்லன்
சலமிலன் பேர்சங் கரன். 9
Does the Lord manifest Himself to all in the same manner? If He is present everywhere, why should souls be subjected to births?
The Lord’s name is Sankaran (one who does good). He is not good to those who do not approach Him. He is good to those who (do) approach Him. Yet, He is free from partiality (and thus is ture to His name).
உன்னுமுள தைய மிலதுணர்வா யோவாது
மன்னுபவந் தீர்க்கும் மருந்து. 10
Does He manifest Himself to those who worship and serve Him?
There is a medicine in our own understanding (as its informing principle) which will remove (the disease of) births (ceaselessly following us). There is no doubt about this. Think of this (medicine, viz the Lord and worship Him in love).
2. உயிரவை நிலை
II. THE STATE OF SOULS
பிறந்தநாள் மேலும் பிறக்குநாள் போலுந்
துறந்தோர் துறப்போர் தொகை. 11
Could those who having taken the medicine overcome births and have attained His Feet by worship, be counted?
Like the number of days that have already gone by and (the number of) days yet to come are (the number of) those who have renounced (wordly attachments) and (the number of) those who are yet to renounce.
திரிமலத்தார் ஒன்றதனிற் சென்றார்கள் அன்றி
ஒருமலத்தார் ஆயும் உளர். 12
If souls are countless, could these be classified, to enable us to understand their nature?
There are those with three impurities, those freed from one (one the three) and those with only one impurity.
மூன்றுதிறத் துள்ளாரும் மூலமலத் துள்ளார்கள்
தோன்றலர்தொத் துள்ளார் துணை. 13
If souls differ thus in respect of the number of their impurities, is there any subservience of one to another among them?
All these three groups have the original impurity. Those in the grip of mAyA are not aware of their bondage and of God as their Help. (They are all subservient only to the Lord, not to one another).
கண்டவற்றை நாளுங் கனவிற் கலங்கியிடுந்
திண்டிறலுக் கென்னோ செயல். 14
Why speak of subservience of souls? Why not take them to be the Absolute-Brahman?
Things experienced everyday are perceived confusedly in dreams. What can persons of such ‘mighty’ intellect do of their own accord?
பொறியின்றி யொன்றும் புணராத புந்திக்
கறிவென்ற பேர்நன் றற. 15
As souls have the capacity to know everything, can they not know, unaided?
How totally ‘appropriate’ the name of intelligence to those who cannot know anything without the aid of sense-organs!
ஒளியும் இருளும் உலகும் அலர்கட்
டெளிவி லெனிலென் செய. 16
Has the soul no knowledge whatever?
If wide open eye does not have the capacity to see, of what avail can light, darkness and the world be?
சத்தசத்தைச் சாரா தசத்தறியா தங்கணிவை
உய்த்தல்சத சத்தாம் உயிர். 17
Of the three, the Lord (Pati), soul (pasu) and bonds (pAsa), which exercises its knowing function?
The Real does not draw near the non-real. The non-real cannot know (anything). The soul which applies its intelligence to (know) both (the Real and the non-real), must (therefore be both.
இருளில் இருளாகி எல்லிடத்தில் எல்ஆம்
பொருள்கள் இலதோ புவி. 18
Is there any object in the world having a double aspect like the soul?
Are there not in the this world things which are dark in darkness and bright in light? (examples are the eye, crystal and AkAsa)
ஊமன்கண் போல ஒளியும் மிகவிருளே
யாமன்கண் காணா வவை. 19
Why, then, does the soul not know Siva? Since light too is with the soul from eternity, why should the soul have any connection with darkness? Can light and darkness coexist?
Souls which do not see the Great Intelligence (though beginninglessly in association with It) are like the owl to whose eye light also is intense darkness.
அன்றளவும் ஆற்றுமுயிர் அந்தோ அருள்தெரிவ
தென்றளவொன் றில்லா இடர். 20
When is the soul to overcome its ignorance? When shall it obtain Grace?
From eternity souls bear (the load of) measureless suffering. Alas! When are they to know Grace?
[The ignorance is beginningless, not endless. It is from eternity but not to eternity. The cause of ignorance is taken up in the following chapeter]
3. இருண் மல நிலை
III. THE NATURE OF THE IMPURITY OF DARKNESS
துன்றும் பவத்துயரும் இன்பும் துணைப்பொருளும்
இன்றென்ப தெவ்வாரும் இல். 21
What is the hardship caused by the impurity? What is the sorrow that clings to the soul?
The sorrow of (ceaseless round of) births, the joy (of being released from this round), the means of help, mAyA, karma and God) - these can, in no manner, be denied.
[If they are denied, the denial is due to the operation of ANava, the impurity of darkness]
இருளான தன்றி இலதெவையும் ஏகப்
பொருளாகி நிற்கும் பொருள். 22
How does ANava obscure souls?
There is nothing except darkness which hides everything else by making them one with itself.
ஒருபொருளுங் காட்டா திருளுருவங் காட்டும்
இருபொருளுங் காட்டா திது. 23
Is the obscuration caused by ANava like the one caused by physical darkness?
(External or physical) darkness hides everything but shows itself. This (internal or spiritual) darkness hides both itself and the objects.
அன்றளவி யுள்ளொளியொ டாவி யிடையடங்கி
இன்றளவு நின்ற திருள். 24
Is this spiritual darkness beginningless or does it have a beginning?
Darkness, existing from eternity abides till now. Though it permeates the soul, it is subservient to the soul and its Inner Light.
பலரைப் புணர்ந்துமிருட் பாவைக்குண் டென்றும்
கணவற்குந் தோன்றாத கற்பு. 25
How is it that souls do not realize the fact of obscuration?
The dark lady has chastity which makes her ever hide herself even from her husband while she carries on with several others.
பன்மொழிக ளென்னுணரும் பான்மை தெரியாத
தன்மையிரு ளார்தந் தது. 26
How are we to know the existence of this impurity?
Of what avail, many words (to indicate the nature of darkness)? The state of souls not realizing their nature as intelligent entities is bestowed by darkness.
இருளின்றேற் றுன்பேன் உயிரியல்பேற் போக்கும்
பொருளுண்டேல் ஒன்றாகப் போம். 27
What, if the principle of darkness is denied?
If there is no darkness, how can there be sorrow (of births)? If darkness is the nature of soul, when there is an entity to remove darkness, the destruction of darkness will bring about the destruction of the soul also.
ஆசாதி யேலணைவ காரணமென் முத்திநிலை
பேசா தகவும் பிணி. 28
Did the impurity have a beginning in time?
If the defect (of darkness) had a beginning (in time) what was the reason for its association (with the pure soul)? If there was no reason, the defect would seize the soul again.
ஒன்று மிகினும் ஒளிகவரா தேலுள்ளம்
என்றும் அகலா திருள் 29
Will the impurity never cease?
Even if darkness abounds, if the soul does not (gradually) realize the light, darkness will never depart from the soul.
வடிவா மளவும் விளக்கனைய மாயை
வடிவாதி கன்மத்து வந்து. 30
Does mAyA obscuration? Why attribute it to ANava?
Body and other accessories, arising from mAyA, according to the karma of souls, are like a lamp (that dispels darkness) until dawn.
4. அருளது நிலை
IV. THE NATURE OF GRACE
அருளிற் பெரிய தகிலத்தில் வேண்டும்
பொருளிற் றலையிலது போல். 31
Is there any thing greater than Grace?
Even as nothing is more important (or greater) than what is considered indispensable (at a given time), nothing in the world is greater than Grace.
பெருக்க நுகரவினை பேரொளியாய் எங்கும்
அருக்கனென நிற்கும் அருள். 32
How does Grace operate?
Like the great external light of the sun enabling persons everywhere to do work and reap its reward, Grace is the great (inner) light, enabling souls to engage in action and experience its fruits.
ஊனறியா தென்றும் உயிரறியா தொன்றுமிவை
தானறியா தாரறிவார் தான். 33
Can the soul of man do its own work without the aid of Grace?
The body can never know; the soul (by itself) cannot know anything (without the body, sense-organs etc). So, who can know unless Grace brings these two together?
பாலாழி மீன்ஆளும் பான்மைத் தருளுயிர்கள்
மாலாழி ஆளும் மறித்து. 34
How is it that souls are in ingnorance of the Grace which thus guides them?
Souls, immersed in Grace, refusing to experience it, return to immerse themselves in the sea of delusion, in the manner of fish in the sea of milk going after the insects therein instead of drinking the milk.
அணுகு துணையறியா வாற்றோனி லைந்தும்
உணர்வை யுணரா வுயிர். 35
How is it that souls know not His gift of knowledge?
Like a traveller being unaware of help (from a guard coming behind him) and like the five senses being unaware of the soul guilding them, the soul is unaware of the Intelligence (which is Grace dwelling in the soul).
தரையை யறியாது தாமே திரிவார்
புரையை யுணரா புவி. 36
What illustrates the soul’s ignorance of the way it is guided?
Persons walk about (engrossed in life i.e. in their activities) without realising that the earth supports them. Even so, souls get absorbed in objects of experience without realising that it is Grace which makes such experience possible.
மலைகெடுத்தோர் மண்கெடுத்தோர் வான்கெடுத்தோர் ஞானந்
தலைகெடுத்தோர் தற்கேடர் தாம். 37
Can they, by seeking, discover Grace?
Those lost to a sense of Grace are like those:
(1) Who have lost the mountain (that affords protection against invasion)
(2) Who have lost the land (one which they walk or which yields its harvest) and
(3) Who have lost the here-after in which they can enjoy the good that it offers (or lost the sky or space in which they move about).
They spell their own ruin.
வெள்ளத்துள் நாவற்றி யெங்கும் விடிந்திருளாம்
கள்ளத் தலவர் கடன். 38
How is it that men wander ignorant of Grace?
Because of the action of pseudo-leaders, what ensues is similar to (feeling intense thirst) standing neck-deep in water, with parched tongue and to feeling it still dark though the day has dawned brightly.
பரப்பமைந்து கேண்மினிது பாற்கலன்மேற் பூசை
கரப்பருந்த நாடுங் கடன். 39
What is it like, to be ignorant of Grace?
Listen, avoiding distraction (by the senses). This (eagerness for sensory experience, missing the joy of Grace) is like a cat jumping from the top of a milk-pot to eat a cockroach.
If the cat succeeds in catching the cockroach, it is but poor feed in quality and quantity compared with richness and large quantity of milk. Likewise, going after sensory pleasures may result in the frustration of missing them, or if attained, the enjoyment will be of short duration and poor quality. On the other hand, the joy of Grace is everlasting and of increasing richness.
இற்றை வரையியைந்தும் ஏதும் பழக்கமிலா
வெற்றுயிர்க்கு வீடு மிகை. 40
Is it not possible to know without overcoming distraction?
Release is superfluous for hollow souls which, though associated with Grace (from all eternity) until now, have not practiced presence (or awarness) of it.
5. அருளுரு நிலை
V. THE FORM OF GRACE (AS MANIFESTED IN THE GURU)
அறியாமை யுண்ணின் றளித்ததே காணுங்
குறியாகி நீங்காத கோ. 41
Who comes when twofold deeds are balanced? Who grant release?
The Lord Who manifests Himself in a visible form (as Guru when souls have spiritual maturity) is indeed the same One who, abiding concealed within them (when they are in a state of ignorance and immaturity) gave them help. He never departs from them.
[His help is there all-through, whether it is availed of with awareness or not].
அகத்துறுநோய்க் குள்ளின ரன்றி யதனைச்
சகத்தவருங் காண்பரோ தான். 42
Is it so very necessary that He, the indwelling Lord Himself, should come as Guru? Will not learned men suffice?
Can others in the world know the illness that only those in the household are aware of? (Likewise, only the Lord Who dwells within them knows the spiritual malady of souls-not others).
அருளா வகையா லருள்புரிய வந்த
பொருளா ரறிவார் புவி. 43
Can all recognise the Guru Who thus appears?
The world does not know the Guru as the Lord Himself, coming in human form to grant Grace.
பொய்யிருண்ட சிந்தைப் பொறியிலார் போதமாம்
மெய்யிரண்டுங் காணார் மிக. 44
How it is that inferior souls know not the Guru?
Those whose understanding is darkened by ANava and who, hence, lack wisdom, - know not fully the two - (1) (2) Grace as wisdom and the Guru as its embodiment.
பார்வையென மாக்களைப் பற்றிப் பிடித்தற்காம்
போர்வையெனக் காணார் புவி. 45
Is it necessary that His sacred form should be visible like ours?
The world does not know that the human form of the Guru is a cloak hiding the Lord to entice souls to comes under His swayin the manner of using a decoy to catch wild animals.
எமக்கெ னெவனுக் கெவை தெரியு மவ்வத்
தமக்கவனை வேண்டத் தவிர். 46
May not any teacher be thus a cloaked image of Sivan?
It is natural to go to that person who is competent to impart the required knowledge. What will happen, if we, requiring spiritual knowledge, fail to take the help of Guru?
விடநகுலம் மேவினுமெய்ப் பாவகனின் மீளுங்
கடனிலிருள் போவதிவன் கண். 47
Is it not enough that Divine Grace is the core of your knowledge? Must He come as Guru too?
Snake poison will be removed by one who has contemplative identification with a mongoose, not by the mongoose coming in contact with the body of the bitten one. Even so, spiritual darkness can be removed by the Guru (not by God as such-although God and Guru are the same, He must appear as Guru).
அகலர்த் தருமருளை யாக்கும்வினை நீக்குஞ்
சகலர்க்கு வந்தருளுந் தான். 48
Is His Gracious manifestation as a Teacher for all or for one class only?
The Lord by His Grace removes the ignorance of those with one mala (vijnAnakalas), removes the bond of ignorance and karma (of pralayAkalas). To those with the bond of mAyA also (in addition to ANava and karma - viz to the sakalas, He grants Grace by appearing as Guru.
As vijnAnakalas and pralayAkalas are free from the bond of mAyA, they are called akalas, unlike the sakalas who are bound by mAyA.
The Lord bestows His Grace without appearing as Guru to souls without the evolutes of mAyA. To those associated with these evolutes, He appears as Guru.
ஆரறிவார் எல்லாம் அகன்ற நெற்யருளும்
பேரறிவான் வாராத பின். 49
Can He not be invisible and still, instruct? Cannot salvation be effected without the coming of the Guru? Why should He appear in a form?
If the Lord-the Great Intelligence-does not come as Guru and grant Grace, who can have the knowledge that can be had only after the bonds are removed?
ஞானம் இவனொழிய நண்ணியிடும் நற்கலனற்
பானு ஒழியப் படின். 50
Should the Lord come as the Guru? Cannot the soul know everything by itself?
Wisdom can be had without the Guru-if the sun-stone can emit fire without the rays of the sun.
6. அறியும் நெறி
VI. THE WAY OF KNOWLEDGE
நீடும் இருவினைகள் நேராக நேராதல்
கூடுமிறை சத்தி கொளல். 51
When will He come as Guru? At what stage does He appear?
The stage for reception of God’s Grace is reached when the consequence of the long-drawn karma (twofold deeds-good and bad) are seen to be alike (in their binding effect on souls).
ஏகன் அனேகன் இருள்கரும மாயையிரண்
டாகவிவை யாறாதி யில். 52
When the Lord appears as a Guru, what will He teach?
The One (the Lord), the many (souls), darkness (ANava), karma and twofold mAyA (suddha and asuddha) - these have no beginning.
செய்வானும் செய்வினையும் சேர்பயனும் சேர்ப்பவனும்
உய்வா னுளனென் றுணர். 53
Of the six entities which have no beginning, which must you know?
Realise that for your salvation there are (1) the doer (2) the deeds (3) the fruit(s) of the deeds and (4) the one who apportions (the fruits to the respective doers).
ஊனுயிரால் வாழும் ஒருமைத்தே ஊனொடுயிர்
தானுணர்வோ டொன்றாந் தரம். 54
How-in what manner-does the soul abide in Grace?
The manner in which the soul living in a body has the Lord as its Soul is like the union of the soul with a physical body.
தன்னிறமும் பன்னிறமும் தானாங்கற் றன்மைதரும்
பொன்னிறம்போன் மன்னிறப் பூ. 55
How does Grace operate upon souls? Is the Guru affected by the pleasures and pains of the soul, by abiding in them?
Even as the capacity of the crystal to show its own colour and the many colours (of adjacent objects) is given by sunlight-the capacity of souls in this world (to reflect their environment) is given by the Grace of God.
[Though the sun gives the light which enables a crystal to show its own colour and to reflect the colours in its environment, sunlight is not affected by these colours].
கண்டொல்லை காணுநெறி கண்ணுயிர் நாப்பணொளி
யுண்டில்லை யல்ல தொளி. 56
May I not say, ‘I do not need Grace to see by: I my self will see’?
The capacity of the eye to see arises from the light that exists between the soul and the eye. Without that light there can be no vision. (Grace is to the soul, what physical light is to the eye).
புன்செயலி னோடு புலன்செயல்போல் நின்செயலை
மன்செயல தாக மதி. 57
How is it we see by the Grace of Siva?
Understand that even as the sense-organs function as guided by the limited intelligence of the soul, the functions of the soul are guided by Divine Grace.
ஓராதே யொன்றையுமுற் றுன்னாதே நீமுந்திப்
பாராதே பார்த்ததனைப் பார். 58
How are we to know the help given by Grace?
Search not. Do not think of any object by merging yourself in it. Without projecting yourself, behold the Grace (which illumines knowledge).
கனியே மிகுபுல னாக்கருதி ஞான
வொளியே யொளியா வொளி. 59
Shall I obtain joy y thus contemplating the Divine Grace?
Regarding the joy of contemplation as the highest object, conceal yourself in the light of wisdom as the (Supreme) Light.
கண்டபடி யேகண்டு காணாமை காணாமை
கொண்டபடி யேகொண் டிரு. 60
When shall we part with these intuitions of sense?
Beholding that which Grace has illumined, preventing the recurrence of primal ignorance and submitting yourself to the operation of Grace, abide in Grace.
7. உயிர் விளக்கம்
VII. THE SOUL’S PURIFICATION
தூநிழலார் தற்காரும் சொல்லார் தொகுமிதுபோற்
றானதுவாய் நிற்கும் தரம். 61
When comes perfect resignation of the soul so as to be immersed in Wisdom?
No one need invite a person to a cool placer: even so in regard to the matter of abiding in Grace.
[A person exposed to the heat of the sun will, of his own accord, go to a cool place when he sees it. Likewise those who have suffered from life’s fitful fever will joyfully resort to Grace].
தித்திக்கும் பால்தானும் கைக்கும் திருந்திடுநாப்
பித்தத்தின் தான்தவிர்ந்த பின். 62
How is it that this Grace is not enjoyed by all alike?
Even milk, sweet in taste, will be bitter-but after the tongue has recovered from biliousness, sweetness is restored.
[In a bilious state, milk will taste bitter. After recovering from this state, the tongue will once again find milk sweet].
காண்பான் ஒளியிருளிற் காட்டிடவும் தான்கண்ட
வீண்பாவம் என்னாய் விடும். 63
What is the need for Grace? Can I not know by myself?
Light enables a person to see in darkness, If, (on the other hand) he claims to see by himself (without the aid of light) what will this sin lead to?
ஒளியும் இருளும் ஒருமைத்துப் பன்மை
தெளிவு தெளியார் செயல். 64
What are the respective activities of the enlightened and the unenlightened?
In light as well as in darkness, the world of plurality appears alike-i.e. without its plurality. The difference consists in the former being a state of enlightenment and the latter of ignorance and delusion.
[Light is state of Grace. Darkness is state of primal ignorance].
கிடைக்கத் தகுமேநற் கேண்மையார்க் கல்லால்
எடுத்துச் சுமப்பானை யின்று. 65
Is not mystic union available for all at once?
Except for those with good friends, is there any one who will take all the load on his own shoulders?
வஞ்ச முடனொருவன் வைத்த நிதிகவரத்
துஞ்சினனோ போயினனோ சொல். 66
Is He who imposes the burden different from him who bears the burden?
Is not all Brahman?
Say whether a person who has laid by a treasure is asleep or is gone from that place, if the treasure happens to be taken away by stealth.
[The Lord neither sleeps nor slumbers nor dissociates Himself from His Grace, for souls to obtain that Grace by their own effort. Besides, the soul, subject to lapses in knowledge, cannot be Brahman.]
தனக்குநிழ லின்றா மொளிகவரும் தம்ப
மெனக்கவர நில்லா திருள். 67
To the wise who have become ‘servants’, do not ‘impurities’ arise?
How are impurities to be overcome?
Like the crystal pillar which at noon, is wholly pervaded by sunlight (without reflection in it of other objects) when the soul is wholly pervaded by divine light, (spiritual) darkness cannot persist.
உற்கைதரும் பொற்கை யுடையவர்போல் உண்மைப்பின்
நிற்கை யருளார் நிலை. 68
How may one abide so that ‘Impurity’ shall not appear, but Grace remain?
Even as in looking for an object (in darkness) one stands behind the torch held in one’s lovely hand - till the Real manifests Itself, one must stand behind Grace, Identifying oneself with It-(Grace).
ஐம்புலனாற் றாங்கண்ட தன்றா லதுவொழிய
ஐம்புலனார் தாமார் அதற்கு. 69
Can one know by oneself?
If the Real cannot be perceived by the five senses, unless Grace reveals It, what is the competence of the senses and the soul to know It?
[It is Grace that enables one to know: In other words, Things spiritual can only be spiritually discerned].
தாமே தருமவரைத் தம்வலி யினாற்கருத
லாமே யிவனா ரதற்கு. 70
Is it necessary for Grace to show Itself? Do I not myself see It?
Is it proper to think that one took by force what a person has given of his own accord? Even so what right has the soul to Grace (attempting to obtain Grace by force)?
8. இன்புறு நிலை
VIII. THE STATE OF BLISS
இன்புறுவார் துன்பார் இருளின் எழுஞ்சுடரின்
பின்புகுவார் முன்புகுவார் பின். 71
In what way can the soul obtain bliss?
Those who walk behind the light that arises to dispel darkness experience joy - unlike those who walk, putting the light behind them.
[In the state of bondage or spiritual immaturity, souls put themselves before Grace. In the state of release, they follow the Light of Grace].
இருவர் மடந்தையருக் கென்பயன்இன் புண்டாம்
ஒருவன் ஒருத்தி யுறின். 72
For this, is not Grace sufficient? Over and above this, what need of the ‘known’?
Of what use the mating of two women?
Joy arises when a man unites with a woman.
இன்பதனை எய்துவார்க் கீயும் அவற்குருவம்
இன்பகன மாதலினா லில். 73
When the souls is united to the known, does the known through the soul, obtain bliss?
The Lord grants bliss to those who draw unto Him. Since His form (Itself) is bliss, there is no experience of bliss for Him.
தாடலைபோற் கூடிஅவை தான்நிகழா வேற்றின்பக்
கூடலைநீ ஏகமெனக் கொள். 74
Does the soul, then, obtain that bliss as one alien to the Supreme like sugar and one who tastes it?
Like the combination of the words tAl and talai (into tAdalai, where the individual differences do not appear) take it that oneness consists in the blissful union of the soul with the Lord.
ஒன்றாலும் ஒன்றா திரண்டாலும் ஓசையெழா
தென்றாலொன் றன்றிரண்டும் இல். 75
Do they not yet obtain absolute unity? Are the Lord an soul one or different?
If there is only one entity, there could be no union If there are two (opposed to each other in their very nature) there could be no talk of union. If this is the position, (we have to take it that) as entities, the Lord and soul are not one - but because of their union, they are not two either.
உற்றாரும் பெற்றாரும் ஓவா துரையொழியப்
பற்றாரும் அற்றார் பவம். 76
What then is the mode of the soul’s approach to the Supreme and unity with Him?
Those who have gained the wisdom leading to bliss and those who have attained the bliss never for a moment lose their touch with the Real. They are birthless. Even so - (birthless) are those who have taken the first two steps listening to the spiritual message and meditating on it - but have not taken the remaining two-viz gaining clarity of understanding and getting established in the Real.
[Birthlessness includes speechlessness in both cases].
பேயொன்றும் தன்மை பிறக்கு மளவுமினி
நீயொன்றும் செய்யாம னில். 77
What is meant by the speechlessness above? - (Speechlessness of those who have gained the wisdom leading to bliss and those who have attained the bliss).
Till you attain a state like that of one possessed, stay without any action of your own (absorbed in contemplation of the Real).
ஒண்பொருட்க ணுற்றார்க் குறுபயனே யல்லாது
கண்படுப்போர் கைப்பொருள் போற்காண். 78
What is the cessation of action on the part of the absorbed mystic like?
To those immersed in the Real everything apart from bliss is like the object in the hand of a person fast asleep.
The object in the hand of a person in deep sleep will be dropped. Likewise the preparatory stages with their respective benefits cease.
மூன்றாய தன்மையவர் தம்மின் மிகமுயங்கித்
தோன்றாத வின்பமதென் சொல். 79
Does not a third entity appear apart from the knower and the known?
When the two (Siva and the soul) are intimately associated, the resulting bliss is such that the three factors here the enjoyer, the object of enjoyment and the enjoyment itself) do not stand out (there is only Siva or bliss). Of what avail, words (to describe this state)?
இன்பி லினிதென்றல் இன்றுண்டேல் இன்றுண்டாம்
அன்பி னிலையே யது. 80
Can that bliss be enjoyed in this very life?
If a person gains the understanding to attain the supreme joy in the present birth, it is but the love that he cherishes for the Lord.
9. ஐந்தெழுத்தருள் நிலை
IX. THE STATE OF GRACE OF THE FIVE LETTERS
அருணூலும் ஆரணமும் அல்லாதும் ஐந்தின்
பொருணூல் தெரியப் புகின். 81
If the unutterable rapture has not been gained by the means already explained, is there any other method?
If we study carefully, it will be seen that the work of Grace (the Saiva Agamas), the Vedas and other works are elaborations of the sacred Five Letters.
இறைசத்தி பாசம் எழில்மாயை ஆவி
உறநிற்கும் ஓங்காரத் துள். 82
What does this pentad of letters (syllables) declare?
The Lord, His Energy (sakti), bond (ANava), dynamic mAyA and soul are the import of the OmkAra.
ஊன நடனம் ஒருபால் ஒருபாலா
ஞானநடம் தானடுவே நாடு. 83
What is the order in which the ‘Five Letters’ stand?
On one side the dance bringing about birth with its attendant ignorance; on another side, the dance of wisdom with the soul in between the two.
விரிய மந மேவியவ்வை மீளவிடா சித்தம்
பெரியவினை தீரிற் பெறும். 84
How is it that by means of the ‘Five Letters’ the soul does not (at once) obtain the known?
Owing to be operation of the Obscuring Energy (TirodhAna sakti), mAyA and karma join the soul and ANava starts functioning - the soul being thus in the firm grip of the bonds-is prevented from returning to the Lord. With the cessation of the connection with the bonds, the soul returns to the Lord.
மாலார் திரோத மலமுதலாய் மாறுமோ
மேலாசி மீளா விடின். 85
How is it that, though there are these ‘Five Letters’ ANava (Impurity) does not depart?
If ‘na’ and ‘ma’ signifying the deluding obscuring energy and ANava respectively occur first (in the meditative utterance) will there be release from bondage - unless ‘ si ’ signifying the Lord comes first?
The order of letters for salvation is with ‘ si ’ coming first not na, coming first.
ஆராதி ஆதாரம் அந்தோ அதுமீண்டு
பாராது மேல்ஓதும் பற்று. 86
Will Impurity depart from those who repeat the ‘Five Letters’?
Worship Siva, Who is the support for everything. What a pity that owing to worldly attachment, the correct order is ignored, (persisting in the order with na as the letter)!
சிவமுதலே ஆமாறு சேருமேல் தீரும்
பவமிதுநீ ஓதும் படி. 87
Why is the pentad of Letters recited thus?
If the order with Si and vA is understood and followed birth will cease. Follow this order for your salvation.
வாசி அருளியவை வாழ்விக்கும் மற்றதுவே
ஆசில் உருவமுமாம் அங்கு. 88
What benefit accrues from this order of recitation?
Va is the Grace that enables the soul (ya) to attain Siva (Si) - immersing the soul in bliss. In that state, Grace becomes the blemishless form of the soul.
ஆசினவா நாப்பண் அடையா தருளினால்
வாசிஇடை நிற்கை வழக்கு. 89
How will that soul exist in the heaven of liberation?
The correct procedure is for ya to avoid the position between na (standing for obscuration) and va, ya must be between va standing for grace and Si (for Siva).
[The different ways of uttering the Letters must be learnt from the Guru]
எல்லா வகையும்இயம்பும் இவன் அகன்று
நில்லா வகையை நினைந்து. 90
Why should different ways of recitation of the pentad be given?
In view of the need for enabling the soul to get rid of the bonds, all the ways of uttering the sacred five letters are set forth.
10. அணைந்தோர் தன்மை
X. THE STATE OF THOSE WHO HAVE ATTAINED THE LORD
ஓங்குணர்வின் உள்ளடங்கி உள்ளத்துள் இன்பொடுங்கத்
தூங்குவர்மற் றேதுண்டு சொல். 91
What is the thought of the knowers who never forsake the known?
Immersing themselves in the transcendent wisdom with joy filling their minds, they slumber. (They are asleep in this world as they are awake in Reality).
ஐந்தொழிலும் காரணர்க ளாந்தொழிலும் போகநுகர்
வெந்தொழிலும் மேவார் மிக. 92
Will those who have attained this state desire higher stations of felicity? Or desire to perform the five functions?
Those who are close to the Lord do not like in the least to perform the five functions of the Lord, the function of each of the delegated agents and the experience of the fruits of their past deeds with feelings of desire and aversion.
எல்லாம் அறியும் அறிவுறினும் ஈங்கிவரொன்
றல்லா தறியார் அற. 93
Do these attain to omniscience and the other attributes?
Even though in the state of release they come to be endowed with the capacity to know everything, they never engage in knowing anything except the One (Siva).
புலனடக்கித் தம்முதற்கண் புக்குறுவார் போதார்
தலம்நடக்கும் ஆமை தக. 94
When objects of sense present themselves to the knower of this kind, how do they act?
Like the tortoise, controlling their senses they enter within themselves (to be poised in the Real) - they do not go out to experience the external world.
அவனையகன் றெங்கின்றாம் ஆங்கவனாம் எங்கும்
இவனைஒழிந் துண்டாத லில். 95
But are there any who have left the ‘Known’ and departed from Him?
There is nothing (no world) apart from the Lord. Even so, there is nothing apart from those who have drawn close to the Lord with Whom they have become one.
[Those who have attained the Lord are also all-pervasive like Him].
உள்ளும் புறம்பும் ஒருதன்மைக் காட்சியருக்
கெள்ளுந் திறமேதும் இல். 96
Have these persons then seen that Existence within (themselves) or without?
Nothing is an object of contempt to those in whose vision the outer and the inner are of the same nature.
உறுந்தொழிற்குத் தக்கபயன் உலகம் தத்தம்
வறுந்தொழிற்கு வாய்மை பயன். 97
What is the benefit of cessation of activity, if the knowers are immersed in the known?
The fruits of deeds, good and bad, done with a sense of ‘ I ’ and ‘mine’ are pleasures and pains of this world. For deeds done without a sense of agency and proprietorship, the fruit is enjoyment of the Real.
ஏன்ற வினையுடலோ டேகுமிடை யேறும்வினை
தோன்றில் அருளே சுடும். 98
As old deeds are consumed (eaten), does not the effect of new deeds accumulate?
The karma to be wiped out in this life will be experienced on the level of the body (as physical pleasure and pain). If in this process, fresh karma accrues, Grace will scorch it.
மும்மை தரும்வினைகள் மூளாவாம் மூதறிவார்க்
கம்மையும் இம்மையே யாம். 99
Is the infinite liberation obtained when the body dies?
To those of ripe wisdom, there will be no upsurge of karma arising from thought, word and deed- (or karma yielding its fruit in this life, the next one and the life beyond birth and death). To them the hereafter is already here.
கள்ளத் தலைவர் துயர்கருதித் தாங்கருணை
வெள்ளத் தலைவர் மிக. 100
Have these no desire to save others? Have jivan-muktas, no concern for those still in bondage?
Deeply concerned when they behold the sorrow of those falsely claiming agency for themselves, those who have drawn close to the Lord move about a lot in the sea of compassion.
This page was first put up on November26, 2008