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Madurai Chokkanathar Ulaa in English

English Translation by Kausalya Hart 

புராண திருமலைநாதர் இயற்றிய மதுரை சொக்கநாதர் உலா 
கௌசல்யா ஹார்ட் அவர்களின் ஆங்கில மொழிபெயர்ப்பு

  • Acknowledgements: 
    Our Sincere thanks go to Dr. Kausalya Hart and Prof. George Hart of 
    the University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA for providing an e-version of this 
    translation and permission to publish the translation as part of Project Madurai etext collections. 

    © Project Madurai, 1998-2012. 
    Project Madurai is an open, voluntary, worldwide initiative devoted to preparation 
    of electronic texts of tamil literary works and to distribute them free on the Internet. 
    Details of Project Madurai are available at the website 
    You are welcome to freely distribute this file, provided this header page is kept intact.

    புராண திருமலைநாதர் இயற்றிய மதுரை சொக்கநாதர் உலா 
    கௌசல்யா ஹார்ட் அவர்களின் ஆங்கில மொழிபெயர்ப்பு 

    maturai cokkanAtar ulA of purANatirumalainAtar 
    English Translation by Kausalya Hart

    • Dr. Kausalya Hart
      Department of SSEAS
      University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA
      April, 2012



      The Thiruvilaiyaadal Puraanam and the Thiruchokkanaathar Ulaa

      The Thiruvilaiyaadal puraanam of the fourteenth century tells the sixty-three miracle stories of Shiva in Madurai. Through the stories the author tells us the genealogy of many Pandyan kings, the history of Madurai city and how it was constructed, many wars between the Chola and Pandyan kings, the three times when the deluge came, the establishment of the Sangam with forty nine poets in Madurai city and many other details. 

      The author of the Thiruvilaiyaadal puraanam is Paranjothi Munivar. He was born in the city of Thirumaraikkaadu in the Chola country. His father Meenakshisundara Desikar belonged to Vellala caste. The author learned both Sanskrit and Tamil and became a scholar in both languages. When he grew up he went to Madurai to worship the god Sundareswarar and goddess Meenakshi. Meenakshi appeared in his dream and asked him to write stories about the miracles of Lord Shiva and so he composed the Thriuvilaiyaadal Puraanam and read it in the assembly of Pandyan king. Scholars say that he lived in the 16th century CE. 

      Some scholars believe that the stories of Thiruvilaiyaadal Puraanam follow the Sanskrit “Haalaasyamaahaatmyam,” while others believe that Paranjothi Munivar’s work came first. The stories of Shiva in this book also occur elsewhere in Tamil literature in such works as Cilappathikaaram, Kallaadam, Thevaaram, Thiruvaasagam and others. Other works that describe the Thiruvilaiyaadals of Shiva are Perumpatrap Puliyur Nambi’s Thiruvaalavaay Udaiyaar Tiruvilaiyaadal Puraanam, the Kadambavana PuraaNam, the Sundara Pandiyam and others. 

      Thiruchokkanaadar Ulaa: This Ulaa describes the greatness of Shiva and his escorts in procession in the first part. In the later part of this Ulaa the seven types of women who see Shiva in his procession tell us the same sixty-four stories that are told in Thiruvilaiyaadal Puraanam. The author describes the beauty of each of these women and their love of Shiva in this prabandam.

      The purpose of this translation is to make available to the western world one of the finest prabhandams in Tamil. I will be happy if this translation is useful to those scholars who are working on later Tamil genres and religion. I should convey my sincere thanks to George Hart for going over the English. I would also like to thank my student Gita Pai who awakened my interest in the various Prabandams about Madurai city. I would also like to thank all my students who give me encouragement in all my efforts.



  • Praise of Shiva, the ancient Lord

    1, 2. Vishnu, the beloved of Lakshmi 
    who stays on the beautiful lotus,
    and Brahma the creator of the world 
    who lives on a lotus dripping with honey
    could not understand 
    the way, the deeds and the form of 
    Shiva the ancient Lord

    3. Shiva is the incomparable one. 
    He is the first one. 
    He has no beginning or end.
    No one can see his head or feet.
    Such is his form.
    His body is of limitless lustre.

    4. Uma, the Goddess Gauri, 
    is the princess of the Himalayas.
    The Vedas always search for her. 
    She is the creator of religions. 
    and the queen of everything.

    5. She is as bright as a diamond creeper.
    Her color is as green as an emerald creeper.
    She loves music and protects it.
    She loves Tamil and is a scholar.

    6. Lord Vishnu has beautiful eyes like lotuses.
    He praises his sister the fish-eyed goddess. 
    That Goddess of Madurai 
    embraces the chest of her beloved Shiva.

    7. The sage Agastya, the great Tamil scholar 
    who composed poems like a pouring cloud, 
    showered down a cool and 
    fertile flood of Tamil poems 
    as he stayed on Potiya mountain.

    8. Agastya praised god Shiva 
    with his divine songs, 
    and as lord of the Vaigai river, ?
    Shiva accepted those poems
    and gave his grace to the sage.
    9. Shiva is the great king of the Pandya country 
    where the honey from groves 
    that touch the sky
    flows to the fields and sugarcane. 

    10. Shiva is the king of the city of Madurai 
    where the sound of the Vedas being recited 
    and the singing of Tamil Sangam poems 
    fill the place. 

    11. Shiva’s chest is decorated 
    with shining golden ornaments 
    that spread light everywhere.
    His garlands of blossoms 
    spread fragrance everywhere.

    12. Shiva rides on a strong bull 
    that runs swiftly. 
    There is no comparison for his army 
    that is filled with horses, 
    elephants, flags and soldiers.

    13. Shiva is our king.
    He gave the Vedas to the world.
    His scepter protects all lives with compassion .
    He is the joy of Saivism.

    14. Shiva is the chief praised 
    by the divine songs of the Vedas.
    He is faultless.
    He is unshakable
    He is the one with dark neck.

    15. Shiva protected Brahma
    who sits on a lotus
    when he created the world.
    He gave power to Vishnu 
    to protect the world.

    16. Shiva, the Thaanu 
    took the form of a snake 
    so that the man-lion form of Vishnu 
    stopped trembling and became calm.

    17. Shiva burned the three forts 
    with a slight smile without anger
    because all emperors who protected the lands 
    requested him to burn them.

    Indra comes to the earth and consecrates a Shiva Lingam 

    18. When Indra, the incomparable one, 
    king of the country of Aintaru was cursed,
    he made a flying chariot,
    came to earth and consecrated 
    a Shiva lingam and worshipped it. 

    19. Indra called that Shiva lingam 
    with the beautiful name
    “Azhakiya Chokkar.”
    Lord Shiva accepted that name 
    with abundant love. 

    20. Shiva took away the bad karma 
    of the elephant Airavata 
    and the curse of Indra.
    After that a rich merchant 
    who saw the gods worshipping 
    the Shiva lingam that 
    was consecrated by Indra, 
    came to the Pandya king 
    and told him about Azakiya Chokkar 
    who was worshipped by Indra.

    The Pandya king builds a temple for Azhakiya Chokkar

    21, 22. The Pandya king went to the place 
    where Azakiya Chokkar was 
    and built rich mandapams, patios and 
    raised mounds studded with cool pearls 
    and diamonds and windows.

    23. The Pandya king also built 
    a lovely temple for the fish-eyed goddess, 
    with great walls, towers 
    decorated with lustrous jewels 
    and a place to collect flowers.

    24. Many long streets were made. 
    Incomparable patios and
    halls on the top of the palaces 
    touching the stars were raised.
    25. Golden patios, hanging decorations, 
    mounds studded with diamonds, 
    and places to keep chariots were built. 
    Flower ponds were dug and 
    trees were planted for groves 
    surrounding the temple.

    26 , 27. Everything that could beautify 
    the temple was built around the city.
    The king built a temple on the south side 
    for the Goddess Suli who rides a deer,
    on the north side a temple for the Goddess Kali 
    and on the west side a temple for lord Vishnu 
    who carries in his hand a pure, shining discus.

    28. The pure water of the river Ganges 
    that removes all the sins of the world
    and that flows on the Jata of the Lord 
    was sprinkled all over the city.

    29. The Lord had ordered 
    the shining moon 
    to sprinkle its drops of nectar 
    all over the city. 

    30. That new lovely city received 
    the name ‘Maduraapuri’ and
    the gods in the sky and 
    the people of the great earth 
    praised its name.

    31. The king ordered servants 
    of many castes to serve the Lord. 
    Those who knew the divine Vedas and 
    those who recite the praise of the Lord 
    arrived at the temple 
    as required by the king.

    32. Pujas were done according 
    to the religious rules of Saivism 
    for the Lord of Madurapuri.

    33, 34. The king of Madurapuri, 
    the heroic king of southern land, 
    the best of the Veeramaaran lineage,
    the most courageous man in the world,
    found an auspicious day 
    according to the stars 
    and decided to do puja for the Lord.

    35. Faultless true pujas were done 
    by orthodox priests. 
    After the beautiful festivals were finished,
    the Lord went to see the palace 
    of his wife, the goddess.

    Shiva and his escorts go to the Goddess’s temple. 

    36. On both sides, 
    his escorts went praising Shiva 
    with the lovely songs of Tiruvasagam, 
    Thiruvicaippaa, the sweet poems of Sangattamil,
    and many Thirumandiram songs.

    37. The devotees sang 
    the melodious Tiruviruttapaa poems
    from the Periyapuraanam, that tells 
    the stories of the sixty-three Nayanmaars 
    who were blessed by the Lord.

    38. Enchanting women were dancing. 
    Many bright lights were carried 
    to remove the darkness of the night.

    39. The Lord graciously reached 
    the auspicious temple 
    where the fish-eyed Goddess stays
    who takes away our troubles 
    and births.

    40. The Lord gave permission 
    to all his devotees to leave; 
    but the beautiful loving women 
    who had the privilege 
    not to leave the Lord, 
    stayed there to serve him.

    41. Fragrant garlands of blossoms and 
    pure pearl garlands decorated
    the lovely thiruppalli room of the Lord. 
    The goddess and the Lord 
    entered their bedroom.
    42. A sweet breeze from the hills
    blew softly through the windows
    and the smell of its fragrance 
    filled the room.

    43. The Lord and the young Shakthi, 
    the goddess who creates 
    all living things in the world, 
    joined together and blessed 
    all lives to flourish.

    44. Their forms and feelings 
    joined together as one. 
    By their sweet grace 
    all the creatures of the world thrive. 

    45. The sound of the Vedas 
    that gives excellent knowledge, 
    the sound of the conches, 
    the sound of the Veena 
    and the lovely sound of the yaaz 
    all joined together. 

    46. Shiva left the divine bed of Shakthi 
    fragrant with buds and blossoms, 
    and joined his beloved devotees. 

    47. With the sprinkling of flowers,
    and the recitation of various manthras 
    Shiva was worshipped. 
    He accepted happily and 
    gave his grace to all lives to thrive.

    48. Among the many 
    incomparable mandapams, 
    Shiva went to the one 
    called, ‘Aayan’ and sat
    graciously on the seat studded 
    with diamonds.

    Sages decorate the Lord for the procession

    49. Many priests reciting the Vedas 
    began to decorate the Lord 
    who rides a bull 
    worshipping him and adoring him. 
    50. His lotus-like feet
    worshipped by all the nine constellations 
    shone with heroic anklets studded 
    with nine types of beautiful jewels. 

    51. They decorated him 
    with bright clothes, 
    the excellence of which 
    could not be described. 
    The brightness of his garments
    removed the darkness of all ages.

    52. The radiance of the diamond sword 
    tied at his waist was so bright
    it made the sun in the wide sky
    look like the moon.

    53. His red lotus-like hands 
    surrounded by singing bees 
    were decorated with shining 
    sapphire bracelets. 

    54. He wore bright diamond ornaments 
    on his handsome, strong arms, 
    that once closed the mouth of Vaasuki the snake 
    as it wound around the mandara mountain 
    when the gods and the Asuras
    churned the ocean of milk. 

    55. The pearl necklace on his chest 
    that spreads light shone 
    like the Ganges river on our Lord’s Jata 
    flowing and spreading its waves
    as if they were hands. 

    56. The bright chain on 
    his strong, handsome chest, 
    looked like the sun 
    rising from behind Meru mountain.

    57. The priceless incomparable 
    golden chains studded 
    with many colored stones on his chest 
    appeared like a rainbow falling 
    from the middle of a coral mountain. 
    58. His chest was made beautiful 
    with golden ornaments 
    from the Karpaga tree and 
    garlands of fresh Kondrai flowers.

    59. The fresh sandal paste on his chest
    that had soaked in cool fragrant water
    spread its fragrance all over the sky 
    and the earth.

    60. The emerald chain
    that decorated his dark neck 
    shone like the soft fingers 
    of the beautiful Shakthi 
    who is thin as a creeper. 

    61. When they saw the earrings 
    that shone on his two ears, 
    the hearts of those 
    who never melt melted.

    62. The white ashes on his forehead 
    that has the power of 
    removing the numerous sins 
    of those who worship him 
    shone like the white moon. 

    63, 64. The golden lustrous 
    light of new Thiruvachi 
    that circles his diamond crown, 
    shone sweetly 
    like the rainbow in the sky 
    that circles the red 
    rising sun on the hills.

    65. After Shiva was decorated 
    as if someone were decorating beauty itself, 
    the incomparable Lord, 
    the treasury of grace,
    asked all the gods to come 
    and receive his grace. 

    66. Nandi, the servant of Shiva 
    went to the gods quickly 
    and told them that 

    it was time for them
    to come to worship the Lord.

    The gods, saints and devotees praise the Lord

    67. All the gods in the sky, 
    the four-headed god Brahma, 
    Indra and great Vishnu 
    came and worshipped him 
    praising him and saying, “He is our father”. 

    68 to 72. Devotees surround the Lord and praise him, their hearts melting.

    “You are the Lord of five actions.
    You are the arts. 
    You are our minds.
    You are knowledge.
    You are words.
    You are power.
    You are the sky.
    You do not give us pain
    but bring us only strength.
    You are our help. 
    You are Haran.
    You are highest of all.
    You are our body, life and feeling.
    You love to dance 
    and you are the divine light. 
    You are the nectar 
    that comes from the ocean of Saivism.
    You are the joy of Sakthi 
    whose fragrant hair swarms with bees. 
    You are the God 
    who stays in Thiruvaalavaay in Madurai.
    Give us your grace.”

    Shiva sets out to go on a chariot for his procession

    73. Narada, carrying a tumpuru 
    played faultless music and 
    women thin as creepers danced.

    74. The Lord who is our friend stayed sweetly 
    with Sakthi, beautiful as a golden creeper, 
    the princess of the divine Himalayas.
    75. Brahma the god, 
    who lives on a fragrant lotus, 
    politely asked Shiva to go 
    on the incomparable procession 
    bowing to him.

    76. The Lord rose and 
    went to the lovely and auspicious 
    entrance of the palace 
    with beautiful golden tower.

    77. All the devotees worshipped,
    praising the Lord and singing,
    “May you live for ever and ever!”
    The gods, great sages and all those who
    recite the Vedas perfectly 
    praised the Lord.

    78, 79. A golden radiant chariot 
    tall as a diamond-studded hill 
    was brought. 
    It appeared like twelve 
    crores of sun rising together. 
    It was a sight that 
    no one had ever seen before.
    The Lord ascended the chariot 
    giving his grace to his devotees.

    80. The brightness of the divine 
    white ash that his devotees wore
    as they followed the paths of good 
    shone like an ocean of milk
    flooding everywhere. 

    81. The fans made of pure gold
    as they moved to and fro on the chariot
    appeared like the waves of the ocean
    breaking on a golden mountain.

    82. The lovely canopy of the chariot 
    threw its light everywhere,
    decorated with pearls 
    and supported on a long rod
    studded with sapphires. 

    83. The white canopy shone
    like the beautiful moon that
    rests on the Jata of the three-eyed Lord,
    its old sins forgiven as it showers
    its divine light on the earth. 

    Saints, Kings and devotees escort Shiva

    84. All the Vedas followed the chariot 
    of the lovely maiden Shakthi 
    who shows compassion 
    to the whole world. 

    85. The devotees forgetting their own work 
    went to serve the Lord and they 
    raised their hands above their heads, 
    worshipping the Lord with tears.

    86. The poems of Sambandar,
    floated above the water of the Vaigai river
    when the Jain threw them there.

    87. Sambandar converted the Southern Pandya king 
    from Jainism to Saivism. 
    Sambandar was the cause for the proud Jains 
    to die on the stake
    and the cause for the Buddhist monks 
    to suffer.
    The saint Sambandar, also called Kavuniyan, 
    escorted Shiva in the procession.

    88. Shiva was escorted in the procession
    by the saint Thirunaavukarasar 
    who escaped from the ocean
    when he was tied to a large stone
    and thrown in the water by the Jains.

    89. Shiva was escorted in the procession 
    by the great saint Sundarar 
    who saved a child 
    from the mouth of a crocodile in a pond
    blooming with flowers and swarming with birds.

    90. A Buddhist monk who meditates
    under a Bodhi tree
    was defeated by Manickavasagar 
    in a debate in the temple of Thillai. 
    Manickavaasagar escorted Shiva in the procession.

    91. Shiva was escorted in the procession 
    by the devotee Sandesar 
    who knew his previous karma 
    by his insight and 
    who was a scholar of Vedas.

    92. Shiva was escorted in the procession
    by the Chola king Thiruneetrucholan, 
    the blessed king
    who covered with gold the tower 
    of the great Thillai temple 
    where our father the Lord 
    dances joyfully.

    93. Shiva was escorted in the procession 
    by the Chera king who went 
    on his strong horse 
    following Sundarar 
    who rode on a white elephant 
    as the gods in the sky praised him.

    94. Shiva was escorted in the procession
    by the good Pandya king Nedumaaran 
    who became a devotee of Shiva, 
    receiving the grace of the Lord
    when his humped back 
    was straightened by Sambandar. 

    95. Shiva was escorted in the procession 
    by the king Kulachirai who fought fiercely,
    conquered the Jains, 
    and destroyed their cruel deeds. 

    96. All these saints and 
    numerous true devotees 
    who followed the righteous path in their life 
    came on their vehicles.

    97. With his elephant face flowing with ichor,
    the true and powerful Ganesa 
    who conquered the Asura army
    and is like a Karpaga tree

    as he fulfills the wishes of his devotees 
    came on a mouse in the procession. 

    98. Lord Murugan holding 
    a spear in his strong hand, 
    came on a peacock in the procession.
    He destroyed the cruel Surapadma and 
    released the gods from the Asura’s prison
    when they asked him.

    99. Lakshmi the goddess of wealth, 
    the divine Vishnu, 
    and Brahma, the giver of four Vedas 
    who stays on the navel of Vishnu,
    came on their vehicles in the procession.

    100. Many Suns, 
    twelve Eswaras, eleven Rudras, 
    eight Vasus, and 
    the two great medicine men
    came on their vehicles in the procession.

    101. Indra, other gods 
    and eighteen Ganas 
    came in their own vehicles 
    and entered.

    The musical instruments sound in the procession

    102. Dundubi drums resounded.
    The gods praised loudly.
    Flowers were showered like rain.
    Rain drops fell.

    103. Conches blew.
    Pipe instrument were blown. 
    Flutes were played.

    104, 105. Numerous drums were beaten,
    Various drums, the Muzavu,
    Tudi, Paracu and Patalai 
    were sounded joining together 
    with the blowing of 
    the Valamburi and Sanjalam conches.

    106. Musical instruments
    that give prosperity were played. 
    The four Vedas were recited 
    in the front and 
    the back of the procession.

    107. People of the earth, Kinnaras, 
    Sky dwellers, Vinjaiyas, Asuras 
    were all gathered and 
    fascinated to see the procession. 

    108. Everything in all directions, 
    earth, sky and anything 
    that was above 
    looked on in fascination.

    109. The flags that were raised hid the sky. 
    The glow of the rays of the sun 
    could not be seen because of 
    those raised flags

    110. The three-eyed Lord Shiva 
    came on the streets of Madurapuri 
    with his wife who is ancient 
    and eternally young. 

    A group of women come to see the procession

    111. The young Kinnara girls, 
    the Apsara women 
    whose voices are sweet as parrots’
    and young Gandharva girls 
    gathered in the sky 
    to see the procession.

    112. The women of the earth 
    who had reached heaven 
    crowded in the sky to see the Lord. 
    The women on earth all 
    came to see the procession.

    113. Numerous women beautiful 
    as lustrous valli creepers 
    stood and shone on the prosperous 
    small golden peaks of a high hill.
    114. Some women stood on patios
    where the bright moon shone in the night 
    looking like the dancing girls 
    of Indra’s world 
    who came out of the ocean of milk.

    115. Some women arrived 
    on magnificent chariots
    as if they were strong valorous women 
    coming on a vehicle in the sky.

    16. They crowded the patios 
    on top of the palaces 
    looking like beautiful paintings 
    that came alive to see with love 
    the procession of the highest Lord.

    117. The women who gathered 
    on the wide streets praised 
    and worshipped lovingly 
    the feet of the Lord. They said, 

    118. “The Lord grew angry with his wife 
    when she was born on the earth 
    with three breasts and fought with her.
    Isn’t it a joke if our breasts 
    love to embrace his arms?

    119. “When his beloved wife attracted him
    and loved him, he also loved her. 
    Won’t that kind Lord 
    show pity on us?

    120. “The saint Patanjali requested the Lord 
    to dance at his wedding 
    and the Lord did.
    Does the Lord come 
    on this divine procession 
    only to see the love war of Kama?

    121. “The Lord appeased the thirst 
    and hunger of Gundodharan
    at his wedding.
    Isn’t it his duty to give us 
    his grace who fell in love with him? 
    122. “The Lord created a pile of food 
    to appease Gundodharan’s hunger 
    and made the Vaigai river flow
    to quench his thirst.
    Won’t that kind Lord take away 
    this suffering of love?” 

    123. They praised the ancient 
    Lord’s divine smile. 
    Their hearts weakened 
    seeing the lustre of his lovely smile.

    124. They worshipped 
    his strong, handsome chest. 
    They did not feel shy 
    seeing the marks of
    the breasts of Shakthi on his chest.
    They said, 

    125. “Does our clever Lord
    need our clothes and beautiful bangles 
    to grow loose from the pain of love
    to give his fragrant garland to us?

    126, 127. “Indra worshipped 
    the Lord of Thiruvaalavaay 
    with fragrant flowers, 
    nectar and the water of Ganges river. 
    Won’t our tears be the water for his bath?
    Won’t the bangles of our hands 
    become garlands for his bed? 
    Won’t our hearts be nectar for him?”

    128. They went near him without fear.
    They laughed impulsively.
    They stood mesmerized.
    They said, “The Lord who, like Kama,
    kills us with love is coming.”

    129. They stood as if they were going 
    to say something but they could not.
    They learned from their friends 
    what they should say 
    to the omnipresent Lord 
    but they forgot it.
    They were confused and worried. 
    130. They said, “Do our ornaments 
    grow loose, 
    offerings for the husband 
    of wonderful Shakthi, 
    who shines like a diamond creeper.” 

    131. They felt shy and 
    their clothes grew loose on their bodies.
    They felt ashamed 
    when the flower arrows sent 
    from the sugarcane bow of Kama 
    covered their bodies.

    132. Different types of women stood there 
    to see the procession.
    The pethai, a young girl 
    who wished to help Kama, 
    was among them.

    The Pethai

    133. The pethai was young as a Puvai bird 
    that had not learned Kama’s scripture.
    She was a creeper 
    not yet grown and spreading.
    She was a garland 
    not yet dripping with honey.

    134. She was a fragrant mango 
    that had not yet bloomed. 
    She was a diamond
    that had not been worn.
    She was a lovely baby cuckoo 
    that had not yet uttered its cry.

    135. She was a vanji creeper 
    that had not yet branched.
    She was a lovely breeze
    blown from the hills.
    She was a fresh fragrant grove.

    136. She was a babbling parrot 
    that did not know 
    what was right to say 
    and what was right to do.
    137. She was not yet grown 
    like the crescent moon.
    She was a young swan 
    that does not yet know 
    how to separate milk from water.

    138, 139. Her breasts shone like 
    lustre of many suns 
    that will rise at the end of the earth.
    Those small breasts 
    did not know their power
    of destroying the sky 
    and the earth. 

    140. 141.
    The pethai’s hair was disheveled,
    its strands loose and scattered
    like the wandering senses of those 
    who lead false lives and are unable 
    to reach the lotus feet of the all-knowing God
    who carries a bright axe
    and rides on a strong bull.

    142. Her eyes did not yet know how to make trouble.
    They were like the minds of those 
    who are released 
    from the illusions of the world 
    surrounded with oceans.

    143. Lord Shiva is God of gods.
    He burned his enemies’ 
    three forts as they flew in the sky.
    He is the king of Madurai 
    that is praised by scholars. 

    144. The victorious Southern Pandya king
    who wore fragrant garlands
    gave abundant pearls 
    to people on the entrance of his palace.
    The pethai went to that 
    lovely entrance with her friends.

    145. Bringing abundant, 
    matchless pearls 
    she went to the pandal decorated 
    with coral pillars on the street. 
    146. She built a small dollhouse 
    with many types of pearls. 
    She cooked rice with pearls 
    without knowing how to cook at all.

    147. She fed her parrot, mothers, friends 
    and the baby doll in her hands. 
    Such was her sweet nature.

    148. She taught words to her Puvai bird, 
    the most marvelous among birds,
    pretending that she instead was learning 
    words from them. 

    149. One day when her mothers went 
    to the pandal of Madhavi flowers
    she also went with them.

    Eight miracle stories of Shiva

    150 - 153. The pethai listened 
    carefully and lovingly 
    to the stories of Lord Shiva’s miracles. 

    The story of Shiva 
    bringing the ocean 
    to please his beloved Shakthi.

    The story of Shiva 
    giving moksha to Shakthi’s father 
    to please her who is decorated 
    with elegant bangles. 

    The story of Shiva 
    giving birth to their son Ukkira Pandyan, 
    who was born to please the earth.

    The story of Shiva who carries an axe
    giving his son Ukkiran 
    a spear, a discus and a sendu weapon. 

    The story of Shiva 
    destroying the strong forts 
    on the dark ocean with his spear. 

    The story of Shiva
    breaking the crown of the god Indra
    with a powerful discus.

    The story of Shiva 
    imprinting the fish symbol 
    on strong, golden Meru 
    mountain in the north.

    The story of Shiva 
    teaching the truth of the Vedas 
    to the divine Rishis.

    154, 155. She with her puvai bird 
    and the parrots of the fields
    listened with love the stories and 
    the thiruppatikams of the three saints 
    that give moksha to those who hear.
    At that time musical instruments 
    were played to announce 
    the procession of the Lord.

    156, 157. Musical instuments praise the Lord 

    “He is a marvelous dancer
    He is the truth.
    He is faultless. 
    He is eternal pleasure .
    He never forgets his promises.
    He is the Lord of northern Meru mountain
    He gives boons to his devotees.
    His paths are righteous.
    He is pure. 
    He is compassionate.
    He stays on the banks of the Vaigai river.
    He is Abhisheka Chokkar.”
    All the musical instruments 
    sounded praising Shiva 
    when he came in procession 
    on the rich streets. 

    158. She walked towards the procession 
    with her mothers and 
    her soft lotus feet grew red from walking.

    159. She was happy and 
    fascinated to see the Lord.
    She worshipped him 
    folding her two hands 
    and said to her mothers, 
    160. “Oh, swan, Oh Puvai bird, 
    Oh peacock of the forest,
    Oh, beautiful parrot, 
    Oh doll, look at him here.

    161. “Has the Lord 
    who loves the deer he holds in his one hand 
    and the parrot he holds in the other 
    come here wishing to join
    and play with us?

    162. “Does the Lord come near 
    my little play-house because 
    he wants to eat our food 
    or learn how to play the game of kalangu 
    that I have learned”

    163. “Please tell me
    what the Lord who cannot be 
    described by anyone intends.”
    This is what she asked her mothers. 
    and they embraced her and said,

    164. “Is it right if you say the highest Lord 
    who did sixty-four tiruvilaiyadals 
    will come to play with you?

    165. “He does not take the sacrificial food 
    given to him by the Rishis, 
    who are excellent scholars of the great Vedas.
    Will he come for the simple food 
    that you have cooked?

    166. “Is it fair to say 
    the eternal one 
    who dances in the silver hall 
    will leave his important duties 
    and come here to learn 
    to play kazangu? 
    Wouldn’t that be a miracle?”
    167. When the mothers said this 
    she who was lovely as a deer asked, 
    “Then why did he come here?”

    168. They answered, 
    “Oh girl, lovely as a creeper!
    The Lord who performs five surpassing actions 
    comes in the procession 
    to give joy and moksha to all lives.”

    169. The pethai asked, “Please put me
    on the radiant chariot 
    of the eternal lord 
    on whose red jata the Ganges flows.” 

    170. Her dark eyes shed tears
    and her heart weakened, 
    like those who fall in deep love.

    171, 172. The mothers said
    “Are there any other women like her?” 
    The pethai removed her bangles
    and some of her golden ornaments. 
    She shed tears washing away 
    some of the kohl in her eyes.

    173. Lustrous as lightning,
    she seemed a woman of forty years.
    Seeing her all were surprised. 

    174. She stood rooted in place.
    Her mothers embraced her and 
    took her inside their splendid palace.


    175. The pethumbai was a woman 
    who had reached the next age
    after the pethai.

    176. She was beautiful as a creeper 
    not yet fully grown.
    Her breasts were like two lotus buds.

    177. The power of her breasts 
    was like the flood with its underwater fire 
    come to destroy the world.
    Seeing her, the sages who did great tapas 
    folded their hands to worship her.

    178. Looking at her the cruel Yama 
    opened his eyes like blossoms.
    Watching her, passionate men’s bodies
    felt abundant joy.
    Her soft breasts grew 
    larger like buds 
    opening into blossoms

    179. Her waist became 
    thinner day by day 
    like the bad karma 
    of those who do tapas
    and so gain good karma

    180. Her eyes were 
    like the limitless poison 
    that came out of 
    the ocean of milk. 
    They stole 
    everyone’s heart.

    181, 182. Her hair was tied up together. 
    Bees swarmed around 
    the garlands on her hair.
    It looked like 
    the fearsome darkness
    that covers the whole world
    and helps kama to finish 
    all that he wants to do.

    183. Neither the beauty of mullai buds 
    that grow tall 
    nor the feathers of peacocks 
    could compete 
    with her young proud smile.

    184. She had grown up beautifully 
    as if lightning had taken a form 
    and glowed ever more and more.
    She was sweet like honey.

    185. She got up when the sun rose 
    and came leaving her bed
    sprinkled with blossoms.
    One of her beautiful maids 
    came, bowed to her, 
    folding her flower-like hands,
    and told her.

    186. “The beauty of your eyes could kill.
    Come to see the divine pond 
    that has the water of the seven oceans.”

    187. Crores of her friends 
    who had beautiful eyes 
    and dark hair came 
    together to the pond. 

    188. Decorated with bright ornaments 
    she came to the pond 
    in the fragrant flourishing grove. 

    189. One of her friends said to her.
    “You are bright like lightning.
    You are sweet as nectar.
    You are like a flourishing crop.
    You are a like a splendid red lotus.
    You are lustrous as gold.
    Come to this pond.

    190. “Look at the beautiful season 
    that makes women fall in love 
    with the highest Lord as he comes in procession.

    191. “See how the king swan climbs 
    joyfully on pure conches 
    in the pond and calls.

    192. “See how the young female swan 
    welcomes with affection
    the male swan that comes to join her.

    193, 194. “See how the red lotus buds open up 
    as they feel the shining rays of the sun
    like the hearts of the devotees 
    who love, understand and melt 
    in devotion for the Lord who has thick Jata 
    and comes in procession

    195, 196. “See how the soft coral creepers 
    grow thick and embrace the beautiful naakaa trees
    that look like the kings
    who wish to embrace 
    the chest of the Lord of Madhurapuri
    creator of the Vedas
    who rides on a sky chariot. 

    197. “Come to this pond 
    where the water of
    all the great oceans 
    has come together,
    and bathe joyfully.”

    198. After hearing her friend, 
    the pethumbai entered the water shyly 
    as her mothers smiled, came, 
    and bathed her with love. 

    199. Women surrounded her and praised her 
    saying that she was born 
    in the water of seven oceans
    like Lakshmi, born in the ocean of milk.

    200. After bathing, she went to the 
    fertile grove of Surapunnai trees on the shore 
    and sat on a lovely fragrant seat.

    201. She wore fine ornaments 
    and sacred ash that protected her. 
    Her mothers with pleasant faces 
    blessed her.

    202. A storyteller praised the pond 
    and then told the stories of Shiva 
    to the pethumbai decorated with 
    bright golden ornaments. 

    Eight miracle stories of Shiva 

    203. The story of Shiva 
    selling diamonds 
    for the world to flourish.
    The story of Shiva 
    giving his grace to the large clouds 
    so that they could drink
    the water of the ocean.

    204. The story of Shiva 
    changing the name 
    of the capital city
    with its gorgeous palaces
    from Madurai to Kudal. 

    The story of Shiva coming 
    as an all-powerful siddha 

    205. The story of Shiva 
    making the stone 
    elephant of the Pandya king 
    eat a sugarcane stalk.

    The story of Shiva 
    killing the rutting elephant
    that approached him,
    sent by the terrible Jains.

    206. The story of Shiva 
    changing himself into many forms 
    that cannot be described— 
    an old man, a young man 
    and a child.

    The story of Shiva 
    wearing the Athi garland, 
    dancing in Madurai 
    and raising his left foot.

    207. Hearing the stories of Shiva 
    and giving presents to the storyteller, 
    her mind and thoughts were immersed 
    in the love for 
    the pure Lord Shiva.

    208, 209. The pethumbai, the best among women, 
    beautiful as Lakshmi
    who sits on a lotus flower,
    heard the miracle stories of Shiva.
    Wishing to see 
    the procession of the faultless God, 
    she walked to the garden and sat.

    210, 211 “Lord Shiva wears sacred ashes.
    He carries a bull flag.
    He is beloved of goddess Uma.
    He, Chokkanaadar 
    of Kadamba forest, comes 
    in procession on a rutting elephant.”
    Thus praising Shiva, the procession 
    of Lord Shiva was announced
    with the beating of drums. 

    212. Her friends, precious as her heart,
    went in front of the procession,
    and she ran behind them.
    Her heart was filled with abundant joy 
    when she saw the Lord.

    213. Shiva’s arms became soft
    when he embraced the breasts 
    of his beloved wife, 
    the princess of the Himalayas
    who never stops giving 
    her grace to her devotees. 
    That marvelous Shiva 
    came in procession.

    214. Shiva’s chest was beautified 
    with marks made by the 
    breasts of the goddess Uma, 
    whom the ancient Vedas praise and 
    whose beauty cannot be described. 
    That handsome Shiva 
    came in procession.

    215. All worshipped 
    the divine feet of Lord Shiva 
    who does not differentiate 
    between his devotees.
    The grace of the Lord of Thiruvaalavaay 
    takes away the bad karma 
    of his devotees.
    That faultless Shiva 
    came in procession
    216. The pethumbai saw the Lord
    and worshipped him.
    She tried to calm her excited mind 
    that was fixed to him.
    She was shy.

    217. She sweated.
    She had never seen such 
    a procession before.
    Seeing the Lord was a feast 
    for her eyes and thoughts.

    218. She felt passion 
    she had never felt. 
    The love that she had for the Lord
    made her beautiful 
    like buds opening into blossoms.

    219. Her lovely eyes like Kendai fish 
    saw the procession unlike anything 
    they had never seen and
    her heart felt joy 
    that it had never experienced.

    220. Her mothers said, 
    “She could not think of 
    anything except our Lord.
    Has she lost her chastity? 
    What can we say?

    221, 222. “Her face, shoulders, breasts 
    and shining curly hair 
    seem to ask 
    Kama to come to fight,
    and her heart gives her strength.
    The king of love, Kama 
    does not stop 
    sending his fragrant arrows.

    223. “The waist ornament 
    that we tied on her with love 
    is growing loose.
    The bracelets that we put 
    on her beautiful arms 
    fall from her wrists.
    224, 225. “As if she suddenly has grown more mature 
    her body has changed and is more 
    attractive than ever before.
    Her beauty has increased 
    beyond what is suitable for her age.
    Who knows why this happened ?”

    226, 227. Before Kama sent
    his flower arrows from his bow 
    and before her passion increased, 
    the mothers embraced her 
    whose curly hair
    decorated with garlands,
    swarmed with bees. 

    228. They went to their guarded palace,
    put her on her lovely
    flower-strewn bed
    and consoled her so that 
    her passion would be calmed.


    229. There was a girl of the age of a mangai.
    Her black eyes grew red with passion.

    230. She was beautiful as a peacock.
    Her mind always thought only of 
    the strong hill-like shoulders of the Lord 
    who carries the lustrous moon in his Jata.

    231. The compassion of the highest God, 
    the Lord of Thiruvaalavaay
    is like a flooding pond, 
    and she was like a lovely swan 
    searching for
    that compassion of the Lord.

    232. She was like a parrot
    whose heart melted away
    with love for the groves 
    of the Kadamba Forest
    where the breeze is always blowing.

    233 - 236. Her hair had grown thicker
    and thicker than the attractive groves 
    of the love world 
    that Kama created. 

    234. The power of Kama was growing
    and growing
    as her long hair 
    grew more and more beautiful.

    235, 236. Seeing her lovely hair, the
    hearts of those who did tapas
    grew weak and soft. 
    She gave a victory 
    that no one had achieved before to 
    Kama so that he could destroy 
    the strength of the sages.

    237. Her shining eyes
    had the power to end life,
    as long ago when
    the spear of Murugan
    sailed to drink 
    the ocean’s crashing waves.

    238. She wore shining 
    golden bracelets on her arms.

    239 -242. Her breasts were like two 
    angry elephants that stir up water 
    then stand on the shore
    crushing fragrant lotus buds,
    and then climb on mountain forts.

    243. Shiva shines 
    like a pure golden hill. 
    He is the tender shoot of Saivism.
    He gives half of his body 
    to Shakthi, the fish-eyed goddess.

    244. He is the Lord Chokkan, 
    who mesmerizes us. 
    Even the Vedas 
    that are with him always 
    could not find
    that highest one. 

    245. The divine, compassionate Lord
    gives prosperity to those 
    who worship and serve him. 
    He is the remedy for everything. 
    He is a companion for all souls.

    246. Even though she saw 
    Lord Shiva in the procession
    only that one day,
    her heart felt great joy 
    as if it were a day of celebration.

    247. She was divine as Lakshmi.
    She went to worship the Lord 
    with crores of her friends
    surrounding her on both sides.

    248. She went to the mandapam 
    that was in the middle 
    of a flower garden 
    where divine fresh blossoms 
    were blooming near a pond. 

    249. She went to that pond 
    near the Vaigai River 
    where the poems written
    on palm leaves by Sambandar 
    floated above the water 
    when they were thrown 
    there by the Jains.

    250. She went and sat there 
    on a divine golden seat 
    studded with coral and pearls 
    like a swan that sits 
    on a lotus blossom.

    251, 252. One of her friends told the mangai
    that if she played on the swing 
    she would be happy.
    She got up, 
    went to the shining swing 
    studded with diamonds 
    and sat on it.
    Seeing her on the swing, kama 
    the king of love was intoxicated.
    253. The sweat on her face 
    looked like the drops of sweet nectar
    that bubble and drip from the moon.

    254. The dark pupils of her 
    long spear-like eyes
    as they went back and forth 
    distressed the hearts of the sages 
    wherever they did tapas 

    255. The bees that swarmed 
    on her thick hair
    sang as if they were 
    crying out in happiness 
    after conquering 
    thick darkness 
    and the pouring rain.

    256. Her beautiful hands, 
    as lovely as tender mango shoots 
    or red kandal flowers, 
    were decorated with 
    lovely bracelets 
    that jingled sweetly.

    257. Her lovely kaanji ornament
    jingled and sounded like the famous song
    that the warriors sang when 
    they conquered lightning. 

    258. Her lotus-colored legs were proud 
    as if they had conquered swans 
    and beautiful lotuses. 
    The anklets on her lovely legs 
    sounded victoriously when they jingled.

    The sixteen miracle stories of Shiva

    A storyteller told 
    the sixteen stories of Shiva
    to Mangai and her friends.

    259. The story of Shiva 
    defeating Antakaasuran and 
    killing him with his trident.
    260. The story of Shiva 
    kicking the chest of Yama 
    for Markandeya when Yama
    came to take his life.

    The story of Shiva 
    when he cut off one of Brahma’s heads 
    because his wife Uma embraced him 
    thinking that he was Shiva.

    261. The famous story of Shiva 
    burning the three flying forts of his enemies.

    The story of Shiva 
    when he crushed Ravana’s head 
    when Ravana carried 
    Kailasa mountain.

    262. The story of Shiva 
    flaying the skin of an elephant.

    The story of Shiva 
    burning Kama with the fire 
    from his third eye 
    when Kama shot 
    his flower arrows 
    to disturb Shiva’s meditation.

    263. The story of Shiva
    the matchless, omnipresent
    god in all three worlds,
    making the Pandya king understand 
    his mistake sending
    his terrible messengers.

    264. The story of shiva 
    giving grace and 
    forgiving a terrible sinner 
    who loved his mother 
    and killed his father 
    but became a devotee later 
    realizing his sins.

    265. The story of Shiva 
    when he cut the part of ? body?

    The story of Shiva 
    destroying the snake 
    that the scheming Jains sent 
    to kill him.

    The story of Shiva
    when he made a cow 
    obey and worship him

    266. The story of Shiva 
    showing his handsome body.?

    The story of Shiva 
    helping Dharmi by writing a poem 
    for the Pandya king 
    so that Dharmi would receive 
    a bundle of gold from the king. 

    267. The story of Shiva 
    selling bangles to women 
    beautiful as Lakshmi, 
    overwhelmed with love 
    when they saw him.

    The story teller told 
    the sixteen stories of Shiva
    to the mangai and her friends
    and left.

    268. One of her friends 
    came to her and made a request: 
    “Come and bathe.”
    The mangai descended from 
    her beautiful swing
    to go to bathe.

    269. The mangai bathed happily 
    in the fragrant water of the Vaikai river 
    mingled with kaavi flowers
    where the waves forever dash 
    on the banks.

    270. After joyfully bathing, 
    she wore sandal paste, 
    flower garlands

    and shining diamond 

    271. Enchanting women 
    whose teeth shone like coral
    gathered in crowds.
    The mangai’s beauty fascinated 
    those who saw her and 
    Kama was delighted to see her too.

    272. She stood there 
    thinking only of embracing 
    the chest of the Lord.
    Shiva in the procession
    came in front of her 
    riding on a divine galloping horse,
    the Vedas.
    Escorting Shiva, the gods, 
    Indra, Vishnu and Brahma 
    praised the Lord loudly.

    273. One of her friends, 
    loving the Lord,
    her heart melting, 
    saw the procession and said, 
    “He is formless and he has a form.
    He has great compassion 
    for his devotees.
    He is splendor.

    274. “He rides on a bull.
    He dances in Thillai.
    He came to protect the earth, 
    crowned as king Chokkanaathar.
    He is faultless.”

    275. Hearing the praise of the Lord 
    The mangai’s heart melted.
    She was delighted and walked
    towards the procession slowly 
    like a female elephant. 

    276 . The Lord is a treasury of compassion.
    He is puranan.
    He is joy.
    He wears the moon on his Jata.
    He came disguised as a soldier 
    to conquer an elephant.

    277. She approached the procession. 
    She worshipped the Lord. 
    She praised him and 
    was amazed to see him. 
    Her heart grew weak.

    278. Shiva, the husband of 
    the divine Shakthi
    went on the street 
    riding his horse, which was the Vedas.

    279. The mangai was lovely as a peacock. 
    She was a queen among women.
    Her friends and those 
    who saw her suffering in love, 
    pitied her.
    Her maidens embraced her
    and entered the palace beautiful as lotuses. 

    280. They put her on a flower-covered bed 
    where the bees swarmed.
    The Sun god who spreads 
    his red rays in the day 
    set in the west.

    281. Coming before thick darkness
    magical evenings confuse lovers.
    Such an evening came 
    and bewitched her.

    282. As she looked at the beautiful garland 
    that decorated her breast, 
    her heart was disturbed, 
    longing for the love of the Lord.

    283. She said, 
    “The terrible one, the rising white moon, 
    shoots red fire at me.
    How can my 
    weak woman’s mind bear it?”

    284. Her eyes shed tears. 
    Her mind was longing 
    for the Lord’s love. She was tired. 
    She called her cuckoo bird.
    Her body was burning.

    285. She asked the king of bees to come 
    and then immediately told him to leave.
    She called her lovely parrot 
    to give her a kiss.
    She asked her friends and mothers 
    to bring the Lord’s garland
    and give it to her.

    286, 287. Her mothers seeing 
    her trouble consoled her.
    They said, “You who are adorned 
    with beautiful ornaments,
    we will go in the morning 
    and tell your love to the Lord, 
    for whom there is no comparison
    so that you can embrace his handsome chest 
    and arms decorated with garlands. 
    Calm your passion 
    that rises like a swelling ocean.”
    The mothers said these sweet words 
    and consoled her.


    289. The madanthai gave a victorious 
    valampuri conch to Kama 
    so he would be victorious 
    as he kindled love.

    290. She was the sugarcane 
    bow of Kama,
    praised by the whole world.
    She was the sweet nectar of Kama.
    She was the strength of Kama.

    291. She was a treasury of wealth 
    saved by Kama.
    She was the sceptre of Kama.
    She was the victorious 
    coral garland of Kama.
    She was Kama’s crown 
    that was studded with pearls. 
    292. Her mouth was so red 
    that even a hundred crores 
    of red kumudam flowers
    dripping with honey
    could not compete 
    with the color of her mouth.

    293. Her golden earrings were bright.
    They swung like golden swings
    as they enticed the minds of 
    all the people on earth, 
    making them fall in love with her. 

    294, 295. Her eyes were like cruel spears 
    more terrible than the cruel sceptres 
    of the unjust kings who did 
    evil deeds.
    Those spear-like eyes disturbed 
    the minds of the learned scholars of Vedas
    and the wise. 

    296-298. When he grew angry with the sages.
    Indra carried mountains. 
    He raised his vajra weapon against them.
    He performed sacrifices on the day
    of the star of magam.
    He was cursed by the sage Gauthama 
    and received a thousand eyes. 
    He rides on a strong elephant.
    He wears a beautiful garland 
    made of buds and leaves.
    The madanthai’s breasts that 
    were as strong as Indra 
    wished to destroy the tapas of the sages
    like Indra when 
    he got angry with the rishis.

    299. Her lovely, perfect waist 
    became more and more thin 
    like the hearts of those 
    who suffer and wander 
    in the land of tyrant kings.

    300. Her lovely teeth 
    infatuated men 
    and looked like a chain 
    of precious cool pearls 
    blooming on a red lotus.

    301, 302. She told her sweet parrot 
    “One half of his body 
    is his wife, lovely as a peacock.
    He is our king.
    He rules all the seven worlds.
    He is the Lord of Thiruvaalavaay.
    I long to embrace his divine arms. 
    Please go to him as my messenger.”

    303. As she lay on her bed
    and evening arrived
    she was worried in her heart.
    She was like a streak of lightning
    that had been painted in a picture.

    304. She worshipped the Lord, 
    unable to bear her sorrow, 
    and in her passion, she told her friends,
    “I am alone,
    who is there to console me?”

    305. One lady wearing lovely ornaments, 
    excellent in playing 
    sweet music on the yaaz,
    took the instrument and began to play 
    singing beautiful Tamil songs.

    306. She told in her songs 
    many stories of Lord Shiva.

    The story of Shiva 
    giving the knowledge of 
    perfect music to a woman.

    The story of Shiva 
    opening the great golden door 
    for the Chola king.

    307. The story of Shiva 
    giving water to thirsty soldiers 
    on the battlefield.

    The story of Shiva 
    debating with the Buddhist sages 
    so that the troubles of his devotees 
    would be removed.

    308. The story of Shiva 
    coming as a servant to the Chola king 
    to make him understand
    the mistake he had made.

    The story of Shiva 
    giving abundant paddy
    to Sundarar when there was a famine.

    309. The story of Shiva
    coming to the court
    disguised as a merchant’s in-law 
    to help him.

    The story of Shiva removing 
    the sin of Brahmin-killing from the Pandya King.

    The storyteller told all these stories
    of Lord Shiva’s miracles
    to the madanthai and her friends.

    310. The sun who brings 
    day into the world
    rose and shone
    removing the sorrow in
    people’s minds and their ignorance. 

    311. The madanthai, beautiful as a creeper,
    walked to the pond like a swan. 
    After bathing she wore 
    ornaments and fragrance.

    312. The Lord came riding 
    on a bull with beautiful eyes and 
    decorated with shining bells.
    Sages showered flowers on the Lord.
    The great Vedas praised the god.

    313. Many musical instruments sounded 
    echoing like a mass of clouds.
    Many conches were blown.
    Numerous gods sweetly
    praised the Lord.

    314 - 318. The parrot messenger, 
    that the madanthai had sent
    flew to see the Lord,
    returned and told her, 

    “He is the Lord of Arunachalam hills.
    He is unshakable
    He is flawless.
    He is unique.
    He is formless
    and yet has a form.
    He is a beloved of two wives and 
    they both love him.
    He is the ancient one.
    He is the Lord of Madurai.
    He is the chief of all the worlds.
    He is the enemy of Kama in the war of love.
    He is the happy lover of 
    the daughter of Himalayas.
    He is the measureless one
    who is divided
    and yet is one.
    He is the greatest.
    His feet have the power of
    taking away the births of his devotees.
    He is the highest Lord.
    He is the highest joy.
    That Lord is coming on the beautiful street.”

    319. Bees were swarming 
    around her lovely garland.
    Fragrance was spreading 
    from her garland
    when the breeze blew.

    320. Her soft fingers were charming 
    like the tender shoots of trees.
    The pale color of her body shone 
    like the blossoms of a mango tree? sudam

    321. Jaadi flowers and Cherundi flowers 
    dripping with honey
    decorated her hair, 
    making it beautiful like a 
    blossoming grove.

    322. She was wearing a lovely 
    pearl chain on her neck 
    that was as soft as 
    a branch of the Kamuka tree.

    323. Her growing breasts 
    shone like gold.
    They were as sweet as nectar.
    They were round and large 
    like two fine, soft coconuts.

    324, 325. The madanthai’s heart was filled with joy.
    Her sweet words were musical
    like the song of a cuckoo.
    Seeing her all the people were delighted.
    She came to worship the Lord who
    burned Kama when he 
    disturbed his meditation.
    She came gently like Spring. 

    326. She saw the wonderful procession.
    She loved the graceful form of the Lord.
    Her heart melted and grew weak.

    327. One of the madanthai’s friends,
    seeing her suffering in love
    and wishing to console her,
    went to the Lord
    who is an ocean of joy
    and spoke to him. 

    328. “Which is larger, 
    the high hill where you live or her breasts?
    Come here today to find out.

    329. “Which makes people happier, 
    the crescent moon 
    that you keep on your jata or 
    the forehead of the madanthai, 
    who is lovely as a creeper?
    Come here today to find out.

    330. “Which is darker?
    The terrible poison 
    that you drank to help the gods
    or the dark hair of this woman
    who is as beautiful as a peacock.
    Come here today to find out.

    331. “Which is more lovely, 
    the eyes of the deer 
    that you carry on your hand
    or the charming eyes of this woman?
    Come here today to find out.

    332. “Which is thinner,
    the narrow middle of the small drum 
    that you carry in your hand
    or the small waist of this woman 
    whose words are as sweet as honey?
    Come here today to find out.

    333. “Which is more golden,
    the shining kondrai garland 
    that you wear on your jata
    or the light color of the body of
    this madanthai who is as bright as 
    a golden creeper? 
    Come here today to find out.

    334, 335. “You are the siddha
    that no one can describe.
    You are the eternal one.
    You are the highest knowledge.
    You are immortal.
    You are faultless.
    You are Chokkar of Thiruvaalavaay.
    Please do as I ask.”
    When her beautiful friend said this,
    the madanthai came near her and prayed to the Lord.

    336. The Lord graciously granted her
    the boon of seeing his divine form.
    She was pleased in her heart
    and returned.

    The Arivai

    337. The arivai crowned Kama 
    with a shining crown 
    as the sages on earth 
    praised her.

    338. The ocean of milk gave nectar 
    when the gods and 
    the Asuras churned it.
    Yet it is not only the ocean
    that yields nectar for the world
    but the arivai also.

    339. She was a priceless pearl 
    on the earth.
    She was a faultless diamond.
    She was a cool lotus.
    She was precious wealth.

    340. She was as divine as a goddess.
    Her hips were so wide 
    that all the lands in the directions 
    of the earth could not be 
    as wide as they were.

    341, 342. Her forehead was like the bow 
    that Kama carries and
    her hair was decorated 
    with a lovely, fresh garland
    that was like Kama’s flower arrows
    and so her dark hair, buzzing with bees,
    was like the form of that god of love.

    343. If she wore shining 
    golden ornaments on 
    her breasts they would look 
    like two golden Meru mountains. 

    344. If she wore chains studded 
    with diamonds and 
    pearls on her breasts 
    they would look like two silver hills

    345. If she wore bright diamonds 
    on her breasts that 
    attract hearts of everyone, 
    they would look like
    two burning suns rising 
    on two hills. 

    346. Looking at her breasts 
    the hearts of sages throbbed, 
    Kama danced and 
    even Yama was entranced.

    347. Her breasts swelled with pride 
    melting the hearts of everyone
    and straining her thin waist 
    even more than before.

    348. Her eyes were like arrows
    sent by strong warriors 
    to tear the chests 
    of their enemies in battle.

    349. Without any weapons, 
    her long, big dark 
    eyes wandered 
    all over the world 
    like the messengers 
    sent by angry Yama.

    350. Her eyes brought trouble.
    poisonous and inimical.
    They had the power
    to take away the life of anyone they saw.
    They were wide and 
    gave pleasure to all
    who saw her.

    351. Her eyes were like
    the tandam weapon 
    of cruel Yama
    that takes away the lives 
    of those who live in this world.

    352. She wanted the divine garland 
    of the God of Thiruvalavaay.
    The love that 
    she had for that garland
    made her pain even harder to bear.
    353. One day she came 
    to a garden blooming with lovely flowers. 
    She was surrounded by Kama
    who carries flower arrows
    and many crores of her friends 

    354. She saw the Themaa tree and felt happy.
    She asked her friends, 
    “Why do I feel happy 
    when I stay in the shadow of this Themaa tree?”

    355. Her adoring friend 
    who was as tender as a flower, 
    told her, “Lovely one! 
    You are as precious as our life.
    You are like sweet nectar.”

    356. “A long time ago, 
    the Lord embraced his wife 
    the goddess Uma, lovely as a deer,
    and the mother of all seven worlds,
    under this Temaa tree

    357, 358. “and her breasts and her bracelets 
    marked the faultless chest of the Lord. 
    Don’t you know, that is the reason 
    that you are drawn to this tree 
    whose flowers drip honey.”
    Listening to this the arivai 
    became shy and was filled with shame.

    359. She asked her friend,
    “Do you know any other trees 
    where the generous Lord likes to stay?”
    Her friend said, 

    360, 361, 362. “My friend, you who have have dark fragrant hair, 
    the Lord likes to stay in many trees— 
    the banian tree, the Makiza tree, 
    the lovely Thillai tree, the Aatti tree, the Kuraa tree, 
    the Marutu tree, the Paalai tree, the Palaa tree, 
    the white naaval tree, the Paadalam tree,
    and the beautiful MarukkonRai tree.
    The Lord Chokkanadar stays beneath 
    the sacred Kadamba tree 
    in the city of Thiruvaalavaay, 
    praised by all.”

    363. When her friend told the arivai
    all the trees beneath which Lord Shiva stays,
    the arivai’s heart and her long wide 
    lotus-like eyes were pleased. 

    364. She went near the Kadamba tree and 
    asked for refuge under it.
    She worshipped the tree 
    and said with love, 

    365. “The Lord is escorted 
    and worshipped 
    by the gods Vishnu and Brahma.
    The great Vedas praise him.
    The scholarly sages rejoice to see him.

    366. “Your blossoms decorate his Jata.
    You have the fortune 
    that he stays beneath you.
    You are equal to Shiva’s abode.

    367. “Kama, the incomparable one 
    is shooting his flower arrows at me.
    My love is growing and I am exhausted.
    Let me tell you the sacred acts of Lord Shiva.”

    368. The story of Shiva
    selling firewood without any fault ?
    to appease the anger of ?

    The story of Shiva
    granting his divine presence 
    to the Chera king.

    369. The story of Shiva
    to the singer Paanapathran.?

    The story of Shiva
    hearing the wonderful music
    of Virali the wife of Paanapittiran
    and appreciating it.

    370. The story of Shiva,
    feeling compassion 
    for the piglets and
    giving them milk from his breast.

    The story of Shiva
    making the piglets
    ministers to the Pandya king.

    371. The story of Shiva
    teaching the small bird 
    to be brave 
    and fly without fear.

    The story of Shiva
    giving Moksha to the crane.

    372. “Compassion means 
    showing pity without 
    expecting anything back.
    Will the God give us his grace? 
    Or will he leave 
    without having pity on us?”

    373. While she was speaking, 
    the drum were beaten to announce 
    that the Lord was coming 
    in the procession.

    374. Her two eyebrows were 
    like two victorious bows.
    Her precious ornaments 
    shone like lightning.

    375. Her dark hair decorated with blossoms 
    was like a clusters of clouds
    as abundant honey dripped 
    from the blossoms like rain.

    376. Her neck, eyes, hands 
    and nose were soft and lovely 
    like karuvilai flowers 
    and kandal blossoms.
    377. Her breasts decorated 
    with shining pearls 
    and strings of chains,
    looked like hills
    as waterfalls drop from them.

    378. She came on the street 
    like the rainy season arriving,
    blooming with fragrant flowers
    nourishing the crop of love.

    379 - 382. Shiva is our father.
    He is all the arts.
    He has no lineage.
    He has the beautiful moon on his jata.
    He is the lover of Uma and he is praised by Indra.
    He destroys the enemies of the gods.
    He wears a garland of skulls.
    He burned the three forts.
    He is the highest of all.
    He is the ancient Lord.
    He is worshipped by the hunter Thinnan.
    His eyes shed grace. 
    His body is the color of red coral. 
    He is skilled and clever.
    He is the king of Madurai city.
    He is the master of all the sixty-four arts.
    He is our God.
    He is the highest Lord.
    He wears a garland of bones.
    The Lord who stays in the silver mountain
    came on his strong bull in the procession.

    383. She adored Shiva
    and worshipped him. 
    She who was timid, 
    grew bold enough to express her love 
    and began in a few words 
    to describe what she felt. 

    384, 385. “People bring you 
    a garland of kuvaLai flowers, 
    and say its fragrance is for you.
    They bring sweet-smelling water 
    and say it is for your bath.
    Oh, Lord, why won’t you tell me 
    how I can be bold enough 
    to serve you?

    386. “Yesterday the strong breeze 
    came and made my desire for you 
    even greater.
    If it comes again as it did yesterday 
    how could I bear it?

    387. “The rays sent by the moon 
    are hot fire to burn me.
    The sandal trees on the hills 
    burn me with fragrance they send.
    Even the cool pearls 
    on my body burn me.

    388. “Is this suffering only for me, 
    or do all others feel the same way?
    You wear golden kondrai flowers 
    and are proud that you possess gold.

    389. “Look at me. Do not laugh.
    If you do not give me your grace, 
    Kama will come and fight with me. 
    Do you think I am strong enough 
    to fight with him?

    390. “You have made my bangles loose.
    You have stolen my beauty and my heart.
    I am exhausted
    and people gossip about me.
    If only this fatigue could go away.

    390. “If only this love for you would go away!”
    She spoke in the presence of the Lord 
    as he went in procession and stood there.


    391. The therivai was lustrous like lightning.
    She was sweet as nectar.
    She fascinated everyone.

    392. She gave sovereignty over 
    all the fourteen worlds 

    to Kama who carries a sugarcane bow,
    so they were all ruled under on umbrella.

    393. Her eyes were sharp like spears
    that pierce people’s hearts.
    and hurt like strong poison 
    that has no remedy. 
    394. She taught Yama 
    who was not easy to approach 
    the art of killing.
    She was an accomplished scholar of 
    the book of love written by Kama.

    395. Her eyes wandered all over 
    like the tempestuous oceans that 
    rise at the end of the age 
    to destroy the world. 

    396, 397. The therivai’s long, thick, dark hair
    was like the cruel bond Yama uses
    to bind people, 
    threaten them,
    and take their lives.

    398 - 399. Vishnu sleeps on the snake bed.
    He married the beautiful Lakshmi. 
    As Vamana 
    he measured the world. 
    He showed Yasodha 
    the world in his mouth
    when he came to the earth 
    as the child Krishna.
    He gave sweetness 
    to the world as Krishna 
    with his mischievous play.

    400. The therivai’s breast were 
    decorated with lovely ornaments 
    like Vishnu.
    As sweet as nectar 
    they gave joy to others. 
    They were round and majestic as hills.

    401. Her ample breasts were fragrant, 
    smeared with a mixture of 
    sandal paste
    and perfumed water.
    402. Not even a faultless and skilled painter 
    could paint her waist, 
    because it is so small.

    403. The sun, praised by all 
    set in the west 
    and the beautiful 
    moon rose in the east.

    404. She went to the divine 
    and magnificent mandapam 
    where a pleasant breeze blew gently.
    Many of her friends surrounded her
    and adored her.

    405, 406. She sat there attracting,
    and mesmerizing the minds of the others.
    Because she was afraid that Kama would start
    his war of love,
    she did not tell her feelings 
    to her friends whose mouths are red
    as kovai fruits. 
    She talked to her Puvai bird 
    as if she was instructing it.

    407. She told of the glory of Shiva,
    the God of gods, the ancient one,
    the king of beautiful Thiruvaalavaay.

    408. The story of Shiva
    when Madurai received 
    the name Thiruvaalavaay.

    The story of Shiva
    destroying with his strong arrows, 
    the army of the Chola king 
    who carried a shining sword.

    409. The story of Shiva
    giving the Sangappalahai to the poets
    so they would receive fame.

    The story of Shiva
    composing a poem
    ‘konguter” for Dharmi a poor man
    so he could receive gold 
    from the Pandya king.

    410. The story of Shiva
    arguing with the great poet Nakkirar 
    because Nakkirar found fault
    with his poem, ‘konguter.’

    The story of Shiva
    listening to Tamil poems
    from the sage Nakkirar.

    411. The story of Shiva
    making Rudrasanmar, who was dumb 
    speak in Tamil 
    and become a poet in the language.

    The story of Shiva
    going to North Madhura 
    to help Idaikkaadar. 

    412. Listening to the stories of Shiva,
    she was happy.
    The sun, lover of lotuses, rose
    from its mountain, praised by all.

    413. The darkness that entirely 
    covered the world dispersed.
    Her face showed happiness.
    She was as lovely as a painting,
    as she arose from sleep in the morning.

    414. She approached 
    the pond of the temple 
    blooming with golden lotuses
    in the Kadampa forest
    that is praised by scholars
    who have learned all three branches of Tamil,
    prose, music and drama.

    415. She saw that wide pond 
    and wondered how large it was.

    She was captivated by the pond 
    and said lovingly to her friends, 

    416. “This pond is beautiful, 
    filled with diamond-like blue water. 
    that looks like the dark hair of girls, 
    and is cool like 
    the happy minds of women 
    who fall in love with the highest one.

    417. “The blooming lotuses in the pond 
    remind us of the happy faces 
    of the women who love the Lord. 
    The pond is filled with pearls,
    like the women, ornamented with pearl necklaces, 
    who fell in love with the eternal one .
    It is filled with conches
    like the hands of women,
    decorated with conch bracelets,
    who love the magnificent Lord.

    418. “This pond is like the women 
    who received the garland of Shiva
    that buzzed with bees,
    satisfying their desire
    and making them happy.

    419. “This pond is like the women 
    who are in love with the Lord in all these ways.”
    This is what the therivai said to her friends
    as she fell in love with Shiva.

    420. She said, “Oh, Lord, you have satisfied 
    my desire just as you took away 
    the bad Karma of the god Indra 
    who has a thousand eyes.”

    421. She bathed and decorated herself
    with precious clothes and ornaments. 
    She went to the bank of the pond.
    The Paanan who played 
    lovely music on his yaaz
    came, bowed to her and said, 

    422. “You shine like lightning. 
    You are lovely like the victorious 
    goddess of the Lord, the king of dance.
    Today the Lord will come in procession.”

    That is how the Paanan announced 
    the procession of the Lord.

    423. She gave silk clothes 
    and precious ornaments 
    to the Paanan who said 
    kind words to her.
    She went to the beautiful palace 
    and sat on her seat.

    424. One of her friends 
    wearing lovely bracelets
    came near, bowed to her.
    and said, 

    425. “If you wear golden ornaments
    you will look like the goddess 
    Lakshmi who sits on a lotus 
    near Vishnu her husband
    as he escorts 
    the faultless God of Kudal city 
    in the procession.

    426. “If you wear 
    exquisite diamond ornaments,
    you will look like the goddess Saraswathi
    who gives learning to all.” 

    427. She was wearing new emerald ornaments
    that shone like the faultless 
    rays of the sun that rises in the morning.

    428. Her friends decorated the therivai, 
    whose face was as bright as the moon. 
    They gave in her flower-like hand
    a bunch of alli and kuvalai flowers.

    429. Her gentle, beloved friends 
    were wearing golden chains
    studded with diamonds 
    and strings of pearls.
    430. She asked them
    to stand around her.
    Looking at the Paanan, she said, 
    “Please find a simile for how I look.”

    431, 432. “You look like the goddess Parvathi, 
    the mother of the worlds,
    the daughter of Himalayas 
    sitting majestically surrounded
    by the goddesses --
    Lakshmi sitting on her lovely red lotus, 
    Saraswathi resting on her white lotus, 
    Mandahini, the Ganga and all the Apsaras.”

    433. The Paanan played 
    sweet music on the yaaz, 
    melting everyone’s hearts. 
    He stood in front of the therivai 
    and described how beautiful 
    she was, as she sat before him.

    434. The Lord Shiva dances 
    raising his left foot 
    for the Pandya king of the south.
    He is the origin of all things.
    He is the creator of the Vedas.
    He is the Lord of Kudal city 
    filled with abundant palaces.

    435. The therivai was sitting majestically
    like a lovely women in a painting, 
    and she was falling in love with the Lord, 
    plunged into the thought of him. 
    Her soul was an ornament for him.

    436. The Lord crushed Ravana’s chest 
    who carried the Kailasa mountain 
    and fought with him.
    There is no one equal to the Lord.
    He is the king of dance.

    437. The feet of the Lord kicked 
    Yama and conquered him
    when he came to take away 
    the life of Markandeya

    438. He is the god Brahma who has four heads.
    He is the god Vishnu himself.
    He is the god of destruction.
    He is the king of Madurai.
    He is the beloved of Goddess Uma.
    439. He came in procession 
    on his vehicle, a lovely golden Karpaga tree,
    that shed abundant flowers as
    the Vedas praised him.

    440. Seeing the the highest one 
    on the street she fell in love with him.
    As she hurried and ran to the street,
    both of her eyes were filled with happiness.

    441. The Lord who is adorned with 
    a kondrai flower garland
    fragrant with marukkozuntu 
    swarming with bees
    directed his charming smile to her.
    She was proud and shivered.

    442. Her forehead was as beautiful as 
    the sugarcane bow of Kama.
    Her face was as lovely as 
    a fragrant red lotus.

    443. Her white moon-like teeth 
    shone like jasmine blossoms.
    Her soft body was lovely like 
    the tender leaves of Ashoka tree.

    444. The light color of her golden body 
    was like yellow Mango blossoms.
    Her dark, happy eyes lovely 
    as kuvalai flowers reached to her ears. 

    445, 446. Her diamond earrings 
    swayed like the shark flag of Kama.
    The therivai, precious and ornamented 
    stood in victory over Kama, 
    the king of beauty, 
    because of the grace of Shiva
    who conquered Kama when he
    disturbed his meditation.
    447. The Lord Shiva has Shakthi, the goddess, 
    as half of his body.
    He dances in the beautiful 
    silver hall in Madurai.

    His procession moved 
    from that place.

    Perilam Pen

    448. The perilampen was a fortune
    that Kama, the king of desire 
    who always wins the war of love
    received because of the great austerities 
    he had performed

    449. For Kama she was like a commentary 
    on the book of love 
    that gives happiness to all.
    She was a flood of love.

    450. She was as beautiful as Lakshmi 
    born in the ocean of milk.
    Her smile was lovely.
    Her face was as tender as a kumudam blossom.
    She was thin and fragrant as a creeper.

    451. The perilampen was like
    newly played music.
    She was like a goddess 
    who gave beauty to the world.

    452. She was the drone sound 
    for the music that Kama plays.
    She spread her knowledge everywhere.

    453. She came to see the procession 
    and even the goddess Lakshmi born 
    in the milky ocean
    praised her lovely form.

    454. Her sharp eyes destroyed
    the strength of the great ones.
    They moved like a spear 
    a king raises to fight 
    his enemies.
    455. They took away people’s lives 
    like the trident of the Lord 
    that kills his enemies.

    456. Kama who has a sugarcane bow 
    and a beautiful chariot and 
    Yama who carries 
    a spear in his strong hands 
    became her servants 
    because of the power 
    of her long sharp eyes.

    457. Her breasts were 
    decorated with garlands.
    They were smeared 
    with fragrant sandal paste.
    Beautiful ornaments studded 
    with diamonds covered them.

    458. Even though her breasts 
    were round and heavy 
    they did not pain her waist 
    so thin you could not even see it—
    her breasts took care 
    that her waist not be hurt.

    459. She despised the ornaments on her arms 
    and her bracelets 
    because her arms and hands 
    wished to embrace the Lord 
    continually and lovingly 
    and she feared 
    they would hurt his body.

    460. She despised the jewels 
    on her body because 
    she thought that they were hiding 
    her lovely light color.

    461. She went to the marble mandapam 
    of the palace surrounded with high walls 
    that touched the dark clouds of the sky.

    462. She went happily 
    to the front part of the mandapam 

    where the cool moon spread 
    its bright light like a flood of water.

    463. Her numerous friends resplendent with 
    their lovely golden faces 
    and long hair surrounded her 
    like many bees 
    swarming around a lotus blossom.

    464. Her golden earrings 
    studded with diamonds, 
    and her long beautiful eyes
    moving like fish 
    touched her lovely ears 
    soft as Vallai creepers. 

    465. The two breasts held by her tender waist 
    that one could not see 
    were like two growing buds 
    on the stalk of a lotus flower.

    466. Her neck was like beautiful conch
    and her smile was like precious pearls.
    Her clothes shimmered like waves.

    467. The porch looked like 
    a pond with waves 
    because of the bright 
    white moonlight 
    that fell there. 

    468. She sat on a beautiful coral seat
    like a swan resting on a red lotus 
    in a pond blooming with flowers.

    469. She praised the Lord to her friends
    “The Lord is our friend.
    He is incomparable.
    He rules us.

    470. “If his devotees think 
    of the Lord when they are troubled, 
    our great Lord grants them 
    the fragrant lotus seat of Brahma, 
    the milky ocean of the gods 
    and the land of Indra with karpaga tree.
    471. “Why did our great Lord makes the hot sun 
    take away the darkness of the night 
    instead of the moon?
    Can you tell me the reason?”

    472. After the perilampen 
    said this to her friends, 
    a virali holding the yaaz 
    folded her lovely hands together, 
    bowed to her said, 

    474, 475. “The Lord is compassionate.
    He is the king of the kadamba forest.
    His beautiful mouth is like a red lotus.
    His shining teeth are like jasmine flowers.
    His beautiful eyes are like sahoraa birds.
    His arms are bright like the sun and moon.
    You have the right to embrace his arms. This what I must tell you”

    476. Hearing what the Virali said, 
    the perilampen replied, 
    “You are decorated with precious ornaments.
    I would like to listen to the music 
    of your yaaz sweet as nectar.
    Please play.”

    477. Taking the faultless tandiri yaaz 
    the virali played.
    All the worlds hearing the music melted.
    Listening to her music Gandarva women 
    in the sky were delighted. 
    The virali told the perilampen 
    miracle stories of Shiva.

    478. The story of Shiva
    coming as a fisherman,
    falling in love with a woman 
    who was born in a fisherman’s family
    and marrying her.

    The story of Shiva 
    granting enlightenment 
    to Manickavaasagar.

    479. The story of Shiva, 
    selling foxes to the Pandya king, 
    telling him that they were horses,
    and then asking him to release 
    Manickavaasagar who was imprisoned by him. 

    The story of Shiva 
    bringing a flood to the Vaikai river 
    one day.

    480. The story of Shiva
    coming as a laborer and
    working for Vanthi, an old lady,
    to receive pittu, a sweet, as his wage.

    The story of Shiva
    curing the terrible disease 
    of the southern Pandya king.

    481. The story of Shiva
    making the Jains to die 
    on sharp impaling stakes.

    The story of Shiva
    bringing a Vanni tree and 
    a well to prove
    the chastity of a merchant woman 
    who was a devotee of Shiva. 

    482. The virali sang wonderful songs 
    about the miraculous deeds 
    of Lord Shiva in Tamil. 
    Her music was like a boat 
    that floated over the ocean of darkness 
    and brought travelers 
    to the bank where there is light.

    483, 484. As Lord Shiva came in procession 
    the darkness of the night dispersed. 
    All the roosters crowed in the morning
    and the bees on the flowers buzzed.
    Honey dripped from the blossoms.
    The Rakshasas were destroyed.
    Crops flourished.
    The works of men flourished.

    485. The sun rising in the east 
    came on yoked horses spreading his light.

    486. Many strong elephants trumpeted 
    and beautiful conches 
    were blown.
    487. The melodious music of the yaaz 
    and the eternal heavenly recitation of 
    Vedas sounded.

    488. All the suffering and the poverty of 
    the creatures of the world
    were removed in an instant.

    489. The lotus-like faces 
    of the good people
    and their flower-like 
    hearts that never know hatred 
    found joy.

    490. The lowly religions
    that teach wrong doctrines 
    could no longer contend with truth.
    Bounteous rays of knowledge
    shone forth and imparted goodness.

    491. He is the Lord who grants the rays of knowledge 
    to all the world so that ignorance will disappear.

    492. He came on the streets of Maduraapuri 
    and reached the perilampen and her friends.

    493. Her friends were beautiful as dolls, 
    and they had the power to attract everyone.

    494. Surrounding her, her friends praised her.
    She walked near the king of Maduraapuri
    and worshipped him.

    495. The fascination she felt seeing the Lord
    was indescribable. 

    496. One of the perilampen’s friends 
    ran near the Lord, 
    who is the king 

    of the scholars of elegant Tamil
    and said,

    497. “We cannot understand
    why the heat of the bright moon
    makes our moon-like faces 
    and hearts suffer.
    498. “We cannot understand 
    why our wide ocean-like eyes 
    suffer without sleep because 
    the ocean roars so loudly.

    499. “We cannot understand 
    why the sandal paste 
    on our breasts decorated 
    with pearl garlands
    cannot dry.

    500. “How can I explain 
    the way my arms shiver 
    listening to the sound of the flute
    as cruel as Yama.

    501. “If your procession crosses this street, 
    she will suffer terribly.”
    Her friends said these things 
    to the Lord and bowed to him.

    502. The perilampen felt relieved 
    and her suffering was calmed.
    She said to the Lord, 
    “You destroyed the pride of the gods who do not respect you.
    You destroy the sacrifice of tyrannical Dakshan.

    503. ‘You burned Kama’s body. 
    You destroyed the garland of Indra,
    crushing his arms.

    504. “You made the strength 
    of moonlight grow weak at night.
    You have put out 
    the cruel fire of my passion.

    505. “You gave pain to those friends 
    who did not respect you.

    You cut off the head of Brahma
    who decides the fate of everyone.

    506. “Yoga, they say, takes away the suffering of love.
    Will you not calm 
    my suffering by giving me the power of yoga?

    507. “You gave your grace 
    to Sundarar who fell 
    in love with Paravaiyaar in Thiruvaarur.
    You grant boons to gods and others.

    508. “You gave them all gold 
    so that they could survive.
    But you only gave me pallor 
    that has the color of gold.
    How am I to live?

    509. “The goddess embraces 
    your chest lovingly.
    If you embrace us also, 
    the mark of her body 
    on yours may disappear.

    510, 511, 512. “You wear a flower garland
    on your Jata that belongs to Ganga
    and a flower garland on your left side
    that belongs to Uma, and because of them
    those two goddesses quarrel with you.
    Give them both to me,

    513. “and I will put them on my breasts,”
    The perilampen said.
    Her heart was tired,
    her body weak.

    514. All the seven women who saw the Lord 
    in the procession fell in love with him.
    The Lord protects 
    and rules all the three worlds
    Nothing can be compared with him.

    515. He is the king of Madurai city.
    The Pandya king

    Sundara Maaran and the gods of heaven
    praised and worshipped him.

    516. Our father, the king who gives us grace 
    and keeps his compassionate wife Meenakshi 
    as the left side of his body
    came in procession.


    The stories of Sages, kings and gods that are described when Lord Shiva came on the Ulaa in Thiruchokkanaathar Ulaa. All of the following devotees escorted Shiva in his procession.

    1. The story of Thirunyaana Sambandar. The Jains threw the poems of Thirunyaana Sambanda Nayanaar in the Vaikai river and the poems floated above the water by the grace of Shiva. The Pandyan king killed the Jains.
    2. The story of Thirunaavukkarasar. When the Jains threw Thirunaavukkarasa Nayanaar in the sea tied to a stone, the stone floated on the water and he survived by the grace of Shiva.
    3. The story of Sundaramurthi Naayanar. When a young boy was caught by a crocodile, Sundaramurthi Nayanaar released him from the crocodile’s mouth and saved him by the grace of Shiva. 
    4. The story of Manivaasagar. Manivaasagar debated with a Buddhist in the golden temple of Chidambaram and conquered him by the grace of Shiva.
    5. The story of a sage who cut off his father’s legs.
    6. The story of Thirunetrucholan. The Chola king Thirunetrucholan who covered the Chidambaram temple with gold and later went to heaven by the grace of Lord Shiva.
    7. The story of a Chera king. A Chera king followed Sundaramurthy Nayanaar when he ascended to heaven on a white elephant.
    8. The story of Pandyan Nedumaaran. The Pandyan king Nedumaaran whose crooked back was cured by the grace of Thirunyaanasambanda Murthi Naayananaar.
    9. The story of Kulachirai Naayanaar. The king Kulachirai Naayanaar killed the Jains who did cruel deeds to the Saivaites.

    Summary of the stories told in Thiruvilaiyaadal Puranam and Thiruchokka Naathar Ulaa 
    Note: The first number on each of the stories indicates Thiruvilaiyaadal Puraanam. At the end of each story the number indicates the Ulaa.

    1. The story of Indra’s curse: Indra the king of gods fought with Vrudhraasuran and killed him. Because of that he was cursed. He went on many pilgrimages and finally came to kadamba forest. He consecrated a Shiva lingam and he called it ‘Azhakiya Chokkanaathar’ He worshipped Lord Shiva for a long time and he was released from his curse and went to his world. (1)

    2. The story of the curse of Airavadam, the elephant of Indra: Indra was going on his white elephant Airavadam one day. The sage Durvasa saw Indra and gave him a lotus flower. Indra was very proud and put that flower on the back of the elephant. The white elephant threw the flower on the ground and crushed it. The sage Durvasa grew angry and cursed him. He said, “A Pandyan king will kill you because you commit a sin against Shiva. Your proud elephant will become a forest elephant and wander in the forest..”Indra requested the sage to forgive him. The sage forgave him and Indra was released from the curse. His elephant went to the Kadamba forest and worshipped Shiva. The elephant was released from his curse and returned to Indra to serve him. (2)

    3. The story of Maduraapuri. In the city of Manavur there was a merchant named Dananjeyan. Once in the Kadamba forest the merchant saw gods praying at night to a Shivalingam. He went and told what he had seen to the king. The king wanted to build a temple for the Shiva lingam in the Kadamba forest and constructed a beautiful temple. He also built temples for the goddess Kali and the Goddess Parvathi. Many buildings, ponds and other things that beautified the temple were built around the city. Shiva asked the moon on his Jata to sprinkle nectar with the water of the Ganges on the city. The city was called, ‘Maduraapuri.’ (3)

    4 and 5. The story of the birth and marriage of Thadaathagai. The Pandyan king and his wife Kanchanamaalai had a baby girl and named her Thadaathagai. The girl was born with three breasts. She grew up and became the queen of Maduraapuri and ruled that country. Thadaathagai conquered many kings on the earth and went to Kailaasa to fight with the gods. There she met Shiva and fell in love with him. Shiva and Thadaathagai were married. (4. 5)

    6. The story of Shiva dancing and lifting his left foot: All the gods, kings and sages went to the wedding of Shiva and Parvathi. The sage Pathanjali and the sage Vyagrabaatha asked Lord Shiva to dance lifting his left foot, imitating how he danced in the golden temple of Thillai lifting his right foot. The Lord danced lifting his left foot and all the gods and sages saw the dance of the Lord and were pleased. (6)

    7. The story of Gundodharan: All the guests ate the wedding feast but there was abundant food left over. When Thadaathagai went to her husband and asked him to take care of food, Shiva called Gundodharan his servant and asked him to eat the food. Gundodharan ate it all. (7)

    8. The story of river Vaigai. After he ate all the food, Gundodharan was thirsty. He drank all the water in the ponds, wells and the springs in the city of Maduraapuri, but his thirst was not satisfied. Shiva asked the Ganges that was on his Jata to come down to earth and flow. Gundodharan drank all the water he wanted and was satisfied. The river that came down is called Vaikai and that is the river that runs in Madurai city now. (8).

    The eight miracles of Shiva in the section of the pedai 

    1. The story of Kanchanamaalai bathing in the ocean: Kanchanamaalai, the mother of Meenakshi wanted to bath in the river Ganges. The sage Gauthama told her that if she went to an ocean where all the rivers join that should be the best place to bathe. She went to her daughter Thadaadagai and told her that she wanted to bath in the ocean. Thadaadagai told her mother’s wish to her husband Lord Shiva and Shiva brought all the seven oceans to Madurai. All the seven oceans in seven colors came to a pond that was in the east of Madurai and joined with the water of a temple pond.(9)

    2. The story of Kanchanamaalai going to heaven: When Kaanchanamaalai went to bathe in the pond, the brahmins who were there told her that she should join her hands with her husband, only son, or the tail of a cow and bathe in the pond. At once Shiva brought Malaiyathuvajan, the husband of Kanchanamaalai who was in Indra’s world, to the pond and the couple bathed in the pond holding each others’ hands. They both went to Kailasa, the heaven of Lord Shiva in a divine flying chariot. (10)

    3. The story of the birth of Ukkira Pandyan: Thadaathagai wanted a son and told that to her husband Somasundara Pandyan (a form taken by Shiva). Shiva granted her wish, saying that Murugan would be born to her. Subsequently, she became pregnant and gave birth to a son on a Monday under the Thiruvaadirai star. They named him ‘Ukkira Pandyan’. (11)

    4. The story of Shiva giving a wheel, chendu weapon and spear to Ukkira Pandyan. Sundarapandyan wanted his son to marry Ganthimati the daughter of Somasekharar in Manavur. Shiva appeared in the dream of Somasekharar and told him to give his daughter in marriage to Ukkira Pandyan.
    Somaskeharar happily accepted. Ukkira Pandyan and Ganthimathi married and lived happily. Sundarapandyan gave a wheel, a spear and a chendu weapon to Ukkira Pandyan and told him, “Indra, Varuna and Meru mountain are your enemies. Throw the wheel and Indra’s crown will fall. Release the spear on the ocean and it will dry up. Hit the Meru mountain with the chendu weapon and it will obey you..”He also crowned Ukkira Pandyan at that time as the king. (12)

    5. The story of Ukkira Pandyan conquering Varuna: Ukkira Pandyan ruled the Pandya country and did ninety six Ashvameda sacrifices. Indra was jealous of the king and told the god Varuna to destroy the Pandya country with a titanic flood of water coming from the seven oceans. A huge flood started at midnight. Shiva came at once in the form of a Siddha to Ukkira Pandyan and told him to throw the spear, stop the flood and protect the country. Ukkira Pandyan went quickly and threw his spear and stop the flood. Shiva and the goddess Uma graciously appeared on Nandi, the bull that is Shiva’s vehicle, and blessed the Pandyan king and his country. (13)

    6. The story of Ukkira Pandyan conquering Indra: Once, there was no rain in Tamil Nadu and the people suffered. At that time sages did tapas for the rain to come on Mondays and then went to Indra. Indra only granted rain to the Chola and Chera countries and not to the Pandya country. Ukkira Pandyan became angry and imprisoned the four clouds that belong to Indra. At that, Indra started a war with the king. In the fighting, Ukkira Pandyan sent his wheel and destroyed Indra’s crown. Indra sued the Pandyan king for peace and said that he would give rain to Pandya country if the Pandyan king released Indra’s clouds. Ukkira Pandyan released the clouds and Indra granted him the rain, making the people of the Pandya country happy. (14)

    7. The story of Ukkira Pandyan fighting with Meru mountain: Ukkira Pandyan and his wife Ganthimathi had a son and named him Veera Pandyan. At that time, once again there was no rain and the king prayed to Shiva to give rain. The god Somasundarar (a form of Shiva) came to him in a dream and told him, “In a cave in Meru mountain there is a great treasure. Go and fight with Meru mountain and bring it..”The Pandyan king went to Meru mountain and struck the mountain with his Chendu weapon. He engraved the Pandyan emblem of a fish on the hill. A bhutham with eight hands and four heads carrying a white umbrella came and said, “Oh, king, every day I pray to Somasundarar and Meenakshi in this form. Today I was late for my worship because I was fascinated with a woman. You came and released me from that sin..”He gave much gold to the Pandyan king. When the Pandyan king was returning the kings of Mathiyam, Viraadam, Maalavam and Thelungam welcomed him and showed their hospitality. The king gave all the gold to his citizens and they were happy and there was no famine in Pandya country. After a while, the stars changed, rain poured in the Pandya country and the land became fertile. Ukkira Pandiyan went to Kailasa after crowning his son Veera Pandyan. (15)

    8. The story of Shiva Teaching the meaning of the Vedas to the sages: The Vedas were created by Shiva. The sage Kanvar and others could not understand the meaning of the Vedas. They went to Madurai with the sage Arapathar and prayed to the god Dakshinamurthy (a form of Shiva). Disguised as a sixteen-year-old brahmin boy, the god taught them the meaning of the Vedas. He took them to the Shiva Lingam in the temple of Madurai and told them, “This Shiva lingam itself is the Veda and the meaning of Vedas. The Veda and the meaning of Vedas are the same thing..”He taught them much holy lore such as the beginning of the Pranava manthram, Jnaanam, Karumam, Vaideekam and Vaideekasaivam.”. (16)

    The eight miracles of Shiva in the section of the pedumbai

    1. The story of Shiva selling Diamonds: The Pandya King Veera Pandyan had many mistresses and many sons from them. He also had one son Abhisheka Pandyan from his queen. Once when Veera Pandyan went hunting, he died in the forest. His mistresses and their sons took all his wealth and his queen’s son did not have anything. Veera Pandyan’s minister wanted to help Abhisekha Pandyan and took him to the temple and prayed. Shiva came as a diamond merchant and gave the Pandyan king many diamonds and pearls. He told the ministers to crown Abhisekha Pandyan and he ruled the country. (17)

    2. The story of the clouds that came and drank water from the flooded Vaikai river: In the month of Chitrai on the day of the star Chitra, Abhisheka Pandiyan did special pujas to the god Somasundarar (a form of Shiva). Indra also did puja on the same day for Shivam but was unable to perform his puja at the correct time because the Pandyan king was doing his puja at the same time. Indra decided to return to his world. On the way Varuna saw him and asked him, “Why do you worry about doing pujas for Shiva. Do you think Shiva has the power to take away my stomachache?.”Indra said, “Lord Shiva has the power to take away the cycle of births. Don’t you think he could cure your stomachache?.”Varuna decided to test the power of Shiva. To cure Varuna’s stomachache, Shiva ordered the ocean to destroy Madurai city. People saw the flood, were terrified and went to Abhisheka Pandyan. The Pandya king prayed to Shiva, who sent the four clouds that were on his Jata to help the Pandya country. The clouds drank all the water in the flood and the country was saved. The gods and people praised Shiva with devotion and songs. (18)

    3. The story of Kudal city: Varuna became angry and ordered seven clouds to destroy the world. The clouds roared, grew full of water and became very dark. Adishesh, the snake of Vishnu, and the elephants of the eight directions trembled. It was dark everywhere. Abhisheka Pandyan went to Shiva and asked him to help the Pandya country. Shiva ordered his four clouds to become four huge roofs and cover the whole city of Madurai. Feeling defeated and ashamed, when Varuna went to the temple pond his stomachache was cured. He bathed in the pond and worshipped. Shiva was happy that Varuna was praying to him and asked, “What would you like me to do?.”Varuna replied, “My stomachache was cured even before I arrived at the temple pond. You show your grace even to people like me who do evil acts. I do not want any wealth, manthram or any medicine. Please forgive my faults..”Shiva gave all the boons he wanted and Varuna went to his world. Because the four clouds that came from the Jata of Shiva protected Madurai, the city was called ‘naan maadakudal’ (19)

    4. The story of Shiva coming in the disguise of a siddha: Shiva came to Madurai in the disguise of a siddha. He went everywhere and performed many miracles. He made the older people young and the young people ones old, he turned men into women and women into men, he made barren women give birth, he made the dumb speak, he gave sight to the blind, he made bitter Etti trees ripen with sweet fruits. The people of Madurai were surprised when they saw the siddha’s miraculous deeds. The king Abhisheka Pandyan heard about the siddha and asked him to come to see him but the siddha refused. (20)

    5. The story of a stone elephant eating sugarcane: Abhisheka Pandyan went himself to see the siddha, whom people were treating as a beggar. The king politely asked him where he came from and what he wanted. The siddha proudly answered him that he came to see all the temples of Shiva and he did not want anything from the king. The king was angered by the siddha’s arrogance and asked him, “There is a stone elephant here. Can you feed it a stalk of sugarcane?.”When the siddha offered a stalk of sugarcane, the elephant ate it and then took the king’s garland from his chest. When the people there were angered by this and went to strike the siddha, he turned them all into stone statues. The king requested the siddha to forgive them and the siddha brought them back to life and disappeared. The elephant became a stone elephant again. Abhisekha Pandyan had a son and named him Vikrama Pandyan. Then he prayed to Shiva and went to Shiva’s world. (21)

    6. The story of an angry elephant sent by the Jains: Vikrama Pandyan helped Saivism flourish in the country and he did gave little attention to Jainism. A Chola king in Kanchipuram who wished to conquer Vikrama Pandyan approached some Jain sages and told them that if they killed Pandyan king, he would give half of his country to them. The Jain sages burned many parts of the Pandya country and destroyed the ponds that hold water. They performed a sacrifice and an angry elephant came out of it. It destroyed many parts of the city and then came to the Pandyan king’s palace. When the Pandyan king went to the temple and prayed to Shiva for help, Shiva asked him to build a mandapam. When it was built, Shiva stayed in it waiting for the elephant. When the Jain’s angry elephant came, Shiva killed it with an arrow. The king and the people were happy. (22)

    7. The story of Shiva changing his form into an old man, a young man and a baby: A brahmin named Virupaakshan had a daughter named Gauri who spent most of her time praying to the goddess Parvathi. One day a Vaishnava bachelor came to Gauri’s house and her father gave her in marriage to him. Her in-law’s family followed Vaishnavism and did not treat her well because she was praying to Parvathi. One day Lord Shiva came to her home in the form of an old man and asked for food. Gauri cooked food and served him. After eating he became an young man. At that time her relatives came home. Seeing the relatives Shiva changed himself into a baby. When the relatives asked her who the baby was she said it was her friend’s baby. They said angrily, “You should not have a Saivaite baby in this house.”and sent her out of the house with the baby. She prayed to the goddess and the baby changed into Shiva. Gauri also became a goddess and Uma and Shiva took her to Kailasa. (23) 

    8. The story of Shiva dancing and lifting his left foot: Vikrama Pandyan crowned his son Rajasekhara Pandyan and went to heaven. Rajasekhara Pandyan learned classical dance because he wished to compete with a Chola king who danced well. As he was learning dance, he realized how difficult it was to learn that art. When he went to the temple he saw that lord Nataraja dancing, lifting his right leg always, he thought it must be painful for Shiva and prayed to Shiva to lift his left foot instead when he danced. Lord Nataraja did as he asked. Rajasekhara Pandyan worshipped Shiva and asked the god to dance always lifting his left foot in Madurai in the silver hall. Shiva accepted and and did as Rajasekhara Pandyan asked. (24). 

    The sixteen miracles of Shiva in the section of the mangai

    1. The story of Anthahaasuran: Shiva fought with Anthahaasuran and killed him with his trident.

    2. The story of Markandeya: Shiva gave a boon to Markandeya that he would be always sixteen years old and no one could kill him. When Yama the god of death came to take Markandeya’s life, Shiva came, kicked Yama and saved Markandeya.

    3. The story of Brahma and Shiva: Once Brahma went to see Shiva and waited for him in Shiva’s garden. At that time both Shiva and Brahma had five heads. Parvathi came to the garden and embraced Brahma from behind thinking he was Shiva because both he ans Hiva had five heads. Shiva became angry and cut off one of the heads of Brahma. At that, Brahma angrily cursed Shiva, saying that he should beg and and that the head he had cut off Brahma would not fall from Shiva’s hand until it became full. From then on Brahma only had four heads and Shiva wandered about begging, with Brahma’s head stuck to his hand. Finally, when Vishnu cut his finger and filled the head of Brahma with his blood, it fell. 

    4. The story of the three flying forts: Shiva burned the three forts of his enemies with the fire that came from his forehead eye.

    5. The story of Ravana carrying the Kailasa mountain: Once Ravana, the king of Lanka, took Kailasa mountain on his shoulders and everyone on the mountain trembled. Shiva put his feet on Ravana’s shoulders and pressed him to earth. Ravana put down the Kailasa mountain and worshipped Shiva.

    6. The story of Shiva’s elephant skin: Shiva killed an elephant and used its skin as his garment.

    7. The story of Shiva teaching a small bird: When Rajaraja Pandyan his son Suguna Pandiyan ruled the country, a man who had done evil deeds in his previous birth was born as a karikkuruvi, a small bird. The bird was afraid of other stronger birds, flew to the forest and hid. One day it saw a sage who told the bird that if it worshipped Shiva, he would help it. The bird prayed asking the God to give him strength so that other birds could not hurt it. Shiva made him a very strong bird called, ‘Valiyaan,’ The small bird became strong and helped all the other small birds so that they would not be hurt by other strong animals and birds. (47)

    8. The story of Shiva burning Kama: Once when Shiva was meditating for a long time, the gods concerned that the maintenance of the world would stop, asked Kama to disturb Shiva’s meditation. Kama decided to help the gods, went to where Shiva was meditating and sent his flower arrows. Shiva angrily opened his forehead eye and burned up Kama. Later he restored Kama to life when Rathi, Kama’s wife, came and asked him to forgive Kama. 

    9. The story of the messengers of Yama: After crowning his son Kulothunga Pandyan, Rajasekhara Pandyan died and went to Lord Shiva’s world. One day a brahmin and his wife were going through a forest. The brahmin went to get some water and his wife was killed by an arrow that fell from the tree. The brahmin saw a hunter near the tree and thought he had killed his wife. The brahmin went to the king and complained about the hunter and the king imprisoned the hunter. The hunter told the king that he did not kill the brahmin’s wife and he did not know who could have done so. The king believed the hunter but did not know what to do. He prayed to Shiva to show him a way. Shiva came to the king in a dream and told him that if he went to a wedding he would understand the truth. The king and the brahmin went to the wedding. When they were in the house where the wedding was conducted they heard two messengers of Yama talking. One of the messenger asked the other, “We have to take the bridegroom today to Yama’s world. How can we do that?.”The other messenger said, “Did you remember the other time, we made the arrow fall from the tree and kill the brahmin’s wife. In a similar way we will make a cow go mad and kill the bridegroom.” The brahmin understood that it was not the hunter who killed his wife. The king gave money to both the brahmin and the hunter so that they would live happily. Then he went to the temple and worshipped Shiva. (25) 

    10. The story of the great sinner: There was a brahmin in a city called Avanthi who lived with his wife and his son. His son was a bad man and was sleeping with his mother. One day when the brahmin saw the mother and son together and became angry. The son killed the father, took his mother and ran away to a forest. In the forest some thieves took the son’s money and his mother. The son felt lonely and wandered all over. Then he went to Madurai and prayed to Shiva. Shiva and Parvathi came to him disguised as a hunter and his wife. Shiva told him, “You should beg and eat only one time. Every day you should feed the cows. You should serve Shiva’s devotees. You should bathe in the water of the temple and go around the temple for 108 times every day. If you do this your sins will go away and you will be my devotee..”He did as Shiva told him and attained Moksha. (26) 11. The story of Shiva killing a student: There was old man who taught sword fighting to students. One of his students learned from him and started his own school. He attracted the students of the teacher and they all became his students. Because the teacher did not have any students he became poor. The student who had started a new school also tried to seduce his teacher’s wife. The wife prayed to Shiva to help her. The god, disguised as the teacher, went to the student and challenged him to a sword fight. The student thought Shiva was the old man and agreed to fight. Shiva fought and killed him. After that the teacher and his family praised Shiva and lived happily. (27)

    12. The story of Shiva helping the Pandyan king to kill a bhutham: After the rule of Kulothunga Pandyan the king Ananthaguna Pandyan became king. He was devoted to Lord Shiva. The Jain did not like the Pandyan king and performed a sacrifice. A bhutham came out of that sacrifice and the Jains asked it to kill the king and destroy the Pandya country. The bhutham took a form of a snake and came to the city. The king prayed to Lord Shiva to help him. By the grace of god the king was able to fight and kill the bhutam. (28)

    13. The story of the Jains sending another bhutham: The Jains were angry that the Pandyan king killed the bhutham. They performed another sacrifice and sent another bhutham to the king in Madurai in the form of a cow. Shiva, wishing to help the Pandyan king and his people, ordered his vehicle, the bull Nandi, to go and kill the cow. Unable to do anything to Nandi the bhutham changed into a mountain. Nandi’s body also became a mountain and his soul went to Kailasa to serve Shiva. (29) 

    14. The story of Shiva helping the Pandyan king: Kulabhushana Pandyan became the king after Ananthaguna Pandyan. The king had an army general named Sundarasaamanthan. One time a hunter chieftain came to fight with the king. Since the king’s general was a devotee of Shiva he had spent all the funds he had in the services of Shiva and did not have enough soldiers to fight with the hunter chieftain. When the king found out that there was no army to oppose the chieftain, he ordered the general to bring soldiers immediately. The general prayed to God to help him. Shiva came disguised as a warrior and brought an army, making the Pandyan king happy. At that time one of the king’s spies came and told the king that the hunter chieftain had been killed by a tiger in the forest. The king’s general also collected an army and came there. Shiva disappeared from there with his army. Realizing that it had been Shiva who came as a warrior, the king, the general, and the subjects praised the Lord. (30)

    15. The story of Shiva giving a pot of gold : In the reign of Kulabhushana Pandyan, the people suffered because there was a drought and famine in the Pandya country. The king went to Shiva and prayed for his help. Shiva told him, “You did not respect brahmins and the Vedas. If you show them the proper respect, the rains will come and the famine will disappear..” Shiva also gave him a pot of gold and told him that that pot would be full always. The king gave gold to the brahmins for their religious expenses and he covered the chariots of Lord Somasundarar and the goddess Meenakshi with gold. The famine went away and the Pandya country flourished. (31)

    16. The story of Shiva selling bracelets: Shiva came to Dharuka forest where sages and their wives lived. He came in the form of a handsome beggar. Seeing the handsome Shiva, all the sages’s wives fell in love with him. They grew thin with lovesickness and their clothes grew loose and their bracelets fell from their hands. The sages who saw their wives in this condition became angry and cursed them to be born in the families of merchants on the earth. The wives asked the sages to forgive them. The sages said, “If the god Shiva comes and touches your hands, you will be released from your curse..”They all were born in merchants’ families on the earth. In an other story Shiva came as a bangle seller and put bangles on the hands of the sages’ wives. Since he touched the hands of the wives, they were released from their curse. (32)

    The eight miracles of Shiva in the section of the madanthai

    1. The story of Shiva teaching eight siddhis to sages: One day Shiva was teaching dharma to sages and his attendants. At that time the Karthigai women who had raised Murugan came and asked Lord Shiva to teach them also the eight siddhis . Saying, “If you serve the goddess Parvathi, I will teach you the eight siddhis,.”he taught them, but forgot the manthras he had told them. Shiva angrily cursed them to become stone statues for thousand years. When, after thousand years they were released from Shiva’s curse and received their own forms, Shiva once again taught them the eight siddhis. They went to the goddess Uma and served her. (33)

    2. The story of a Chola king who came to worship Lord Shiva: A Chola king who wished to go to the Madurai temple and see Shiva prayed to the god. Shiva came in a dream and told him to come to the Vaikai river. The Chola king went to the Vaigai river he saw there was a flood. By Shiva’s grace, the Vaigai river dried up and Chola king went into the temple through the northern entrance and worshipped the god. Shiva worried that if the Pandyan king knew the Chola king was in Madurai, he might think the Chola king had come to fight with him. Therefore Shiva locked the northern door and put his bull emblem on it. The Pandyan king saw the next day the bull emblem and understood that it was the play of Lord Shiva and worshipped him. The Chola king also saw Lord Shiva and prayed to him. (34)

    3. The story of Shiva giving water to warriors: Once Rajendra Pandyan went to fight with a Chola king. Since the battlefield was very hot the warriors became thirsty. The Pandyan king prayed to Shiva to come and help him. The god came, established a water pandal and gave water to the warriors of both the Pandya and Chola sides. Even though the Pandyan king defeated the Chola king, he gave him back his kingdom and sent him back to his country. (35)

    4. The story of Ponnanaiyaal making a golden statue of Shiva : A woman named Ponnanaiyaal wished to make a golden statue of Shiva. Because she did not have enough money she made it from another metal. One day Shiva came to her home in the form of a siddha and asked her to give him all the pots and pans that she had. The siddha told her, “Put all these in fire tonight and they will all change to gold.” She did so and made a Shiva statue with the gold and worshipped it. (36)

    5. The story of Sundaresa Paadasekhara Pandyan conquering a Chola king: Sundaresa Paadasekhara Pandyan’s army was small. He spent all his money in the services of Shiva and the temple. When a Chola king, Aayiram Parikkor Sevakan came to fight with Sundaresa, the Pandyan king prayed to Shiva and asked for help. As Somasundara, the god joined the small Pandya army and made it look like a large one in the eyes of the Chola king. The god fought with his spear and the Chola army retreated and the Chola king died in battle. The Pandyan king was happy and always served the God of Madurai with devotion. (37)

    6. The story of Shiva giving a kottai that was an eternal source of wealth: In Madurai, there was a devotee named Adiyaarkku Nallan. He and his wife Dharamasheelai would always give food to people. God wished to test him. He made the devotee very poor. The devotee sold what he had and spent the money he received serving the people and Shiva. God made him even poorer but he borrowed money and continued to do his devotional duties. Finally, when he could not even get a loan, he and his wife decided to die. Lord Shiva appreciated their devotion and gave them a ‘kottai’ in which wealth always would grow. The husband and wife did much service to the Lord and finally went to Kailasa.(38) 
    7. The story of Shiva coming disguised as an uncle: In Madurai a merchant named Dhanapathi lifed with his wife Susheelaa. They did not have a child and adopted his sister’s boy and raised him. The sister continually scolded Susheela for being childless. The merchant was distressed at this, gave all his wealth to his adopted son and went to the forest with his wife to do tapas. The relatives of Dhanapathi took all the wealth and the merchant’s sister became poor. She went and prayed to Lord Shiva and Shiva came in a dream and said, “Tomorrow bring all your relatives to the village assembly and I will come there and you will receive your wealth back.” The next day she asked all her relatives to come to the assembly. Lord Shiva came in the form of Dhanapathi there, argued for the merchant’s nephew, got all the wealth from his relatives and gave it to the nephew. (39)

    8. The story of Varaguna Pandyan . Sundaresa Paadasekhara Pandyan crowned his son Varaguna Pandyan. One day when Varaguna Pandyan was riding on a horse, a brahmin was caught in the horse’s legs, fell and died, thereby making Varaguna Pandya guilty of a sin. Shiva ordered him to fight with a Chola king and he did. Because he did what God Shiva wanted, he was released from his sin. When he wished to see the world of Shiva, Nandi came and took him to places on earth where there were many devotees praising and worshipping Shiva. Shiva made Madurai city also like the world of Shiva and the king returned to his city and ruled the country.(40)

    The eight miracles of Shiva in the section of the arivai 

    1. The story of Shiva selling firewood: In the rule of Varaguna Pandya there was a singer named Emanathan who played the yaaz. He came to Madurai from Northern part of Pandya country and lived there. The Pandyan king appreciated his music and gave him many gifts. The singer proudly proclaimed that there was no one as good as him in the whole country. The king asked Paanapathran, a singer in his assembly, to compete with Emanathan, but when that singer heard how well Emanaathan’s disciples sang on the street, he worried that Emanaathan would defeat him. He prayed to Shiva and went home. Lord Shiva decided help him by chasing Emanaathan away. The god came disguised as a seller of firewood seller. He sat on Emanathan’s patio and began to sing. Hearing Shiva’s divine music, Emanathan came out and asked him who he was. Lord Shiva told him that he was a humble disciple of Paanapathran. Emanaathan thought that if the disciple of Emanathan was a such good singer, he would not be able to compete with Emanathan himself. That very night, he ran away from Pandya country. When the king and Paanapathran realized Lord Shiva himself had come and sung, they were pleased, went to the temple and praised the god. (41)

    2. The story of Shiva giving wealth to Paanapathran. Paanapathran spent all his time singing the praise of Shiva and did not do anything to make money. Shiva took wealth from the treasury of Pandyan king and gave it to Paanapathran. After some time, Shiva stopped and Paanapathran became so poor he did not even have enough money to feed his family. Shiva came in a dream and asked him to go to the Chera king Ceramaan Perumaan Naayanaar. Paanapathran went there and the king received him joyfully because he was a devotee of Shiva. Paanapathran lived happily in the Chera country and praised God with his songs. 

    3. The story of Shiva giving a wooden platform for Paanapathran to stand on in the night: Paanapathran went to the temple and sang night and day praising Shiva. One night when he was singing a great rain came and he could not go home. He was shivering but continued singing for Shiva. Shiva was pleased and gave a wooden platform to stand on. After standing on it and singing, the rain stopped and he went home. The king heard about Paanapathran’s devotion and granted him much wealth.(43)

    4. The story of Paanapathran’s wife competing with another singer: The king Rajaraja Pandyan had a mistress. She was a good singer and did not like the singing of Paanapathran’s wife. She brought a singer from Lanka who played the yaaz and asked Paanapathran’s wife to compete with her. Those who heard them realized that Paanapathran’s wife was the better singer but when the king praised only the singer from Lanka everone agreed that the singer from Lanka was the better singer. Lord Shiva wished to help Paanapathran’s wife and came to the competition disguised as a singer. The king realized that God himself had come as a singer and worshipped him. The king declared that Paanapathran’s wife was the winner. Everyone was happy and the king gave presents to both of the singers. (44) 

    5. The story of Shiva giving milk to the piglets: Twelve bad sons were born to a good parent. When they grew up they gave caused a lot of trouble and suffering. One day they mistreated their Guru and he cursed them to become piglets. They wandered in the forest without any milk and suffered. Shiva saw them and felt pity for them. He disguised himself as a mother pig, came to the forest and fed the piglets. (45)

    6. The story of Shiva making the piglets ministers: Shiva came in a dream of Rajaraja Pandyan and told him, “I have fed twelve piglets and they will become men with pig faces. They are good warriors and you should make them your ministers.” The king did as the god asked him. The ministers helped the Pandyan king and lived happily in the Pandya country. (46)

    7. The story of Shiva helping a small bird. A strong man who had caused a lot of suffering was born as a small puny bird in his next birth. The bird was afraid of all the stronger words, worried that they would hurt it. It went to a forest and stayed on a tree all the time without going anywhere. At that time a sage came there and advised the bird, “If you go to Madurai, bathe in the lotus pond and pray to Sundaresar, he will help you.” The bird went to Madurai and worshipped Shiva, who came to him and changed him into a strong bird called, ‘Valiyaan’. The bird helped all other birds and served God. (47)

    8. The story of Shiva giving Moksha to a heron. A heron lived in a pond. Once when there was no rain and the pond had dried up, the heron went to another pond in a forest where many sages lived, bathing in the pond and worshipping God everyday. Seeing them, the bird thought, “I should not eat fish from this pure water.” The bird gave up eating fish, went hungry for many days, and then went to the pond in the temple of Shiva. The god saw the bird and asked it wanted. The bird said, “I want to go to Kailasa, your world, live there and serve you. Also there should not be any fish in the temple pond..” Shiva granted the boon and took the bird to his world. (48)

    The eight miracles of Shiva in the section of the therivai

    1. The story of Thiruvaalavaay city. After Suguna Pandyan, twenty-two kings ruled the Pandya country. At the time of the king Keerthibhushana Pandyan the seven oceans deluged the land with water. In Madurai, only the temple of Somasundarar and Meenakshi, Rishabja mountain, Yaanai mountain, Naaga mountain and Pasu mountain were not destroyed. After the flood stopped, Lord Shiva created the world again and the three Tamil kings—the Pandya, Chola and Chera dynasties—were created by Shiva from the gods Moon, Sun and Agni. After Keerthibhushana Pandyan, Vangiyasekara Pandyan ruled the country. He wished to build a large city but did not know what the boundaries of the city were before the deluge. He prayed to Shiva to show him the proper boundaries of the city. Shiva asked his snake to show by encircling the city and the snake did as the god wished. After that, the snake requested Shiva to name the city after him, and so it was called, ‘Thiru Vaalavaay city’. (49)

    2. The story of Shiva helping the Pandyan king in the battle: At the time of Vangiyasekhara Pandyan a Chola king came to fight with him. As the Pandyan king’s army was small he was losing the war. He prayed to Shiva for help. The god came in the form of a hunter, joined the Pandyan army fought and killed hundreds of Chola warriors. The Chola king saw an arrow with the name of the god written on it and realized that Shiva was fighting for the Pandyan’s army. He left the battlefield and went back to his country. The Pandyan king gained victory and ruled his country happily. (50)

    3. The story of Shiva giving the Sangappalahai: Once, the god Brahma went to bathe in the Ganges with his three wives, Saraswathi, Savitri and Gayathri. On the way Saraswathi stopped to listen to the sweet music of a Gandharva girl and Brahma bathed in the Ganges with his two other wives. Saraswathi was jealous that Brahma had not waiting to bathe with her. The god said angrily, “It is your fault that you did not come with me. You will be born as a human being on earth.” Saraswathi asked her husband to forgive her and he said, “Your body is made of fifty-one letters. Of those fifty-one, forty-eight will be born as poets in Kudal city and compose poetry. The chief poet will be the god Somasundarar himself. You will live in the hearts of those poets and give them power to compose poetry.” This happened as Brahma had ordered, with Somasundarar being the forty-ninth poet. The king built a Mandapam for the Sangam and asked Shiva to give a Sangappalahai for the poets. All the forty-nine poets, including Paranar and Kapilar, sat on that palahai. After that Vangiyasekara Padiyan crowned his son Sudaamani Pandyan and went to Kailasa. (51)

    4. The story of Shiva helping Dharmi receive a bundle of gold: Vangiya Sudaamani Pandyan had a flower garden from which he took flowers to worship Shiva. One day his wife came to the garden and smelled a new fragrance there. The king wondered whether the fragrance was from the flowers or was a natural fragrance of the hair of women. He announced to the poets, “If any of you bring me a poem that will remove my doubt I will give him a thousand gold coins.” Many poets tried but none could help the king. There was a poor poet named Dharmi in Madurai and he went to the temple and prayed to Shiva to help him. Lord Somasundarar wrote a poem and gave it to the poor poet. Dharmi went to the king and read the poem. The king was happy and decided to give him the gold, but Nakkirar, a famous poet in the assembly objected that the meaning of the poem was not correct because women’s hair does not have any natural fragrance, only the fragrance of oil and flowers that women wear in their hair. Dharmi went to the Shiva and the god came to the court of the Pandyan king and argued with Nakkirar. When Nakkirar realized that God himself wrote the poem he asked for forgiveness. Shiva was angry and opened his forehead-eye. Nakkirar was burned, went to the temple pond and stayed there (52)

    5. The story of Shiva blessing Nakkirar: The poet Nakkirar sang many songs and praised Shiva. Shiva and Parvathi came to him him and blessed him. Nakkirar joined the Sangappalahai and composed many poems. (53)

    6. The story of Shiva asking Agastya to teach grammar to Nakkirar: Nakkirar joined the Sangappalahai and composed many poems. Shiva thought he did not know Tamil grammar well and asked the sage Agastya to come from Pothiya mountain and teach grammer to Nakkirar. Agastya came down from Pothiya mountain and taught gr Nakkirar. After learning Tamil grammar Nakkirar taught other poets. (54)

    7. The story of Shiva making peace among the Sangam poets: The forty-nine poets in the Sangam were proud of their own poems and boasted. They prayed to Shiva to reveal to them who the best poets were. Lord Shiva came to the Sangam disguised as a poet and told them, “There is a boy named Rudarasanman who is the son of Dhanapati and Gunasaalini. He is dumb and cannot speak. If you read your poems to him, he will tremble and shed tears when he hears a good poem. Then you will know who are the good poets.” The poets did as Shiva had asked, reading their poems and finding out whether they were good by Rudrasanman’s reaction. This took away their pride, and afterwards they worked hard to compose good poems. (55)

    8. The story of Idaikkaadar: After Shanpaga Pandayan’s rule, fifteen kings ruled the Pandya country. At that time of Kulesa Pandyan, Idaikkaadar, a friend of Kapilar, composed a poem, came to the king and read it, but the king did not show respect to the poet. Idaikkaadar went to the temple, worshipped and told Shiva what had happened. The god left the temple with his wife and stayed under a banian tree on the north side of the Vaigai river. When the king did not see the gods in the temple, he worried and ran to the tree and the god told him that he should respect Idaikkaadar. The king asked the god and Idaikkaadar to forgive him. Lord Shiva and Parvathi returned to the temple and after that the king treated all the poets with respect. (56)

    The eight miracles of Shiva in the section of the perilampen

    1. Shiva catching a whale: One time when Shiva was reading the Vedas, Uma did not listen. Shiva became angry and cursed her to be born in a fisherman’s family. When Uma asked the god to forgive her, Shiva said, “I will come and marry you when you reach marriageable age.” Uma was born as a daughter to a fisherman. When she had grown up, her father was searching for a bridegroom for her. At that time, Nandi deva came to the earth as a whale and caused problems for the fishermen. The father of Uma announced that he would give his daughter in marriage to any man who could catch the whale. Shiva came in the form of an young fisherman and caught the whale. The whale became Nandi and went to Kailasa. Uma’s father gave Uma in marriage to the young fisherman. The bridegroom and the bride changed their forms to Shiva and Parvathi and blessed all the fishermen. (57)

    2. Shiva giving his grace to Manivaasagar: When Arimarthana Pandyan ruled the Pandya country, he had a minister named Thiruvaadavurar. Once the king gave some gold to Vaadavurar and sent him to buy horses. On the way in Thirupperundurai, Vaadavurar saw Shiva in the form of a teacher with his disciples. He stopped at the school and sang praising lord Shiva. Shiva was pleased and gave him the name Manivaasagar. Manivaasagar spent all the money that the king had given for horses on service to Shiva’s devotees. When the king did not get his horses he sent a letter asking Manivaasagar why his horses had not come. Manivaasagar asked Shiva for help, and, advised by the god, he sent a letter to the king assuring him that he would receive his horses soon. (58)

    3. Shiva changing some foxes to horses: Angry that he had not received the horses he sent Manivaasagar to buy, he imprisoned Manivaasagar. Shiva changed some foxes to horses and took them to the king’s palace disguised as a horse seller. Shiva told the king, “You take all the horses. Once I give you these horses they are yours. Release Manivaasagar from the prison now.” The king did as Shiva asked. (59)

    4. Shiva changing the horses to foxes: In the night all the horses that Shiva brought changed into foxes and ran all over the city. People suffered and worried. The king angrily asked his servants to throw stones at Manivaasagar. Shiva decided to save Manivaasagar and the Vaikai river flood all over Madurai. The king could not control the flood and asked the people of the city to carry sand and put it in the river to stop the flood. At that time Shiva came to the river disguised as a worker. (60)

    5. Shiva carrying sand for Vanthi, the old lady: There was an old lady named Vanthi who made pittu and sold it for a living. When she could not carry sand to put it in the river, the king’s servants threatened her. Vanthi prayed to Shiva to help her. The god disguised himself as a worker, came and told her, “If you give me some pittu I will do the work for you.” Vanthi happily complied. Shiva ate the pittu and went to sleep. When the king came there, saw Shiva sleeping and hit him with a stick, all the people of the Pandya country felt the stick strike them. The god appeared to the king and said, “You imprisoned my devotee Manivaasagar. You should realize that he spent all the money you gave in my service and release him.” The king released Manivaasagar and asked him and Shiva to forgive him. After that Manivaasagar went on many pilgrimages and praised Shiva with his beautiful songs. (61)

    6. Shiva curing the disease of a Pandyan king: A Pandyan king named Kun Pandiyan who had conquered the Chola and Cera kings married the daughter of a Chola king named Mangaiyarkkarasi. The Chola king sent his minister Kulachiraiyar to stay with Pandyan king with his daughter. When the Pandyan king adopted Jainism and caused trouble for devotees of Shiva, the god gave a disease to the king. The queen and the minister were devotees of Shiva and asked Thirunyaanasambandar to come and cure the king. Sambadar accepted and when Jain sages prevented him from coming to the Pandya country intervened so that he could come to Madurai and see the king. Sambandar praised Shiva and asked him to cure the king’s disease. The god did so and the Pandyan king became a devotee of Shiva and did great service for Lord Shiva (62)

    7. Shiva helping Sambandar in the debates that he had with the Jain sages: The queen and the minister asked Sambandar to stay in the Pandya country and spread Saivism. Jain sages asked Sambandar to compete with them by seeing whose poems would remain unharmed. The Jains wrote some spells on palm leaves and put them in a fire, but they burned. Sambandar put his poems in the fire and they did not burn. Then the Jains put their spells written into the water of the Vaikai river and they all sank into the water. When Sambandar put his poems in the water they all floated. Since the Jains were defeated, they died. After that Sambandar went on many pilgrimages and praised Shiva with his songs. (63)

    8. Shiva helping a woman to protect her chastity: A merchant decided to marry his uncle’s daughter in his village and was taking her back to his village. On the way they slept under a Vanni tree where there was a Shivalingam under a tree. There was a well nearby. The merchant was bitten by a snake and died. Sambandar came there and saw the merchant and his wife. He prayed to God, restored the merchant to life and told them to get married in front of the Shiva lingam. They did so and went to the merchant’s village.
    The merchant had married another woman before he married his uncle’s daughter. That first wife tormented the younger wife saying, “Who knows who you are? How do we know you are married to my husband?” The younger wife went to the temple and prayed to Shiva, “Oh, Lord, the Shiva lingam, the vanni tree and the well where we were married were witnesses of our marriage. Please make them appear here to prove that we are married.”All the three came to the east side of the temple. The people saw them and praised the chastity of the younger wife. She lived with her husband happily after that.(64)


    Pandyan kings who are mentioned in Thiruvilaiyaadal puraanam. 

    Kulasekhara Pandyan - The king who consecrated ‘Azhahiya Chokkar.’ in Kadamba forest. 
    Malayathuvaja Pandyan - Son of Kulasekara Pandyan, Father of Thadaathagai Piraatti..
    Sundara Pandyan - He married, Thadaathagai piraatti. (i.e. Shiva)
    Ukkira Pandyan. - The son of Sundara Pandyan and Thadaathagai Piraatti.
    Veera Pandyan - The son of Ukkira Pandyan.
    Abhisheka Pandyan - The son of Veera Pandyan. At the time of this king, the name of Madurai city became Kudal and the city suffered a deluge.
    Vikkirama Pandyan - Abhisheka Pandyan’s son who fought with Jains and conquered them.
    Rajasekhara Pandyan - The Son of Vikkirama Pandyan. Shiva dances with his left leg in Madurai temple.
    Kulothunga Pandyan - The Son of Rajsekhara Pandyan.
    Ananthaguna Pandyan - The Son of Kulothunga Pandyan. When Jains gave troubles to this Pandyan king, Shiva helped him.
    Kulavibhishana Pandyan - The Son of Ananthaguna Pandyan.
    Rajendra Pandyan - The Son of Kulavibhishana Pandyan.
    Rajakesa Pandyan - The Son of Rajendra Pandyan
    Rajakambhira Pandyan - The Son of Rajakesa Pandyan.
    Vamsa deepa Pandyan - The Son of Rajakambhira Pandyan.
    Purantharasiddhu Pandyan - The Son of Vamsa Deepa Pandyan
    Pandya vamsa pathaaha Pandyan. - The Son of Purantharasiddhu Pandyan.
    Sundaresa paada sekhara Pandyan - The Son of Pandya Vamsa Pathaaha Pandyan
    Varaguna Pandyan - The Son of Sundaresa Paada Sekhara Pandyan.
    Rajaraja Pandyan - The Son of Varaguna Pandyan. 
    Suguna Pandyan - Rajaraja Pandyan

    After Sugna Pandyan his son Chitra Pandyan ruled. After Chitra Pandyan twenty-two Pandyan kings ruled the country. 
    Ankiya Sudaamani Pandyan 
    Arimarthana Pandyan
    Chitra Vratha Pandyan
    Chitra Bhushana Pandyan
    Chitra Dvasa Pandyan 
    Chitravarma Pandyan
    Chitrasena Pandyan 
    Chitravikrama Pandyan 
    Rajamarthana Pandyan
    Rajasudaamani Pandyan 
    Raja Chaarthula Pandyan 
    Dhvi Saraasa Kulothama Pandyan 
    Ayothana Praveena Pandyan
    Rajakunjara Pandyan 
    Paraviraja Bhayankara Pandyan 
    Ukkirasena Pandyan 
    Chathrunjaya Vimarathana Pandyan
    Veera Paraakrama Pandyan 
    Pirathaaba Maarthaanda Pandyan 
    Vikkkirama Kaanchana Pandyan
    Samara Kolaahala Pandyan 
    Athula Keerthi Pandyan (22 Pandyan kings)

    Keerthibushana Pandyan - The son of Athulakeerthi Pandyan. In the time of Keerthibhushana Pandyan, a terrible deluge arose from all the seven oceans and destroyed the world. Only the god Somasundarar’s vimaanam and the Meenakshi temple were not destroyed. Also Rishabha mountain, Yaanai mountain, Naaha mountain, Pasu mountain and Pandri mountain were not destroyed. Shiva created the world again. Shiva also created the three Tamil kings, Pandyas, Cholas and Cheras from the Sun, Moon and Agni dynasties. The new city of Madurai created by Shiva was called Thiruvaalavaay city. 

    Vankiya Sekhara Pandyan - At the time of this king Shiva established the third Sangam. There were forty-eight poets in it and Shiva was the forty ninth one as its chief poet. Shiva also created the bench for the poets of the Sangam.

    After Sanbhaga Pandyan fifteen Pandyan kings ruled and the last one among them was Kulesa Pandyan.

    Prathaapa Suriya Pandyan
    Vankeesa Dhuvasa Pandyan 
    Ripumarthana Pandyan 
    Seeravanki Saanthaka Pandyan
    Paandivanki Kesa Pandyan
    Vankichironmani Pandyan
    Pandichura Pandyan
    Kulathuvasa Pandyan. 
    Vankeesa Vibhushana Pandyan 
    Somasudamani Pandyan 
    Kulasudaamani Pandyan 
    Raaja Sudaamani Pandyan 
    Bhupa Sudaamani Pandyan
    Kulesa Pandyan

    Arimarthana Pandyan - the story of Manivaasagar.
    Kun Pandyan - the story of Thirunyaana Sambandar.

    The Gods, sages and others who are mentioned in Thiruvilaiyaadal Puraanam

    Indra - the king of gods.
    Viyaazan - Guru of gods.
    Dvashtar - Guru of the Asuras.
    Sage Thatheesi - He gave his back bone to Indra for a weapon.
    Sage Durvaasa - Son of Ashti Rishi.
    Kaanchanamaalai - Malayathuvaja Pandyan’s wife.
    Kaanthimati. Ukkira Pandyan’s wife.
    Virupaakshan - a Brahmin.
    Subhavrathai - Virupaakshan’s wife.
    Gauri - Virupaakshan’s daughter.
    Thattan. - a Saivaite brahmin.
    Sundara saamandan - an army general.
    Sethiraayan - a hunter.
    Kaadu vettiya cholan. - A Chola king.
    Panayaal - a dasi (courtesan) who lied in Thiruppuvanam.
    Aayiram Parisukkor Sevakan - a Chola king.
    Adiyaarkku Nallaan - a Vellala from Madurai.
    Dharmaseelai - Adiyaarkku Nallaan’s wife.
    Dhanapathi - a merchant in Madurai.
    Susheelai - Dhanapathi’s wife.
    Emanaathan - a yaaz player from northern part of Tamil Nadu.
    Paanapathran - a yaaz player from the Pandya country.
    Cheramaan Peruman - Chera king who gave wealth to Panapathram.
    Sukalan - A Vellala from Kuruvinthathurai.
    Sukalai - Sukalan’s wife.
    Dharmi - a poor Saivaite brahmin poet.
    Nakkirar - The chief poet of Sangam.
    Rudrasanmar - The dumb son of Dhanapathi and Gunasaalini.
    Idaikkaadar - A friend of Kapilar and a poet in Sangam.
    Thiruvaadavurar - Arimarthana Pandyan’s minister.
    Mangaiyarkkarasi - Wife of Kun Pandyan.
    Vanthi - An old lady in Madurai, who sold pittu, a sweet.
    Kulachirai - The minister of Kun Pandyan.
    Ulobhamuthirai - wife of Agastya.
    Vasishta - A sage who heard the Thiruvilaiyaadals of Shiva.
  • Courtesy : Project Mudurai.


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