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English-Translation

Sivagyana Sidhdhiyar of Arul Nandhi Sivachariya in English

OF ARUL NANDI SIVACHARIYA

Mr. J. M. Nallaswami Pillai, B.A., B.L.,

 

INTRODUCTION

THIS is the second of the fourteen Siddhanta Sastras, and its author was the disciple of the Great Meikanda Deva and his best expender. Sivagnana Botham is called the "Muthal Nul" or Revealed Book, and this work is called the "Vazhi Nul" containing the best and the most lucid elucidation of Meikanda Deva's short and concise aphorisms. The author is the second of the Santhana Achariyas in canonized Saints of the Saivas, and his date may be with more or less accuracy fixed at about 1200 A.D. He is author of another short work called "Irupairupakthu" (இருபா இருபஃது), in which he states some of the most puzzling problems in Indian Philosophy in the form of questions addressed to his master, in such a form that the answers themselves are transparent. Arul Nandi Siva Chariya was his name after he met and was initiated by his master Meikanda Deva and his other name was Sakalagama Pandithar, which seems however not to be his real name but one conferred on him for his vast crudition and researches in the Saivite lore. And there can be no doubt that he has displayed in his works all his vast learning and knowledge, and 'Siddhiar' stands out as the bulkiest and most learned contribution in the field of Philosophy in the vast Tamil; and will bear comparison in that respect with the best production in Sanskrit. Umapathi Siva Chariya includes this among the best six books, required for a man to perfect himself in Tamil, namely Tiruvalluvar, with (Parimelalagar's commentary), Devaram and Tiruvachakam, Tolkapiyam, Sekkilar's Periapuranam, Sivagnana Siddhi. Many are the praises sung of him and his work and of these we select two. The author of Sivabogasara says:-

ஆறாறு தத்துவமும், ஆணவனும், வல்வினையும் 
நீறாக முத்தி நிலை நிற்போற்குப்-பேறாகப் 
பாரவிரித்த நுலெல்லாம் பார்த்தறிய சித்தியிலே 
யோர் விருத்தப் பாதிபோகும்.

(To those who desire the path of Moksha, when all their lower Tatwas, Akankara and Karma will be burnt up to cinders, half a stanza of Siddhiar will (if understood) furnish the key for the understanding of all the vast lore of this world).

Our Thayumanavar says:-
"பாதி விருத்த்த்தாலிப் பார்விருத்தமாகவுண்மை
சாதித்தார் பொன்னடியைத் தான்பணிவதெந்நாளோ"

" O for the day when I shall bow down to the feet of him who exhibited the truth in half a stanza whereby I lost the whole delusive world:-

Of all the Siddhanta works, Siddhiar has had the greatest number of commentators, and six of these commentaries are brought out in a most praiseworthy manner by M. R. Ry. K. Shunmugasundara Mudaliar of Chintadripet in his "Sivagnana Botha Press."

Coming to the work in question, it is in two parts, the first part called Parapaksham contains a review of 14 systems of Philosophy beginning with Lokayitha and ending with Pancharathra, in the manner of Sayana's Sarva Darsana Sangraha. The other part called 'Supaksha' elaborates in detail Meikanda Deva's work. The Supaksham is prefaced with a chapter on Indian Logic or Alavei or measure as it is called, a knowledge of which is essential for following the argument of the Indian Schools of Philosophy. We propose to begin with the translation of this chapter and then proceed to Parapaksham and then to come back to Supaksham. Of previous translations, we are only aware of one into German by Graul, about 42 years ago and published in Vol. 8 of the German Oriental Society's Journal.

INVOCATION OF GANESHA.

O God, with the elephant head, single-tusked, double eared, triple juiced, with the hanging lip, and five hands, begotten by the Lord with the braided hair, adorned with the Ganges, the crescent moon and the cassia flowers. Thy feet will remove the evil in the hearts overflowing with love, humility, and knowledge night and day without fail. Thy feet will lift such far above the delights of Brahma and Vishnu.

NOTE.

Ganesha is called Vinayaka "He who has no Lord above Him" The elephant head, with the single tusk and trunk denote his Pranava form; the triple-juice or secretions denote his powers, will, intelligence and action (Ichacha, Gnana, Kriya). His five hands denote his Panchakirthya (srishti, sthithi, samhara, droupava and Anugraha). The wearing of the Ganges signifies his conquest of Ahankar; and the wearing of the Soma the uplifting of the truly humble; and the cassia (கொன்றை) flower is the crowning Indian Laurel signifying his Lordship, symbol of Pranava (The Manthra Rajam). These symbols have other meanings to the Yogi. The double effect of His Grace in offering Pasatehaya and inducing Pathignana is also well set forth in this stanza.

IN PRAISE OF HIS TEACHER.

The Gracious Sun which shining on this universe opened the Lotus bud of the woman hearts, on the opening of which, the bees of the ancient Vedic Hymns hummed about, the fresh honey gushed forth, and the Fragrance of Sivam blowed forth; He, Meikanda Deva, who was living in Tiruvennainallu, surrounded by groves, in full blossom, The Great Saivite Teacher, His golden feet which outrivals the lotus, resting in my head, I shall ever worship.

ALAVEI OR LOGIC.

1. Some classify Logical methods into Six (1) Prathiatcha (observation and experiment), (2) Anumana (Inference), (3) Agama (Testimony or Authority), (4) Abava (non-existence), (5) Arthapathi (deduction), (6) Upamana (analogy). Some add the following four to the foregoing, namely (7) Parishesha (Inference by exception), (8) Sambava (co-existence), (9) Ithigam, (Tradition), (10) Svaba Linga (Natural Inference). All these are included in the three first Prathiatcha, Anumana and Agama.

1. The Tamil equivalent of these ten Pramana are (1) காணல், (2) கருதல், (3) உரை, (4) இல்லாமை, (5) பொருள், (6) ஒப்பு , (7) ஒழிவு , (8) உண்மை, (9) ஐதிகம், (10) இயல்பு, Abhava is the mere nagation of a fact and Svabalinga is merely the gathering the meaning of an ambiguous word from the context and there is no inference in either case and they rest therefore and are included under Prathiatcha. Aruthapathi (e.g. He does not eat during the day He is fat, hence he must eat during the night). Parishesha e.g. Raman fought Ravana, Rama won, hence Ravana failed). Sambava (e.g. 50 is included in 100, part in a whole), are all included under Inference, but in many of these there is little or real inference. Ithigam is included under Agama. Upamana occupies a peculiar place and is included in inference but is sometimes (which I think is more correct) classed as a separate method. The essential distinction between Western and Eastern Logic has to be borne in mind, namely, that the former deals with names and propositions and syllogisms (all forms) whereas the latter deals with concepts and real argumentation. Western Logic was till Mill's time all deduction, and induction was barely enough noticed; but the Eastern Logic was more inductive than deductive and was concerned more with the proof of things and the methods of discovering truth by the application of human reason and by the aid of the Highest Testimony. And in this last respect of including Testimony of course, it is broader than Western Logic. Of the ten divisions of proof herein set forth the various Indian Schools, adopt some only or all. For instance, the Indian Materialist (Lokayitha) accepts only Prathiateha. the Buddha and Vaishashika accept this and inference; the Sankaya accepts also Agama Pramana; The Nyayika accepts also analogy; The Jain and Prapapara and to these four 'Aruthapathi'; The Vedanti accepts also 'Abava'; The Pournaik adds to these 'Sambava; 'Tradition.' Each one of these Schools take up Logic as only an instrument for ascertaining the Highest Truth; and the subject is merely appended as in Sivagnana Siddhi, as serving to help them in the elucidation of the postulates and proofs they set forth in their discussion as to the nature of God, Soul and Matter; and each of the two distinctively so called Logical Schools - Vaisheshika and Naika - treat of Logic as such and proceed to discover the Highest Truth whereby alone can any real escape from human pain and suffering can be effected.

"When man shall roll up the sky as a piece of leather Then shall there be an end of pain without the knowledge of Siva." (Swet. V. 20).

As such, we shall explain certain terms which are used frequently in these discussions. Pramana (Alavei அளவை) is Proof; Prameya (பொருள்) is the thing proved; Paramatha (அறிகிறவன்) is the person who investigates; Pramithi (அறிவு) is the Intellignece cognizing the proof. The term 'Abava' (non-existence) is frequently used in Vedantic discussions. It is divided into Samsargabava (Relative non-existence) and Anyonayabava (ஒன்றினென்றபாவம்), (natural or Reciprocal non-existence) and the former is divided into Adhyantabva (ஒன்று மின்மை absolute non-exostence), Prahbava (முன்னின்மை antecedent non-existence); Pratidwamsabava (உள்ளதனபாவம் - emergent non-existence). The terms Vyapaka, Vyapthi and Vyappia are of very great importance in Logic and in Siddhanta literature. Vyapaka is that which pervades over everything else, the universal, (மேல்நிறைவு) and corresponds to the major term in a syllogism. Vyapthi is what is comprised in the unviersal, the particular (சமநிறைவு) and corresponds to the middle term and Vyappia what is co-inheres to the Vyapthi (ஒன்றின் மிடைதை நிரைவு) and corresponds to the minor term.

2. Prathiatcha is the direct and correct perception of things without doubt and mistake and without the sense of differentation. By Anumana we infer things hidden from certain data by knowledge of their inseparable connection (by succession or co-existence or equality). Agama Pramana will guide us to the knowledge of things unattainable by the foregoing two methods.

3. Doubtful perception is when we doubt a thing seen to be this or that; the mistaken knowledge is where we know one thing to be another; Savikarpa knowledge comprises the knowledge of name, class, attribute, action, and thing. Nirvikarpa knowledge is the knowledge of the thing itself without knowledge of its name, class, attribute and action.

4. Direct Perception or Parthiatcha is classified into four kinds, (1) Perception by means of external senses, (2) by means of internal senses, mind, (3) by the feeling of pleasure and pain and (4) by Yoga or seership. Anumana or inference is divided into two namely (1) Swarthanumana, (2) Parathanumana. Agama is divided into (1) Mantra, (2) Tantra, and (3) Upasana, the words of the teacher (Gnana). The things proved by means of these logical methods are classed as Vishesha, particular (species) and Samanya of General (Genus).

4. The different kinds of Perception are called இந்திரிய or வாயிற்காட்சி, உள்ளக்காட்சி, or மானதக்காட்சி, வேதனைக்காட்சி and யோகக்காட்சி, The different kinds of Anumana are called தன் பொருட்டனுமானம், பிறர்பொருட்டனுமானம்.

Vishesha are called தன்னியல்பு; and Samanya பொதுவியல்பு, The Vishesha man the Infime species or the lowest species of objects and even among them, it seems to mean the class of Differentia more particularly.

5. Vishesha apply to things which exclude from its denotation species of its own class as well as other classes. Samanya applies to class which the thing belongs excluding other classes. These two classes described above will comprise all things.

6. Perception by external senses arises when with the Soul's intelligence, the external senses coming in contract with light, air &c., perceives correctly form sound &c., without the sense of difference and similarity.

Perception by internal senses arises when after such external perception, a mental impression is produced freed from doubt and mistake, involving the operations or retention and reflection and the senses of difference and similarity.

6. The first kind of perception is bare external perception without any shade of thought or operation of the internal senses. The mental perception is in fact the more direct perception so far as the soul is concerned and the external perception is accordingly remote and indirect. This classification of perception is accordingly exact and strictly scientific. Feelings are also classed properly as a source of perception. As regards Perception by Yoga, the western scientist may not admit, but proofs are accumulating which make such knowledge possible. If by the interposition of a few slides and by the arrangement of a few wires, things invisible by distance by intervening matter, &c., can be made visible, why should not the human intellect be so sharpened by practice as to make such knowledge possible. The difference between the Eastern and Western method is in this. The European tries to subjugate external nature to serve his material ends &c., but the Oriental aims at the highest and his mind is always turned on himself. In regard to Yoga, the really gifted are so few and the charlatans and deceivers are so numerous, which latter class are only too much encouraged by the utter stupidity and credulity of the many (we are afraid that we have to include among them, a large section of even the so-called educated), that it is a pity that the practice should be gradually falling itno contempt.

7. Perception by feeling arises when the feelings of pleasure and pain are produced in accordance with the instinct of desire and hate guided by the Law of kala.

Perception by Yoga is the perception by the Yogi seated in one place of all things remote in place and time possible to him by his having destroyed all mala by remaining in Samadhi.

7. Kala (கலா) is one of the higher Tatwas which enables man to experience perceptions, without at the same time reaching Gnanam, by the temporary drawing of the Veil of Anava.

8. Praksham (Propositions) are of three kinds, Paksham (conclusion), Sapaksham, (anlogy) Vipaksham, (negative proposition).

Three are three kinds of Hetu (இயல்பு, காரியம், அறுபலத்தி). Inference is drawn out of the invariable concomitants flowing from these Paksham and Hetu. And the inference is of two kinds, Inference for oneself and inference for others. Inference for others is for explaining the proof to others. And this latter is divided into Auvya, Anumana, and Vyatreka Anumana.

9. The three Pakshams are - Paksham, Sapaksham and Vipaksham. Paksham is the statement comprising the conclusion or Inference. Sapaksham is statement of similar instances. Vipaksham is the negative statement where the thing proved and the antecedent are absent. The first two give the proof by the method of agreement and the last by the method of difference.

10. Hetu or Reason is of three kinds. Reasoning from natural relation (co-existence and equality), Reasoning from casual relation (succession) and Reasoning by means of contraries (Inequality). As for instance, we exhibit the first kind of reasoning when we infer the meaning of "மா" in the sentences "மா பூத்தது" "மா ஏறினான்". The second, when we infer fire from the presence of smoke; the third, when we infer the absence of dew from the absence of cold. 9 and 10. These have reference to purely Logical Methods of Inductive proof. The Text gives here the grounds of all Induction, as based on uniformities in Nature (அவனாபாவம்) as Equality or Inequality, co-existence and causation. And on these depends all Inductive reasoning and the Inference (Paksham) is got at by the methods of Agreement (Sapaksham) and by the methods of Difference (Vipaksham). This is exactly the foundations of Mill's Inductive Logic and Dr. Bain condenses Mill's 6 kinds of predicates into three as here stated and Dr. Bain gives five methods. Method of Agreement, Method of Difference, The joint Method, The Method of Concomitant Variations, and the Method of Residue, of which the first two are no doubt the Primary Methods.

We will state the five laws as given by Dr. Bain

(1) The Method of Agreement - If two or more instances of a phenomenon under investigation have only one circumstance in common that instance is the cause or effect of the phenomenon.

(2) The Method of Difference - If an instance when a phenomenon occurs and an instance when it does not occur, have every circumstance in common except one, that one occurring only in the first; the circumstance present in the first and absent in the second is the cause or a part of the cause of the given phenomenon.

(3) The Joint Method - If two or more instances when the phenomenon occurs have only one circumstance in common, while two or more instances when it does not occur have nothing in common save the absence of that one circumstance; the circumstance wherein alone the two set of instances differ, is the effect or the cause or a necessary part of the cause of the phenomenon.

(4) The Method of Concomitant Variations - Whatever phenomenon varies in any manner whenever another phenomenon varies in some other particular manner, is either a cause or an effect of the phenomenon and is connected with it through some bond of concomitance.

(5) The Method of Residue - Sub duct from any phenomenon such part as previous induction has shown to be the effect of certain antecedents, and the residue of the phenomenon is the effect of the remaining antecedent.

11. Anvayi Anumana comprises the argument with Pratigna, Hetu and Instance as in the form: Fire is in the mountain Pratigna. Because smoke is rising from the mountain. (Hetu) Because fire and smoke is both present in oven. (Instance).

Vyathireki argument is of this form: There is no fire in the fountain, because there is no smoke arising from the mountain. For instance, there can be no lotus flowers. There is neither smoke nor fire in the deep tank filled with lotus flowers. Nyayikas and Saivas clearly state the argument with five propositions including Nigam and Apanaya.

12. Purvadarsana Anumana is where we infer a particular flower from a particular smell, from our past knowledge of its connection. Vasanalinga Anumana is where we infer the amount of a man's learning by the words he utters; Agama Anumana is when we infer a man's past Karma from his present experience of pleasure and pain.

Note:- These kinds of inference are to be distinguished from the logical divisions of Prathiatcha, &c.

13. Agama is the word of The Perfect Eternal Being. Of this Agama, the Tantra portion treats of the rituals ascertained without defects and inconsistency and required for salvation; The Mantra portion treats of Upasana required for controlling the senses and contemplation of God; the Gnana Kanda treats of the nature of the Supreme, Beginningless and Endless.

14. Inferential Fallacies are four in number; Fallacies in reasoning (Hetu) are three; These Divide again into 21; Fallacies in agreement or analogy are 18; Fallacies of Nigrahasthan are divided into two and sub-divided into 22; There are 6 other sub-divisions again. On the whole, the Fallacies are 65 in number.

14. We will discuss these fallacies in some future numbers.

parapaksham

INVOCATION.

LET my love to Him increase who has neither beginning nor middle nor end, who is Infinite Light, Grace and Wisdom, who unites Himself on the left side to Her who begot the world, who is praised by the world as the crown jewel of the celestials, who dances in that Spreading Light of Chitakas, with his coral braids adorned with the crescent moon falling behind him, and let me lift such lotus feet full with fragrant pollen on the crown of my head.

She, who is the Lord's (Isa) Parasakti, Ichcha Sakti, Kriya Sakti and Gnana Sakti, Droupava Sakti, who actuates all creation, sustentation and resolution, who is form, and formless and neither, who is the wife of the Lord in these Forms, who is all this world and all this wealth, who begets the whole world and sustains them. The gracious lotus Feet of This, our Mother who imparts bliss immortal to souls, and removes their bonds of birth, and who remains seated with our Father in the hearts of the freed, let me lift up my head.

This describes the Supreme who is neither Rupi nor Arupi nor Rupa Rupi, who is neither Saguna nor Nirguna, who transcends all these, and the next verse describes, how He manifests himself to mankind. This gives His condition as Pure Sat, and which could not be anything unless it is Chit and Ananda at the same time.

This shows How God as Light and Love diffuses in all and in everything and manifests Himself.

THE CHARVAKA'S STATEMENT.

1. Not having the intelligence nor the grace to understand the trick (real purpose) of the theory promulgated by Indra's Purohit, Brihaspathi, the Charvaka who is tied down to the pleasures of this sea-girt world, and whose person is rubbed with Sandal and adorned with festive wreaths (bases his own case on Brihaspathi's authority) and states as follows.

1. Indra was disgusted with the pleasures of his state, and aspired to something holier and purer before his time and wished to do tapas. His acharya Brihaspati wishing to turn him from his object, and to lead him into his former life, preaches to him the reality of the world's joys and the falsity of all other hopes. This is compared to the object with which Sri Krishna tried to dissuade apparently Arjuna from his resolution not to fight and kill his near kith and kin. The arguments are plausible enough and Arjuna is led on to commit what would be regarded by the world as a Sin. But neither Brihaspathi nor Krishna wished to mislead really their pupils. They simply wanted them by means of sophistry, if necessary, to confine each to his station and thereby do his duty; which if faithfully and unselfishly done as duty will be sufficient for attaining all the Highest ends. It was in the nature of the Highest crime which nothing can excuse that the man should forget the duties of his station. Their Highest ideal was Duty. It is with this High Ideal, man is permitted to live his life in different ashrams, and to work for virtue or wealth or pleasure. But if this ideal is not kept in view, these aspirations will surely degenerate into mere hypocrisy, earth-hunger and grossest licentiousness, and the whole society unhinged. These masters were the builders of society. Not, understanding Brihaspathi, the Lokayitha, despised everything else and took to indulging in grossest forms of pleasure in the same way as false prophets there are who seek to justify their drinking and gluttonous and riotous acts from the maxims of Sri Krishna, saying that when they drink, they drink without any attachment and as such no sin will attach to them. Such is the way the noble teachings of noble masters are dragged to the dust. alas! alas!

2. The only measure of all things is by Perception alone. This perception when united to mind &c., divides itself into six kinds. Inference and Agama are not correct methods of proof. The things proved by Perception are the (four) elements and their inherent natures such as hardness, coldness, heat, and diffusiveness.

2. Three kinds of Katchi are ஐயக்காட்சி, doubtful perception, வாயிற்காட்சி, perception by other senses than the eye; விகற்பக்காட்சி, perception of a thing in its relation to class, species and attributes and action; அந்வயக்காட்சி, perception of fire by the presence of smoke; வியதிரேகக்காட்சி, perception of a flower from its smell; திரிபுக்காட்சி, wrong perception. Anvaya and Vytireka are classed here as direct perception, as involving very little of real inference. The names of the elements believed in by the materialist are given in the next stanza.

3. The names of the (four) elements are earth, water, fire and air; and the quality of the products of each of these respectively are smell, taste, form and touch. These are the great Eternal Entities; and these unite one with the other in regular order.

4. Just as you get various shaped utensils from clods of clay, so by the union of these elements, all forms are produced. Like the bubbles formed in water, Buddhi and other andakarana, and senses and sensation arise also from the union of these elements.

5. If one of the elements is separated from the rest, the senses and sensations and intellect, &c., all die. So do all moveable and immovable objects die. When the effects, as form, quality &c. vanish, they are resolved into their cause, these four elements. And such knowledge constitutes the highest Wisdom.

5. In stanzas 2 to 5 the Charvaka states his own theory and he now proceeds to state the other's case and criticise it and the peculiar note in his manner may better be observed, namely his heart overflowing with pity and kindness for those deluded fools who would not readily appreciate the goods we have but go on hankering after unattainable fancies and he fails not to fling from it and ridicule, against his antagonists, as all false reformers do, but irony and ridicule have never been known to secure one single convert.

6. Against this, there are those who postulate the separate existence of Karma and soul and God. How did the people of this earth offend them? They assert that that the incomparable sterile woman begot a son and the latter got up on the horns of the hare and plucked without fail the flower of the sky!

7. If you assert that the Karma effected in a former birth attaches to one his present life, how is this possible, when we see all the Karma die with the death of the body. Oh, my good Sir. If you say that this Karma lives in sukshuma (subtle) form, then it is like saying that flame can burn apart from the wick of the lamp.

8. If you compare the action of Karma to the dead straw which rotting in the field comes forth again afresh grass, this is possible wherever you manure the field with the straw. This will illustrate the ease of those who wish to derive the excreta of a man who coming tired and hungry was fed with food.

9. O fool, if you say that it is by this Karma, men's bodies and qualities and intelligence do not fit, then, by what sort of Karma, do not all the fingers on one's palm resemble each other. All these differences are due to the proportionate increase or decrease in the constituent elements.

10. If you say that it is by the effect of Karma men endure pleasure and pain, then, tell me, by what sort of Karma, does the body feel pleasure when I am smeared with fragrant sandal water, and feel extreme discomfort when brought in contact with fire. All these are due to the nature of these things.

10. The last three stanzas deny the existence of Karma. The Buddhist (not Esoteric if you will have it) goes a step higher than the Charvaka and to the four elements and their products, he adds Karma. Karma in big capital as his God virtually, the cause of all existence and when you kill this cause you cease to exist.

11. If you assert there is a soul independent of the body, don't make a false assertion. Such a soul must be perceived by one of the six modes of perception. The assertion against the proof furnished by perception is like statements about the length of the hare's horn in the world!

11. Herein is indicated the abhorrence of all good men and true in regard to the arts and practices of the Vamachari and it will be an absurd caricature and blaspheming of real Hinduism to seek to identify this Vamachar with Hinduism. You may as well call this Lokayitha wallowing in the lowest depths of passion and vice, a follower of Hinduism! The bane and curse of Hinduism has been its so-called tolerant spirit and spirit of compromise, to seek to sanction and clothe with its approval, all sorts of opinions, low and false, and partly false. Could we conceive of any country where so many myriads of divergent of faiths and inconsistent practises seek to live and propagate themselves under a spirit of miscalled universal religion and universal truth. Truth can't be so hideous and repellent as in some of these forms. O. for a day when truth will be uncovered in all its Glory and in all its Beauty!

12. If you say that God is Arupi, then He is non-intelligent like the sky. If He is a Rupi, then He is one with the objects of this world. If you say He is Rupa Rupi, then tell me, can you suspend a stone in the sky.

13. Oh! Why should these people follow these various delusive paths, and fall into error and sorrow, when their own Veda asserts that the elements evolve into food and from food arises body, and from the latter mind and the rest and resolve into each other in the same order.

14. O! These fools give up the pleasures to hand in this world, hanker after heavenly pleasures and drown themselves in sorrow. They are like those who feeling thirsty leave the water in their presence and fly after a beautiful mirage, only to die of great thirst.

15. O hail to you, O Vami, give me your hand. You are my real incomparable friend, since you pursue like myself the paths of murder and robbery and vice which the cowards call evil and are the light of an admiring group of girls with lovely braids of hair.

16. Isa, and Brahma, Vishnu and Indra attained their greatness by having associated themselves with their goddesses. If you also wish to attain to such greatness, you will do well also to enjoy life with beautiful women with fragrant locks.

17, 18, 19 and 20. Instead of deriving pleasure the society of women, people die by believing in the shams set up false systems of Philosophy, and by believing in a future existence.

21. Why do you get weary in pursuit of Moksha? Show me one, who had pointed out this way, or had seen it, or had heard of it? With transgressing the laws of the king, earn money and seek pleasure as well as you can.

LOKAYITHA - ITS REPUTATION.

1. O Lokayitha! Why do you hold that whatever is seen by direct perception is true and whatever is inferred is false? Tell me, how you know that you had a father and mother, when your father had died before your birth and your mother after giving birth to you? It could only be by inference and not by direct perception.

2. When you assert that when it begins to lighten and thunder and the heavens darken with clouds, it will surely rain, and when you assert that, when the river flood dashes down Sandal and Agil trees, it had surely rained on the mountain ghauts, your knowledge is derived from inference and not by direct perception.

3. If you assert that even such inference is only perception as it is derived from our knowledge of previous direct perception (of observed instances), then, how do you know that intelligence arises from the body composed of the four elements. And if not by inference, how do you know that your intelligence perceives sensations by means of the senses? How do you derive this visible body by the union of invisible elements?

1, 2 and 3. These stanzas show how the world's knowledge is built on testimony and inference and that without these two instruments of knowledge, it will be impossible to know anything. The Lokayitha's sphere of logic is indeed too narrow and his modern representative has certainly advanced beyond him, in this as in not stopping short of only four elements. And he accepts now a fifth element, an ether, and electricity, &c. And the modern materialist has discovered several scores of elements and has reduced the four or five so-called elements into much simpler elements called gases, such as nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen and carbonic acid gas, &c.; and as such the old Indian classification of elements into four or five will therefore seem incorrect. But not so necessarily. The Indians recognize finer conditions of matter; and if we translate the term பூதம் (which does not necessarily convey an idea of a simple substance) into merely a condition or state of matter, then the division of substances into 5 பூதம் (Butha), states of matter, will stand good and they will be, the solids, the liquids, the gaseous, heat and electricity. The Lokayitha has, however, very few who follow his scientific investigation, so far, though the Germ-plasm theory holds sway still among a small section of European Materialists and so-called Idealists. The more respectable of the modern day materialists go by the name of agnostics and positivists and humanitarians. They postulate a mind and matter so far as they are within our cognition and no further; and they are not able to assert positively whether mind is derived from matter or matter is a product of mind. And as regards a future or a past and anything higher than your own mind (phenomenal), they plead complete ignorance; and these was eloquent however on duties to each other and to the whole race and the miseries of mankind and the means of relieving them; and they cry down all religions and institutions as superstitious and conventionalities and lies as intended to cheat and deceive credulous mankind. And it is no wonder that these modern day agnostics and there are some among us like Mr. R. C. Dutt, among whom Buddhism is becoming fashionable. But there is a difference between these and Buddha. Buddha was a strict moralist and his high ideal was Duty and he believed in the darkest pessimism. But the modern day humanitarian believes that the world, as it is, can be bettered and more pleasures and in course of time the highest pleasure can be introduced into society, if only people will be induced, "to see" with Max Nardan, "the civilization of today, whose characteristics are pessimism, lying and selfish egotism, followed by a civilization of truth, love of one's neighbour and cheerfulness." See how vivid is his hope! "Humanity which is today an abstract idea, will then be a fact. Happy the later born generations, whose lot it will be to live in the pure atmosphere of the future, flooded with its brighter sunshine, in this perpetual fellowship; true, enlightened, good and free!" A noble idea and noble future indeed, if it could be realised, by the methods he proposes! How vain these hopes with the history of Buddhism before us. The Singalese disciples of the Renowned Buddha are the grossest beef-eaters in Ceylon, and it is a horrible sight which meets one at every turn, these beef stalls. The Singalese would argue, O the Renowned Buddha only enjoined us not to kill but not to eat dead meat of any kind. And so will everything, the most glorious looking maxim and precept be reduced to a mere letter and a sham, when you deprive one of any higher aspirations than your present phase of existence! Why should I care for my neighbour or for the perpetuation of the race, if I am to be no more tomorrow and why should I not take my utmost share of this world's pleasures, as our ancient Lokayitha asks? If there is misery, the best remedy would be not to undergo all this trouble and vexation but to annihilate the whole world by the most deadly of human means, maxim guns and torpedoes. "The weak should go to the wall" and "the survival of the fittest" are their catch words. "Why should we allow the ignorant and weak nations and principalities of this earth any longer any existence." Nihilism and the so-called Idealism and Positivism and humanitarianism all tend gradually or lower itself down to anarchism.

There is however a lesson which every one ought to learn even from a Lokayitha and which should not easily be forgotten. And that is to learn to test the facts, or inferences or higher testimony, properly and scientifically and not to accept them blind-fold as facts or inferences, the moment it is presented so before us, however patent it might seem to be and however high the authority of the one who appeals to us. There can be no sin greater than credulity in scientific investigation and honest doubt is essential to right understanding. There is the other extreme of turning deaf to everything which may not seem to suit one's fancy and sniffing at well attested facts and we see today even Truth (of Mr. Labouchere) asking for a fair hearing to Mr. Gataker, 'the expert water finder' in these words. "What may be the explanation of his success, and that of other men who work in the same line, I do not know; but it seems to me, as I said before that when a man can show that what he is doing is a commercial success, there is prima facie evidence that he is able to find it. Scientific men ought to be able to tell us how it is done; and if it is all trickery and imposture are performed." And as there is even a tendency in all people to believe in the impossible and the marvellous, and we have reason to suspect that this tendency is growing more upon us, following a blank Atheism and Nihilism the caution conveyed above to test facts and inferences and experiences and not to swallow them wholesale, may not be thought unwarranted

4. Besides, we have seen that the statements contained in the Vedas and other treatises prove true. For instance, we find the remote calculations of Astronomers and Astrologers verified in due time. Besides, Persons are able to discover buried treasure by following the directions given in certain books.

5. Why do you say that matter is imperishable and unchangeable? As its form changes there must be one who causes these changes, in the same way as we infer a potter when we see pots made out of clay. If you say, these need no cause, as the bubbles formed in water, then even then bubbles are formed by the agency of air and not without any cause.

6. And then, the bubble formed of water and air is only of the same kind as its cause; similarly the product of the body, will be similar to the body itself and not like mind which is of a different nature. You may say that the product is dissimilar like the red juice produced on chewing, betel and nut; but then the colour is inseparable from the matter itself and on this analogy, the mind must be inseparable and concomitant with the functions of the body. But we see the life departing when the body is left behind and hence what you say cannot be true.

7. When the betel and nut are chewed together, redness alone results. But by the union of different kinds of matter, senses and sensations and qualities of different grades and kinds result. How could this be? And then, you will have to notice that an agent is required to bring together, betel and nut; and as such you will have to admit plainly that for bringing about material causation, an agent is also required.

8. If you say that the five senses, hungry, sleep, fear and passions are produced from the body, without any other first cause, like the web from the spider, then why don't you produce the web from the sky? As the elements unite only in one way, then differences of sex and gender and different orders of creations will become impossible.

9. If you deny Karma, then the different orders of creation and their different senses, varying in number and intelligence from one to five cannot be. Then again, the mere union of matter, cannot produce learning and enjoyment and qualities. Karma alone can cause these differences.

9. Single-sensed (touch), are trees and grass and vegetable kingdom. Double-sensed (touch, and taste) are of the order of the Mollusca, starfish, snails, oysters, &c., triple-sensed (touch, taste and smell) are white-ants, ants, &c.; four-sensed ((the last three with sight) are beetles, butterflies, &c; five-sensed (with hearing) are devas, men, beast and birds, &c. To these five senses, European scientists add the alimentary canal and the genital organs and the pleasures derived there from but they may be classed primarily as touch. These senses from touch to hearing are in an ascending scale of intelligence, the least intelligent being touch and the sense most intelligent, the sense of hearing; and the sense of sight competing with it for the first place almost. And the orders oc creation possessing only one or more senses are also placed in a lower or higher order of development and intelligence. The lower orders are simply live to propagate its species with no higher purpose (in itself the highest) and as the species are more and more developed they increase in usefulness. And if man in whom the senses are most fully developed and highly intelligent, lives to eat and to procreate, we say of him, that he is vegetating and that he is leading an animal life. Man's pursuits are accordingly high or low in as much as he devotes himself to the purpose of one sense or other. And the man who could use his eyes and ears most and then think out the facts he has observed and proceeds to higher and higher views of life, he alone could be said to have lived his life. The arts, gastronomy, horticulture, painting and music follow the same law of aesthetics in the matter of their appreciation; gastronomy, the lowest as music is the highest. A single morsel can only appetite one man, but a single flower, a single picture, a single note of music, what a large and spreading circle of human beings it can attract and influence. And one principle derived from these has its hearing on Ethics. The highest intelligence is the highest Morality and the highest Benevolence. No man can claim to any intellectuality if his conduct is not consistent with his professions; we rate a most learned man's worth at zero, when he does not give the benefit of his learning to his fellow men and is not useful to them. The greater the man's learning the greater is his sphere of usefulness. Great men and true are the most benevolent; they are the salt of the earth; they are the world's luminaries. They live not for one country nor for the one age. Great musicians, and great sages have breathed their harmony and given their thoughts which live for all time to come and like pollen of flowers leave one brain, and fasten on to another, vivifying and fertilizing and fructifying this other.

Lo! The man of learning puffed up with his own learning and importance, and looking down upon others as beneath him ! A man might take the highest degrees, the University can offer him, and if in the duties of life, set for him, he does not show honesty of sympathy, remembering his sovereign and his God, of what use are his titles? A man might be a great lawyer; what is the use of him, if he is cold and selfish and calculating, unless it be, by the lacs he amasses, he wished to live well and to see others of his line behind him live also? And unfortunately, this sense of 'living' only becomes too predominate in his descendants, and a fortune acquired with so much skill and hair-splitting is easily enough dissipated.

Men are therefore given a choice, unlike other orders of creation to select the lower or the higher and in the wisdom of his choice lies his whole future.

10. If you say that matter causes mind, then, we do not see any mind in earth, air or fire &c. If you say that intelligence can only arise, after the body is formed, then why is there no mind, in the dead body? If you reply that is by the absence of Prana, breath, then why is there no consciousness in sleep?

11. If you say that intelligence is a product of the body, then, in different orders of creation from ant to elephant, intelligence must differ in equal proportion to the respective size of the body. On the other hand, the animal with the biggest body (elephant for instance) is less intelligent than the animal (man) with a small body. Explain this difference if you can.

11. Modern materialist locate the intelligence not in the body but in the brain. And the objection herein pointed out is explained by the fact that the brain is divided into parts which have different functions to perform such as motor and sensory, intellection and will &c.; and in large animals the portion of the brain (medulla oblongata and cerebellum &c, and which has to control the large muscles are largely developed and the brain proper (cerebrum) is least developed. In man, size for size, the frontal brain is larger and more fully developed and convoluted. No doubt there is a considerable correlation between the brain and man's intelligence, but the most mature investigation fails to establish any causal connection between the two, except a correlation. And this is quite consistent with the theory of Siddhanthis, who postulate an eternal connection and correlation between mind and body and who even postulate that even in Mukti, the thripadarthas are not annihilated (முக்தியிலும் மும்முதலும் கண்டு), thereby differing from the idealist and the materialist who postulate only mind or matter as a substance and hold the other as a mere phenomenal product or a shadow or an illusion.

12. If you say that when the elements unite, intelligence preponderates when material components are less gross, and intelligence is less when the material components are more gross, then the respective bodies should neither grow larger nor smaller and they should be stationary as once formed. On the other hand, the bodies grow and decay with time.

13. If you say all these are due to nature, then nature must be uniform and as such you should account for difference of persons being born as male and female. And why should procreation be possible by means of male and female? And as such it will falsify your theory that the natural body is caused by matter. Your theory is illusory. These differences are really caused by one in accordance with each one's Karma.

14. You say that forms are created in this wise. Like pots made out of clay, male and female forms are produced from matter and these in turn create forms. This we refute. The elements by their nature possess opposing qualities. You say these will unite, then tell me if you have seen fire kept unquenched in water.

15. If you say that bodies are formed by the union of different kinds of matter, then why is there any necessity for human love? This human love simply follows the universe law set by the Lord and His Sakti.

16. You queried what Karma it was by which sandal water was cool and heated water was not. From your own example, understand how one thing get possessed of two qualities. In like manner, it is by Karma, men derive both pleasure and pain. And then the sense of this pleasure or pain only appertains to the soul and not to the body.

17. When enjoying pleasure you would assert that all this is nature and not due to Karma, then why do you feel pain in the absence of pleasure. Tell me if you can, how this was derived. This is due to Karma already performed. (Praraptha). Even Karma cannot induce anything by itself. God in his infinite love, has to give to each according to his deserts. The soul, and its Karma are eternal and eternally connected.

17. What the materialist fails to account for by referring all qualities to nature &c., is the factum of consciousness, the thing which becomes conscious of qualities and of pleasure and pain. This has to sort of similarity or connection with the objects perceived and when you begin to analysis it, it lies at the basis of your investigation.

18. If you object that nobody need unite the two (Karma and Sou,. &c.) if they are eternal then hear that Mala, Maya, Karma, Soul and Siva are eternal. When souls perform Karma, Karma cannot of itself consciously give them their forms. The eternally caused bodies being unintelligent cannot unite with the soul of itself. God therefore brings about these unions and enjoyment under an Eternal Law.

19. If by reason of our external senses not perceiving the soul, you deny the soul's existence; then, can the pot see the eye which saw it. It is the eye which sees it, without doubt. In like manner the soul which is conscious of objects and objective senses is similarly imperceptible to the eternal senses. The soul will perceive the senses and the senses will not perceive the soul; from thence, you see the truth of the soul's existence.

19. External senses, internal senses and soul and God belong to different planes and orders of intelligence. In the presence of the higher the lower is non-intelligent and non-apparent (Achit or Asat) and as such it cannot perceive the higher. The eye is intelligent, we might say and it perceives objects but what is its intelligence when compared to mind; and the eye cannot see mind. And similarly mind is non-intelligent in comparison to the soul and cannot perceive the soul, and the soul cannot know God.

20. Fire (oxygen) cannot burn and become apparent unless connected with some substance (carbon). The soul also cannot be active unless attached to a body. The light burns in a lamp filled with oil and wick. So also, the soul eats the Karma, and attaches to a body.

21. If it is objected that the soul dying and being born in bodies and different from the bodies, should possess its intelligence intact, then, can you be conscious in dreams, of dream as a dream and not a reality? Then, is the intelligence of yourself the same as after you are born? As such, pure intelligence cannot be postulated of the soul.

22. If you say that it is impossible that the intelligence which now decays should again be reproduced, then, will you explain how in sleep you are unconscious and in waking you become conscious. If you ask how one body goes and another body is got, then it is like the soul in sleep losing all consciousness of a body and regaining it in waking.

23. If you ask how it is that the senses are lost in death, and are regained in rebirth, then it is like the man who losing all breath and consciousness all on a sudden regains them after a while. The world speak of the moon waning and waxing as its death and birth. Soul's death and rebirth are similar.

24. O my dear Sir, understand that there is an efficient cause, in as much as this material world undergoes creation and destruction. If you say that the body formed like a pot from clay can only be from matter, then even in a such case, we require an efficient cause like the potter.

25. The Lord who was difficult of knowledge by the Devas and the Vedas, walked with his footsteps as a mediator to the house of the beloved of his strong Devotee (வன்றொண்டன் Saint Sundara). As such, he is easy to be approached by his devotees. Therefore approach his Lotus-Feet without fail. He will confer on you even the blessings you desire in this life.

25. To look up to the supreme and to hold that all the benefits we derive are from him, even when we fully recognize that we will reap as we sow, has a high ethical and spiritual value and is the important step in one's sadana of liberation. And then, when we wishing to withdraw the man from indulging in the lowest pleasures, we teach him to believe that he can get better benefit by following a better path, this is only following a well-recognized principle of education and must not be counted as a deception. The highest philosophy of duty and Nirvana will not have the slightest attraction for such a man and cannot wean him for a moment from his practices. The next stanza contains a further step in his conversion.

26. If a rich golden ornament, becomes covered with dirt we do not bear to touch it. So, in fact, we must regard the sexual passion of women, as a thing fit for our giving it up. These females' bodies are composed of blood, urine which are ugly to behold. What benefit do you hope to derive by falling on their bodies?

26. You are first taught to hope for these enjoyments by referring yourself to a superior path; and then gradually is instilled into your mind the uselessness of these pleasures. How many men wreck their whole life by neglecting even ordinary sanitary laws and by most needlessly associating with the most abominable creatures. And these in their turn carry their curse into other wombs and into other generations! How sin multiplies itself and corrupts everything it touches not for one ages but for ages together! Do they who sin bear these things in their mind, or do they know one instance, in which the sinner has come out unscathed? With poverty and want of education and copying of fashions, sexual immorality is only too much on the increase; and a gallant general in his place in the council would even hold that we have no sense of sexual morality! O for a tongue and for a voice, that would stem this tide that is growing upon us!!!

27. O these women, who are praised for their eyes like fish! What are they? Their bodies are composed of skin, blood, flesh, fat, bones and secretions. They are the urine pot wherein, dirt and worms and urine and phlegm only too well are generated! Their bodies are only a mass of dirt without doubt.

28. One's indulging in low women is like the pig wallowing in dirt and enjoying itself. The pleasure we derive by worship of Isa is the blemish less and eternal and pure Ocean of Bliss.

29. People in whom anger permanently dwells do not understand the benefits of Patience. People wallowing in passion do not know the pleasure derived from Passionlessness. Hold on to the Feet of the Supreme Lord of Lords, worshipped by Deva. That instant, an inextinguishable Bliss will rise in your body. This is Truth.

30. You have regarded passion and other vices a pleasure. This is like seeking pleasure in smothering heat in time of winter and in cool water in summer. If you reach the Godly path, you will obtain everlasting pleasure.

31. We read the Sivagama. We declare the truth of the Three Padarthas, Pathi, Pasu and Pasa. We ever praise and worship Isa's victorious Feet. We give up Kama and other low desires and we hold fast to God's Grace. With this our faith, we hope to leave off the stains of the three mala and to unite with the Ninmala God in Mukti.

படிக்கு நூல்கள் சிவாகமம் பசு 
பாசமோடு பதித்திறம் 
எடுத்தியம் புவதீசன் வார்கழ லேத்திடும் 
தொழி லென்றுமே 
விடுத்திடும் பொருள் காமமாதிகள் வேண்டிடும் 
பொரு ளீண்டருள் 
முடித்து மும்மலம் விட்டு நின்மலனோடு 
நின்றிடல் முத்தியே. 

PARAPAKSHA - (SAUTRANTIKA) BAUDDHA'S STATEMENT.

1. The Bauddhas are of four classes who denying the Dharma as set forth in the Vedas, follow the Dharma as set forth in the Pitakas, and act up to five or ten golden rules, and wear the red vesture, and worship the Bodh (Ficus Religiosa - அரசமரம்) tree. Of these four, the Sautrantika Bauddha, who recognises no caste, claims our attention first.

1. The four classes of Bauddhas are Sautrantika (Representationists), Yogachara (Subjective idealists), Madhyamika (Nihilists) and Vaibhashika (Presentationists). The five golden rules are Ahimsa: (1) Satya (2) Astheya, (3) Brahmachariya (4), and Sangraha (congregation), (5) For the ten, we have to add, (6) Being seated in high places, (7) not reclining, (8) not wearing sandal &c., (9) Dislike of son g and dance, (10) eating before sunrise. Caste includes Dravya, Nama, Guna, &c.

2. The great sage Buddha is our Lord, who becoming omniscient, hated the five great sins, such as killing &c., and being filled with true Grace, took on himself the sorrows of other beings, and composed the holy Pitaka, Agamas praised by the Gods.

2. (1) To the Buddhist, Buddha is the God, or his saviour and he sets up his images and prays in its presence and anything connected with him, such as his tooth, umbrella, Bo tree &c., has also become objects of fetish worship. The result can't be otherwise. Man always wishes to rest his mind on something higher than himself and when the True One cannot be pointed out, anything that comes in the way supplies its place. While journeying in Ceylon, a Singalese began to preach to us "what you call God, Devadi Deva, Sivadi Siva. Sakradi Sakra, we call Buddha. Buddha is Devadi Deva, Sivadi Siva, Sakradi Siva." We had to point out that such good understanding between the Buddhist and the Hindu was good enough, but the essential distinction between the two conceptions had to be borne in mind nevertheless. What out Singalese friend called Buddha was a man born in Kapilavastu and who attained Buddha hood. As such he could not be the undying and the unborn (இறப்பிலி, பிறப்பிலி) the author of creation, sustentation and resolution, Droupava and Anugraha; One who in the word's of Thiruvachaka is "the oldest of the old things and the newest of the new" ("முன்னைப் பழம் பொருட்கும் முன்னைப் பழம் பொருளே பின்னைப் புதுமைக்கும் பேர்த்துமப் பெற்றியனே") one who was before all the 21 Buddhas put together, one whose Golden crown is where all things and words cease to penetrate ('சோதிமணி முடிசொல்லிற்சொலிறந்துநின்ற தொன்மை,' 'போதார் புனைமுடியும் எல்லாப் பொருள்முடிவே'); One who fills our hearts with grace like water flood, brooking not its banks, ('சிறையறாநீர்போல் சிந்தைவாய்ப்பரயும் சிவனே'). There may be no such God, and no such consummation as we assert and there may be only the five Skandas and their result or extinction as the Buddhists assert, yet the two notions of Siva or Buddha are entirely distinct and can have no connection between them. This does not prevent the Siddhanti from holding that it is only One who appears in every form, and being adopted for worship by mankind, accepts the adoration of the truly penitent heart (யாதொருதெய்வம்கண்டீர் அத்தெய்வமாகி எங்கள் மாதொருராசனார் தாம்வருவர்). The essential difference of these two statements have to be borne in mind that the true God is not every ideal (gross or noble) of mankind but is present in every such form. Compare verse 22 and 23 of Chapter IX of the Gita. 'To those who worship Me, not meditating on another, to those ever harmonious, I bring full security of Yoga," and "They also who worship other Gods, with devotion, full of faith they also worship Me, O son of Kunti; though this is contrary to the ancient rule." In the subsequent verse, Sri Krishna speaks of them such as not know Him in Essence, and that they fall and go to the Gods and pitris whom they worship.

(2) The special acts of grace shown by Buddha are enumerated in Tamil works such as 'Manimekalai' & c., as giving up his kingdom, wife and child, losing his eye, giving his flesh on account of a pigeon, &c.,

(3) The Pitakas are three in number, Vimmaya (Vidya), Sutra (Sutta), Abidharma (Abhidamma).

3. There are two methods of proof, namely, Perception and Inference, accepted by the Pitakas. The things derived there from are subject and object, and these change (die) from moment to moment. The subject and object divide themselves into Rupa and Arupa, வீடு or Nirvana and வழக்கு (belief), and each one of the four divides itself into two, and there are thus eight in all.

3. The change is of 4 kinds - (1) Increase by change, (2) decrease by change, (3) remaining the same after change, (4) destruction by change.

4. Rupa is of two kinds, Butha Rupa (material form, Achaitanya) and Upadana Rupa (Sensory, chaitanya), Arupa is of two kinds, Chitta (mind) and Karma; Veedu or Nirvana, of two, of faults and of Skandas; and belief, of true and false belief.

5. Earth, water, fire and air are Butha Rupa. Hardness, taste, smell and colour form the Upadana Rupa. When these eight combine, we have visible forms. Chitta (Buddhi or mind) perceives sensations through the senses. When the Buddhi perceives such as good or bad, it is due to the effect of Karma.

5. From these eight forms and their actions are derived the five Skandas. From the visible form is derived Rupa Skanda (1) ; From the senses, Nama Skanda (Abstract Ideas) (2); from the Buddhi, Vignana Skanda (3); from Karma, Vedana (4); and Bavana (Tendencies) (5); Rupa Skanda are the four elements and their four Upadana; Namaskanda, the five senses, and Buddhi; Vignana Skanda, the six kinds of Sensations or knowledge perceived by these 6 senses; Vedanaskanda, the knowledge of pleasure and pain; Bavanaskanda, ten kinds of merit and ten kinds of demerit. The ten kinds of merit are (1) Arul or Love, (2) Desirelessness, (3) Love of austerity, (4) Sweet words, (5) Truth telling, (6) Useful speaking, (7) Preaching charity; (8) Humility, (9) Giving to the needy, (10) Performance of austerity. The ten sins are (1) Contemplation of evil, (2) Desire or Lust, (3) Anger, (4) Speaking harsh words, (5) and useless words, (6) and false words, (7) Envy, (8) Thieving, (9) Killing and (10) Doing useless acts. These tem kinds of merit and sin seem to be from the Sutra of 42 sections, translated into Chinese in the first century A.D.

6. Nirvana of faults (குறைவீடு) is attained when the sins of lust, &c. are avoided. Nirvana of Skandas (கந்த வீடு) is attained when knowledge of Rupa, name &c. is lost. Right and wrong belief are divided each into aggreagation (தொகை), succession (தொடர்ச்சி) and annihilation (தோற்ற நாசம்).

7. Right belief of aggregation is when we assert that what we call a man is merely the aggregate of the five Skandas. Wrong belief of aggregation is when we assert that man is an entity different from the aggregate of the five Skandas.

7. The first kind of Right belief is explained by the simile of the chariot and its parts. Without its parts there is not chariot. Without the Skandas, there is no Atma. To assert otherwise is heresy. Buddha denies clearly the existence of an Atma, but he does posit Buddhi, or mind. It must be remembered that, in his days, the Hindu philosophy as represented by the Gita and the Siddhanta was in existence and Buddha was only arguing against such Hinduism - and against Lokaita. The Lokayita postulated the existence and eternality of the 4 material elements. Gautama analysed these into the five Skandas, denied its positive existence and only asserted its phenomenal appearance (தோற்றம்) and claimed that it was capable of annihilation (நாசம்). Beyond these phenomenal appearance, he does assert the existence of mind or Buddhi. This was one of the andakaranas recognized by his opponent. But as for postulating an Atma beyond this mind or Buddhi, Gautama could never consent. According to the Hindu, Atma was different from Buddhi or any one or all of the andakaranas. But Gautama would sometimes identify this Buddhi itself with Atma, or God, as Hindu Idealists identify Atma individual soul with Paramatma. With this essential difference and distinction in mind, the question whether Gautama affirms or denies the existence of a soul will be easily solved. To the Hindu, Buddhi itself was perishable and when Gautama asserted its imperishability, the Hindu called him Buddha, the system Buddhism, which held to the assertion of Buddhi as a Padartha. This will explain also why in the classification of seven principles of man according to Theosophy (or shall we say esoteric Buddhism), Budhi is classed with the three principles above as imperishable. To the Hindu as such, Buddhism is clear Atheism and Denial of Soul ot Atma. Where the definition and analysis of each is clear and distinct, it serves no good purpose to state that all are one. The reliability of the account of Buddhism as herein set forth may be compared with neo-Buddhism as represented by some Theosophists, as the Tamil account seems to follow some of the oldest treatises on Buddhism by Hindu Buddhists both in Sanskrit and in Tamil.

8. Right belief of succession is the path of holding that events succeed one another as cause and effect without reference to time, past, present or future and that in succession is when we hold that there is one soul or padartha unchanged at all time, in continued succession of cause and effect.

9. To hold that all things that appear will surely be annihilated is Right belief. To hold that things do not die are existent as cause in effect is wrong belief.

10. To this Right belief (Sat-vada) and Wrong belief (Asat-vada) are to be added four other kinds of belief namely, Sat Sat-vada, Sat Asat-vada, Asat Sat-vada and Asat Asat-vada. Sat-Vada is when we assert an actually existing fact as that an elephant has tusks. Asat-vada is when we make statements like that an hare has tusks.

11. To hold that intelligence is born from mere contact is Sat Sat-vada. To hold that if an intelligence dies another cannot rise in its place is Sat Asat-vada. To hold that intelligence can rise without an antecedent cause is Asat Sat-vada. To assert the statement like that hair grows on the palm of one's hand and that there is a rope of hair is Asat Asat-vada.

12. Except our four postulates, we do not understand all that these people assert. Are they not mad in saying that there are Akas and Time, and several cardinal points, and soul and a Lord whom thought and words cannot reach? These things cannot be true.

13. We cannot use Akas in any of our productions. If you can say that Akas holds and gives room to everything else, it cannot do so, as it is formless. If you say that it is the cause of sound, it cannot be, as sound is the product of bodies with form. If you say that it is present inseparably everywhere, there are no such things as this or that. (A thing is mere action and attribute and not substance).

14. If you assert that man has an Atma or Intelligence, then why does he not understand without the senses (internal and external) and sensations and books. If you say that the soul understands by uniting with the senses and by contact of sensations and by permeating into books, then why do you feel doubt as to the colour of the cloth you take out in darkness; as such it cannot so understand.

15. Man cannot know except by the senses. If, as the senses are not intelligent, you say it is the soul that understands in union with the senses, then the soul must, through each one of the senses, feel the same sensation. If you say that the soul understands as it is joined to the senses, then we are mistaken in not knowing you to be a Buddhist. What you say is really beautiful!

16. Is Gnatha, postulated besides Gnana and Gneya by you, sentient or insensient. If the latter, then it is material (Achetana) like earth. If sentient, you postulate one too much beyond Gnana itself, as if a man should say that Dholl rice has Dholl for its curry.

17. If the Atma is formless, then it cannot be attached to a body with form; if of form, it cannot be contained in another body. If it is an anu (an atom) then it will pass away without staying in the body through many of its openings. If it is eternal, then it should not be capable of appearance and disappearance.

17. The following quotations from Kundalakesi, one of the Pancha Kavyas (a lost work) are cited in the commentaries on this stanza.

"பழுதையாலராப்பூண்டு பாழுடம்புபுடைபுடைப்ப 
வழுதையாவுறுகின்ற வத்தத்துயிரென்பாயேல் 
இழுதையாவுரைததியே யெருததினாற்காலிற்றாக்க 
கழுதையார்மூடமாக்க் கண்ட்துண்டாமோ." 

"ஒருவகையாலருவென்னி லொத்துடம்பினகத்தடங்கா 
ஒருவகையாலுவென்னி லுடம்போடுகலப்பில்லை 
யிருவகையுநேர்ந்த்தெனி லெழுகின்றதொழுநோயும் 
பெறுவயிறுமாயினான் பிணிதீர்ந்தானாவனோ." 

18. That the Atma is omnipresent, cannot be true, as our knowledge does not extend everywhere. If Atma is said to pervade the whole body, then it will die with the death of the body. If it is located in any one organ of the body (such as the heart), it cannot have consciousness in any other part of the body as the feet and head.

18. If there should then be any doubt that the Buddhist denies and Atma, the arguments so elaborately set forth from stanzas 14 to 18 both inclusive ought to place the matter beyond all doubt. The commentators quote from works of Buddhist themselves. These texts deny a Gnatha as distinct from Gnana. A Guni as distinct from Guna, an Atma as distinct from Buddhi or other senses. Is there such a thing as Atma distinct from Buddhi or not? If it is, then the Buddhist surely denies its existence. It won't do for him to say that his Gnana and Guna and Buddhi is as good as his Atma and that as such., he does not really deny such an Atma. This is perfectly futile as where we have pointed out above, Buddhi is regarded by the Siddhanti as material and insentient and Atma as non-material and sentient. Look at the following apology of an argument from the learned Editor of the Monist.

"This is plain to everyone who understands that truths are real even though they are not substances or entities. And the same is true of the soul. To deny that Volition, Cognition, and other mental or metaphysical subject, is not a denial of their existence - it is simply the consistent consequence of the community acknoledged truth that they are not material."

And the able Editor accuses Prof. Oldenburg, the greatest Pali scholar, of misunderstanding Buddhist texts. It will be apparent to anybody, in the light of our foregoing observations, who has really misunderstood Buddhism; or rather, the fact is, not that Paul Carus has not understood Buddhism, but that he has not understood true Hinduism better. The quotation from Paul Carus we have given above contains the gist of the grossest idealism. And Hinduism has been till now solely understood in its idealistic form, which according to the opinion of a number of scholars such as Prf. Kunte, Col. Jacob, and as understood by the Hindu schools of Sankhya (Both Nirishwara and Seshwara) was derived from Buddhism. The Professor talks of 'the consistent consequence of the commonly acknowledged truth that they are not material.' Consistent consequence indeed! Need we wonder that the most thorough-going idealists of to-day are also the most thorough-going materialists of the day, and vice-versa. Anybody who knows anything of the social and political condition of today will not fail to be struck with the fact how closely related are Idealism and Materialism and Nihilism and Anarchism of today. What to the Hindu Siddhanthi is immaterial. To the Buddhist is non-existent. What to the former is material, to the Buddhist is not material. And yet Atma and Buddhi are to be held as synonymous!!!

19. How does your Time operate? If it is that, by which all things undergo creation, development and destruction, it will be confused with the objects themselves; and time will cease, when such things cease to exist. To assert that there are three kinds of time and not three kinds of objects is clear wrong belief (Asat-vada).

20. To one standing to the cast of myself, the direction where I stand is west, but to one west of myself is east. Therefore tell me which is the proper direction, I stand in. Your wrong belief in cardinal points is therefore false.

21. You postulate a God who created the earth. If the earth existed before creation, it needs no creation. If it did not exist before, then it cannot be created. If creation means creating the effect from its cause, then the world must be said to exist and not exist.

21. The reference in the last line is to the asti nasti or Sapta Bhangi Nyaya of the Jains, according to which neither existence nor non-existence can be predicted of a thing; and as in the first case it will be mere implication and in the second case not a fact. So, all that can be said is 'asti-nasti,' 'existent-non-existent.' This is a curious conclusion. There is however an element of truth in this, so far as the nature of a logical predicate is concerned. Dr. Bain for instance rejects 'existence' stated by Mill as a predicate and reduces the latter's six classes of predicates to three namely coexistence, succession and equality. The Buddhist apprehension of the theory of causation is entirely erroneous in the light of the modern theory of causation as involving conservation of energy, held by Western Logicians; and this only follows what the two schools of Sankhya (Nirishwara and Seshwara) have always held. Both the Jains and the Buddhists merely quibble about it and there is neither science nor sense in it.+

22. If you say that God creates the world as a potter makes a pot out of clay, where did he stay when He made this world. If you say he stood on the world, then the world should have been created beforehand. If you say he was everywhere, and omnipresent, then 'everywhere,' must have existed before God and given Him birth.

22. The argument is that in as much you cannot separate God from the world, no God can exist as such apart from the world.

23. If you say that God created the world out of nothing, out of his mercy, where is His Grace and mercy, when creating the death-dealing monsters such as lions, tigers and elephants and yama. If He created all these things as He liked to show his might, then you had better worship a madman.

23. A mad man does not know the consequence of his act and God should have known that his creating these terrible animals must produce evil to this other creatures.

24. What is the purpose of this creation? If it is mere play, you Lord is a mere child. If necessitated by Karma performed, then the persons performing Karma must have existed before creation. The truth is, the world is eternal and not created.

25. If God is Rupi, there must be one who created this form. If He assumed Form out of his mere wish then all the world could do so by their mere wish. If each gets his form by his Karma, then the Karma must have existed before him.

26. If God is Arupi, He, like Akas, cannot lift us from our sin. If He is like the shadow of a tree, then the credit is due to those who neared the shelter and as such he is not omnipresent. If He is omniscient, then a Form is necessary which should be lovingly dwelt upon. If there was no such form, no intelligence could subsist.

26. The Akas does not put forth any active powers. It is merely passive. Here the Buddhist is wrong. We now know what amount of force is locked up in Akas or Ether and he modern European research tries hard only to unlock it and even when they sometimes by mere chance, unlock such powers, they are pass their comprehension, as for instance the X rays. As similar to a shadow, God cannot be omnipresent and omniscient, and no credit to Him, except to those who approach Him. This latter view will account for their believing more in a Buddha, a Mukta, as a saviour than in God. According to the Buddhist, no intelligence can be conceived of, except as dwelling in some form.

27. If you say the Vedagamas are eternal and proves the existence of God, then what you say, that nobody gave it forth is really beautiful! You, to say that you know God by the Vedagamas and the Vedagamas by means of God! This is wonderful indeed!

28. The vegetable kingdom (Urpeeja) and all its multitudinous forms grow and die like hair and horns on animal's bodies and hence have no life or intelligence. They exists for the benefit of other creatures with life. (Andaja, Swethaja and Sarayuja).

28. Urpeeja are produced from the earth; Andaja from eggs, Swethaja from sweat and damp, and Sarayujam from womb.

29. You must not kill at all. You can eat always what had been slaughtered already by others, as a slaughtered animal is simply dead like earth. Tell me who gets the merit of the deed, whether one who keeps a water pandal with fragrant drinking water or one who partook of that water?

29. Meat is distinguished to be ot two kinds Kallya (Karpiya) Mamsa, that which can be eatern; and Akaliya (Akrpiya), that which cannot be eaten. Akarpiya is of three kinds, Thrikodi (meat got by direct killing, or express order or implied consent) Shatkodi (last three and by seeing or hearing that it was killed for his own use and by not suspecting the character of the slaughter) Navakodi (the last 6 and by relish of meat, eating too much, praise of the killed meat). Really the distinctions are too nice, but the ignorant cannot possibly understand their niceties and they hold on to the saying that they cannot kill but can eat meat killed by others and in so acting they do not make any distinctions of the meat of any animals that might be slaughtered for their use.

30. To say that the five Skandas are not annihilated but are reduced to their cause is Wrong belief of (தோற்ற நாசம்) and is the cause of birth and suffering. To hold that these are altogether annihilated is Right belief and leads to the Bliss of Moksha, Nirvana.

31. To leave off the sins of Kama, Envy, &c. to hold on to good deeds, to destroy the desires of the senses, and the sense of pleasure and pain, to practice the eight kinds of Right conduct, and to give up all wrong doing and attain to such Gnana is to attain to Imperishable Samadhi or Nirvana.

31. The eight kinds of right conduct are - (1) Right Seeing, (2) Right touching, (3) Right speech, (4) Right action, (5) Right life, (6) Right eneavour, (7) Right principle and (8) Right company.

REFUTATION OF (SAUTRANTIKA) BAUDDHA.

1. O Bauddha, you did say without thought that your Lord Buddha knew everything. He could not know everything at all times as the universe is immeasurable. If everything was understood by him one by one, then the universe should not be called immeasurable. If this is possible by his limitless wisdom, then his wisdom is not so capable; he could not know everything as his intelligence dies and is born from moment to moment.

2. If you say that he will know the rest by knowing a few of each kind, how is this possible, as objects of knowledge are innumerable and one divides itself into innumerable other species. Besides, as human knowledge implies perception, similarity and difference, how is knowledge of various objects possible, by comparison &c., when according to you we do not retain the consciousness of each previous moment.

3. If you Lord Buddha gave out his 'Dharma' after attaining Mukti Niravana, then his speech after Nirvana (annihilation of Skandas) is like that of the person who died by eating ghee and honey together, coming to life again to say, that to eat honey and ghee is bad. If you say he died after giving out the Dharma, then the law was given by one who had attained to Mukti and as such it cannot lead one to Mukti. His vain desire is like that of the person who not knowing the depth and breadth of a rushing flood desires to cross and land all the rest on the other side of the river.

3. As Nirvana is merely the destruction of all the Skandas such as Rupa, Nama & c., no speech is possible after Nirvana. Of course, Buddhists will say that Buddha was a Jivan Mukta, but this will be a contradiction in terms, in the view they take of Mukti or Nirvana. If Buddha had not attained to Nirvana, his law cannot proceed from actual experience and cannot be authority. The difficulty arises from the fact of the Buddhists not recognizing a God, who has not to undergo evolution to increase this experience. And the dilemma which in consequence arises is beautifully put. The next stanza follows the same subject.

4. You state that unlike our God who, being present in each as taste in water, effects their preservation, your Lord undergoes the fiery ordeal of miserable birth and getting himself released, saves other mortals. This is like a deer rushing to save his kind already caught in the toils of the hunter's net and being caught itself. This law will only lead to great sin. Your doctrine is really incomparable! If you say that wishing to create Dharma, he was born and he created the Dharma, then this also might be said of every man that is born.

4. This stanza emphasizes that Supreme principle of Siddhanta that God cannot be born in the flesh, for any reason, even for the purpose of saving all mankind; much less of his mere whim, for his own pleasure, for realizing himself, from Karma, for improving himself by successive evolutions. He is the supreme subject and cannot become the object also; which he will be when He is born. If there is however a Vedic text to that effect, it only means to emphasize the fact of God's supreme nature, that independent of Him, nothing can exist; nothing can act and nothing can be owned. God is Sarva Swantara, Swamparaprakasa. Everything else is Paratantra and shines only by reflected light. c.f. Thayumanavar,

"எல்லாமுன்னடிமையே, எல்லா முன்னடைமையே. எல்லா முன்னுடைய செயலே," and verse 52 given in last number.
c.f. St. Karaikalammaiyar.
"அறிவானும் தானே யறிவிப்பபான்றானே
யறிவாயறிகிண்றான்றானே - யறிகின்ற
மெய்ப்பொருளுந் தானே விரிசுடர்பா ராகாச
மப்பொருளுந் தானே யவன்."

5. If you say that your Lord entered an endless number of wombs for the propagation of Dharma, then his births must have been caused by Karma. Nay, if it is said that this is by his mere will, then the same can be said of every man that is born. If it is said that he was born not like ordinary mortals but came out of the belly, don't mention me the Dharma of one, who killed his mother before he spread his Dharma.

5. Siva is called 'Ayonija.' Buddhists claiming a similar Divine attribute for their Lord, have a story that Gautama's mother on her way to her mother's house was taken with premature pains in the beautiful forest of Lumbili (Lumbini) but the foetus could not be brought out in the ordinary way and the belly had to be cut open to remove the child from the womb. The mother died after the seventh day. Even today, we hear in Tibet, the child intended as the future Lama is taken out similarly. This is a mere travesty of the noble truth.

6. When the Lord Buddha incarnated himself as beasts of prey, did he forget virtue and kill men and animals with pleasure? If he did not kill and eat their flesh, did he feed on straw to appease his hunger? You say he took on himself the sorrows of others. Really his acts of grace shown to the woman who had lost her husband and to the bird-catcher are beautiful to behold!

7. Before you discover an idea and find words to express the same and put the same in writing, your intelligence would have changed ever so often. How can you therefore have any authoritative treatise. If you say the words follow one another, then the same words must get repeated. You say by the change, the intelligence which it succeeds is superior to the preceding one. No, it cannot increase, as its duration is only momentary. A true book must be consistent throughout. Is your book of this character?

7. Association of ideas (சாந்தாண வழி) is of 4 kinds, Lamp from lamp (தீப சந்தாணம்), air from air (வாயு சந்தாணம்), light from star (தாரா சந்தாணம்) Pipilika (பீபிலிகா சந்தாணம்). These are several kinds of illustrations to show the passage of living beings from one body to another and for their final extinction:

The simile of the lamp is as follows:-

'Theepaka Santhana.' The life of man, to use a constantly recurring Buddhist simile or parable, is like the flame of an Indian lamp, a metal or earthenware saucer in which a cotton wick is laid in oil. One life is derived from another; as one flame is lit at another; it is not the same flame, but without the other, it would not have been. As flame cannot exist without oil, so life, individual existence depends on the cleaving to low and earthly things, the sin of the heart. If there is no oil in the lamp, it will go out though not until the oil which the wick has drawn up is exhausted and then no new flame can be lighter there. And so the parts and powers of the perfect man will be dissolved, and no new being will be born to sorrow. The wise will pass away, will go out like the flame of a lamp, and their Karma will be individualised no longer!

'Tara santhana.' Stars, long ago extinct, may be still visible to us by the light they emitted before they ceased to burn, but the rapidly vanishing effect of a no longer active cause will soon cease to strike upon one's senses; and where the light was, will be darkness; so the living, moving body of the perfect man is visible still, though its cause has ceased to exist: but it will soon decay, and die, and pass away; and as no new body will be formed, where life was, will be nothing. Again the five Skandas, the bodily and mental properties and tendencies are like a tree. The tree produces a seed, a fruit, from which will spring another tree; but if the tree be cut off at the root, it will be visible a little while only whilst it decays, and will not produce any further seed.

'Pipilika santhana.' Again, Trishna, the yearning thirst, is compared to a creeper which grows like a parasite on the sala trees, and eventually destroys that on which it was nourshied? (Dr. Rhys David's Manual of Buddhism).

8. You said that your Lord performed various virtuous acts in the beginning and became omniscient, and out of Grace gave out the Pitakas to enable mortals to attain Moksha. If so, who determined what was virtue and vice, before your Lord performed virtue. If one like himself who taught this predecessor of his; as such you will get no one who gave out the law in the beginning; as such, whom do your hold as your God in your school? The fallacy of having no begninnig (அனாவத்தை) is present in your argument.

9. If you hold the Lord Gautama as your God and Saviour, then who was his Lord whom he worshipped? Where is the sanction of his Guru's words for the law he set forth? We do not find such sanction anywhere. If you ask for our final authority, our Parameshwara, beginning less and of endless knowledge, self-existent when everything else is destroyed at the last day, He it was who gave out our law, which is comprised in our Vedas and Agamas. The sages who follow this law also advise control of passions and performance of tapas. Your law enjoining eating before sunrise without washing and eating of flesh was made by a glutton.

10. Authorities are of three kinds, the authority of the Ninmala God (முதல் நூல்), the authority of the sage who provides explanations and exceptions not inconsistent with the original authority (வழி நூல்), the authority of the successor who following both authorities, gives his own opinion from experience also (சார்பு நூல்). Could you say to which class of authorities, your law belongs? As it cannot come under any of these, your law cannot be true.

11. Bauddha, whom do you praise as Buddha who had attained Nirvana, and why? If you say that the rituals performed in honour of the dead will confer benefits on the living, then the beings must be eternal. And we require a God who will appreciate your good acts and confer benefits. But you do not assert so. Your honouring the dead is like supplying oil and wick to a lamp that has been completely extinguished.

12. You say that to know the contents of a book is as good inference as when we infer an author when we find a book written by him. Well, the existence of a hell and heaven you postulate could not be ascertained except from some book. Otherwise tell me. But this knowledge of hell and heaven could not be inference. This alone is possible by believing in Agama Pramana. As you do not postulate Agama Pramana, your Pitakas themselves cease to be authorities.

13. You state that all things will suffer annihilation. Is this annihilation possible to beings on non-beings or being-non-beings? If to the non-being, then it is ever non-existent; If to the being, it could never cease to exist; If to the last, from its character of being a being, it could not cease to exist. If you ask me to point out an object which is not capable of destruction, what you see undergoing changes birth, growth and death is the Sthula body (and not the Sukshuma body).

14. If you say that things die and are reborn by mere change of form, as the sprout is produced from the seed, then you have forgotten your postulate of Sarvam-nasti and hold on to the Asti-nasti doctrine of the Jains. If you say I misunderstand you, and explain that, what appeared as sprout, leaves, tree are not stable but are capable of destruction, then hear, that it is not the visible form that is destroyed but changes are wrought on it by reason of its youth, maturity and old age; and after such changes, the subtle (Sukshuma) body remains, though the Sthula Sarira is destroyed.

15. If you say bodies are formed from the mixture of the four elements, then these cannot unite as their natures are opposed to each other. If you say they are formed by the union of blood and semen, then account for toads being found in the heart of rocks and worms in the heart of trees. If you say the real cause is good and bad Karma, then these, being opposed, cannot join and form bodies. If food is the cause, then the food which in youth develops the body is not capable of preventing decay in old age. If intelligence is the cause, then that which is formless Chaitanya cannot assume Achaitanya (non-intelligent) form. If you assert that bodies are formed from nothing, then we could cull flowers from the sky.

16. If you say that forms can be produced from nothing as the tree from the seed, then we assert that the tree was already in the seed. If you object that we do not find the tree in the seed by actual observation, then the fact that a paddy seed does not produce a palm tree but only one of its own kind requires explanation. As one species of tree do not grow out of another species of seed, what does not exist cannot be produced. The seed is the cause and the tree, the effect. You also forget what you before asserted that forms (as effects) are produced from their cause the five Skandas, as the Moon is formed by beams of light.

17. If you say that the bodies are formed by means of the four elements and their causes, then these cannot unite, as their natures are opposed to each other; and each of the elements cannot be limited to the nature of all other elements. Understand also that these elements and their causes are all objects of sensation.

18. If you say that it is matter, in its eight various forms that forms the body, becoming subtle, as the extracts of medicinal herbs in medicated oil, then we require a God who could bring about this creation, as the Physician who prepares the oil. If matter alone is the cause, then all forms must be of the same nature. But, as their natures are different, you have not really understood the drift of your words. Then again, show me if you can the four causes of the four elements, which are Guna (attributes), apart from the four elements themselves.

19. If you say that intelligence dies at one moment, and at another moment is born again then what is dead cannot give rise to a new product. Then the new intelligence cannot know objects and perform functions which the former intelligence knew and performed. If you say that the old intelligence ceases to exist after creating the new intelligence, then two such intelligence could not exist at the same moment. If you say that the old intelligence does not die wholly before creating the new, then the sentience becomes Sat-asat, and your assertion that it is Asat cannot be true. If you instance the case of old straw used as manure becoming new straw, to prove that the old sentience dies and is reborn, then know that the old straw does not die altogether but is only reduced to its subtle condition and from this condition, is produced forth as new straw.

20. If you say that sentience is generated by association of ideas, then this association must be eternal. If you instance the flow of water in a stream to illustrate your position that the moment one sentience dies another takes its place, then, as the things in solution in the first flow of water will flow away with it alone, then all the Good, Bavana &c., attaching to the old sentience will die with it and will not become united to the new one. If you say there is no break in knowledge as there is no break in the water flow, then this knowledge cannot be momentary but must be eternal.

21. Is this Santana (association) the cause or the effect or the cause-effect? In either of these cases, it must be eternal. If you say that succession involved in causation is the intelligence, even then it must be held to be eternal, as it is ever recurring. If the intelligence is separate, then it is different from the external senses and as such it will become an eternal object. The consequences will be that instead of our understanding the intelligence as subject, and the rest as objects, the senses must be regarded as subject and intelligence as object. Consider deeply the absurdity of this position.

22. If creation and destruction take place at the same moment of time, then these two functions must be the same. If Time is merely the change in the conditions of things, then why do you speak of present, past and future Time. If this is so spoken, as things undergo the successive changes, then you must not speak of it properly as the present, past and the future and all the activities of things must be one and the same. If all the different activities are comprised within the same point of Time, then this point of Time is capable of division into three kinds of Time, as for instance, when a needle is passed through a pack of 100 lotus-petals, though the time taken up is ever so short, yet the succession of time can very easily be perceived.

22. We are bound to say we are not convinced by these arguments. No doubt there is succession in Time, but whether there is a distinct entity like Time apart from things and actions succeeding one another, that is a matter of doubt altogether. It is an abstraction like many other notions such as space, &c. If there is no perception of succession, there will be no perception of Time. If there is no perception of co-existing objects, there will be no perception of space. But that the Buddhist who believes in so many airy nothings such as his Karma, his Nirvana &c., should dislike time is wonderful indeed! C.f. The following passage from Dr. Rhys david's Manual of Buddhism.

"Strange is it and instructive that all this should have seemed not unattractive these 2,300 years and more, to many despairing and earnest hearts - that they should have trusted themselves to the so seeming stately bridge which Buddhism has tried to build over the river of the mysteries of sorrows of life. They have been charmed and awed perhaps by the delicate or noble beauty of some of the several stones of which the arch is built; they have seen that the whole rests in a more or less solid foundations of fact; that on the one side of the key-stone is the necessity of justice, on the other the law of causality. But, they have failed to see that the very key-stone itself, the link between one life and another, is a mere word - this wonderful hypothesis, this airy nothing, this imaginary cause beyond the reach of reason - the individualized and individualizing force of Karma?

23. According to you, one sentience is produced from another sentience; this cannot be, as the sentience you postulate suffers momentary death. Sentience if it dies once, in its course once, cannot survive. If the body, as the cause of sentience makes another sentience, then the body must manifest active intelligence even in deep sleep. If the bodily senses are the cause of intelligence, then as the senses are always active, the intelligence also can be eternal (non-momentary).

According to you again, Karma is the cause of sentience. Then any particualr act performed must be intelligence itself. It is not a fact that any such acts are so.

24. If you say that Karma begets sentience and sentience begets Karma, then as memory in an attribute of sentience, Karma must also possess memory. As Karma is non-intelligent, one cannot produce the other. As everything is momentary, one cannot produce the other and then die. If sentience after being produced form Karma, destroys Karma, as fire produced from a piece of wood destroys the firewood, then this is fallacious, as Karma is destroyed the moment sentience is born, and one cannot produce or destroy the other in succession. The fire born of the firewood, though it can destroy the firewood, cannot produce another piece of firewood.

25. You assert that that there are dwellers in astral and Devachanic planes (Devils, Celestials, Brahma &c.) and that these have bodies but not born of a father and mother; as a body is merely a product, there must be a cause for the same. If the cause of this body, sentience, or the finer matter (8 kinds of them), or Karma, or was it produced by some other person. The Truth is causation is of three different kinds, first cause, (நிமித்தம்), material cause (முதல்), and instrumental cause (துணை). To perceive this is real wisdom.

26. O Bauddha, you assert that except the product of the five Skandas, there is no separate entity like Atma (soul). You also assert that there is no being who understands the five Skandas separate from himself. It is Buddhi that perceives those Skandas. Then, who it is, who has knowledge of this Buddhi? If Buddhi knows itself and other objects, as the lamp makes its own presence felt, while it illumines the eye and other objects; then understand from the same simile, that there must a soul who is conscious of Buddhi and other senses and objects, as the eye perceives the lamp, and other objects.

26. C.f. 4th Sutra and notes, in my Sivagnana Botham.

27. You loudly assert that your Ego is merely your body and senses and mind (andakarana). The body does not know in sleep. The external senes are also dormant in sleep, and, besides, are not able to perceive the sensations of each other. As your mind, be only momentary, it cannot perceive the past and the future and the present. So the real Ego is the intelligence which, perceiving the body, senses and mind and their functions, discriminates itself from these, and becomes conscious of objects in contact with the mind, through the channel of the senses, and performs actions with the body.

28. You say that there is no soul independent of the mind as the latter perceives objects; when it is born again after momentary extinction. Then when I say, 'I said so,' what does the 'I' mean? Is it merely the mouth that uttered the words? Clearly it means a person different from the mouth &c. Just so, that which says after knowing everything possible to be known by all the senses (internal and external), 'I know,' this 'I' is the soul, the true Ego. That which perceives with the mind, utters with the mouth, acts with the body and at the same time is the support of mind &c., is the true Ego, Soul.

29. You say that the Chitta born of the external senses, and the Chitta born of the mental senses are of two and one is born after the death of the other. If so why don't people feel the same in dreams, as in their waking state; and vice versa? Besides, the man born blind has no knowledge of form and colour. If you say the defective sense is the reason of the defective knowledge, then it must follow, that when the senses, and knowledge, in waking and dreaming are all stilled in deep sleep, nothing will remain to bring these senses &c., back again to life. The True Ego is the real cause of man's volitional, mental and bodily activities (இச்சா, ஞான, கிரியை) and perceives both in waking and in dreaming states.

30. If according to you, a sentient act arises in one external sense at one moment only, then, the sound perceived by the two ears could not be perceived by one ear. Besides it is a fact that at one and the same moment, a person sees another with his two eyes and hears his words with his two ears and knows him. The five external senses can no more perceive anything when dissociated from the mind. Each of the senses can only perceive objects one by one. The mind too cannot perceive all the sensations together. Besides, each sense will not perceive what the other perceives. This is what is done by mind. That which understands everything by means of the senses, internal and external, is the True Ego.

31. If as you say, the five senses with the formless as the sixth, become conscious in each organ after undergoing change every moment; then, as the mind is formless it cannot unite with the body and undergo change of youth, maturity and old age. When a man wakes to consciousness when his body is disturbed in sleep, where does his consciousness proceed from? If you say from mind itself, no, it cannot so proceed by becoming conscious through the senses; and the senses and sound and air cannot rouse the mind, as these are Asat (objective). The light proceeding from the wick will vanish when the wick is exhausted and will not flash up again from the earthen lamp. Tell me also where consciousness dwell when a man is unconscious.

31. The commentator gives an another illustration of the Buddhist. A lame man and his crutch cannot cross the river each by itself. But the one with the other could. So consciousness does not arise when, the mind, and senses and air &c. act together. The reply is that a boat is necessary and even with the boat, the lame man and his crutch and the boat cannot reach the other shore without a boatman. In the illustration of the lamp, light is consciousness, wick is the soul, the body is the lamp, mind and senses are the ghee and oil.

32. Desire and hate, pleasure and pain, intelligence and action are all qualities of the soul. Desire is the liking we feel for an object, say a fruit. Hate is the reverse feeling; and the other qualities also imply similar previous experience. As its experience thus refers to the past and future, the wise postulates an eternal soul and disagree with your theory.

26-32. These verses controverts the position that there is no separate entity called soul, apart from the body and the senses and the Andakarana. As definition is the most important thing, in these respects, to avoid all misconceptions and confusion in thought and argument, the attention is drawn to the way these various senses and organs are distinguished one from the other. For further information on the subject, reference may be made to Sutras 3 and 4 and the notes thereon in my Edition of Sivagnanabotham. Atma is something other than Buddhi and other Andakaranas, senses and the body: There may be no such thing. It will be useless to confound these one with the other. The arguments herein given tend to show that the phenomena of existence cannot be fully and adequately explained without this postulate. The test of a true hypothesis consists in that the theory ought to cover all facts and explain them without any self contradiction. Stanza 32, controverts the opponent's theory that desire is the cause of sentience.

33. Akas (Ether), supports and affords room and is in inseparable union with everything, is neither darkness nor light and yet gives room to both. Its attribute is sound; air and fire and other elements are produced forth from it and reduced into it. We have already explained our position about the soul. Time is divided into morning, noon and evening, days - past, present and future - and is ever changing and is productive of good and evil. The cardinal points are four, East and West, South and North - and are eternal in their nature and invariable and productive of good and evil.

33. Akas may mean space, in which case it is an abstraction no doubt or ether when it is a padartha. The word is used in both senses and is then often the cause of much confusion. As regards time, the belief is an old one and quite conventional. Compare the passage from Mahabharata.

"No one can leave the way marked out for him by Providence. Existence and non-existence, pleasure and pain, all have Time for their root. Time createth all things and Time destroyeth all creatures. It is Time that burneth creatures and it is Time that exinguisheth the fire. All states, the good and the evil, in the three worlds, are caused by Time. Time cutteth short all things and createth them anew. Time alone is awake when all things are asleep indeed. Time is incapable of being overcome. Time passeth over all things without being retaeded. Knowing as thou dost that all things past and future and all that exist at the present moment, are the off-springs of Time, it behoveth thee not to abandon the reason."

34. As the world is a product like a pot, we require a first cause like a potter. Vedas and Agamas are the most ancient works in Sanskrit, teaching our duties in regard to the gour great Purusharthas and they enlighten our understanding and action. As these words had at first been promulgated by the greatest gods and seers, a properly qualified teacher should be found to teach their meanings. We require a witness for attesting the truth of the Vedas themselves. Such a person and author of the Vedas is the Supreme Siva.S

35. You said that trees (Vegetable kingdom) are lifeless. They have life, as they fade when they are not watered and grow when they watered. If not, even dead trees must grow by watering them. It is the nature of bodies with life that they grow with food and decay without it. If you say that the trees have no life as they have no external organs, you forget that eggs and spawn which contain life have no sense organs. If you say that when the eggs are hatched at least, the animals come out with organs, but we do not see this in the case of trees, know that trees have flowers and fruits, they have organs and life.

35. We know that the Buddhist's logic and Psychology were faulty enough but never knew ere this, that their Biology &c., was also faulty. Hindu philosophers class the vegetable kingdom with living organisms possessing only one sense, namely touch. European scientists have now no doubt about the point and the characteristics of plant life are most analogous to animal life, and they are most varied and curious, nay, they manifest such adaptations to conditions and circumstances, displaying the greatest intelligence. And if we want to study God's handiwork, we could not find a better and more beautiful subject than plant-life. The root and fibre and bark in plants correspond to the alimentary canal in animals; the leaves to the respiratory organs; flowers (containing - the Pistil (ovary, style and Stigma), and stamens (filaments and anthers) to the reproductive organs. Most flowers contain both organs in each flower. In some plants the male and female flowers are different, the commonest example of which are supplied by the gourd species, (சுரை, பூஷிணி, பீர்க்கம்) &c). There are also separate male and female plants, as the female and male palmyra. Of all the flower shrubs, the orchids are the most wonderful in creation, possessing every variety of form and adaptation to needs. There are some most beautiful specimens in the Ooty Governement gardens one of which is of the exact shape of an insect மழைப்பூச்சி which is itself a mimic, but in most gorgeous colours. These flowers mimic birds, doves, pigmies, &c., &c.

36. If you ask, whether one life divides itself into many, as when we cut the branch of a tree and transplant it, no; souls enter into seeds, roots, branches and the eyes of trees, as their womb and are born. If you say that oviparous and filth-born animals have the power of locomotion after birth and the trees have not, then why don't lame men and animals walk. The variations in creation are infinite.

37. O Bauddha, you assert that it is no sin to eat killed meat. Does not the sin attach on your account to those who kill animals, knowing that you will eat their meat? If you were not known to eat, nobody would kill animals and offer it to you. If you again say that it is only those who kill are blameable, where is your charity when you earn sin for your own kind host. Why don't you offer meat to your God? When you despise your own body as unclean, where is your sense when you eat the flesh of lower animals?

38. If you say that sentience is again born as the shade of an umbrella and the image in a mirror, then know, these shadows will disappear with the umbrella or thing itself. So, when your five Skandhas die, the sentience will also die and not be born and there will be none to attain Nirvana. If you say that the sentience is again generated from the embodiment of Karmic memory as the walking intelligence after dream sleep: then, the spawn and the eggs and the blind man will indeed attain Moksha after losing their vitality. Hence, the soul will never be separate from the body.

39. O Bauddha you defined your Mukti (Nirvana) as the annihilation of the five Skandhas and their associated sentience and the burning up of desire and sorrow as lighted camphor. We ask who it is then that attains Nirvana? You reply that there is none. Then who feels the Bliss of Nirvana? If it is the sentience born of the five Skhandhas then it cannot die, and cannot lose its body, and you will never release yourself from Bandha nor attain Moksha.

40. Hear our idea of Mukti. Our Parameshwara, who is eternally pure, the supreme, the immutable, all intelligent, all-powerful, and all-beneficent, appears as the Divine Guru to him who is balanced equally in good and evil, (இருவினையொப்பு) and grants his Grace (சத்தினி பாதம்) after burning up all his evil by his Eye of Gnan, destroying thereby his external and internal senses, and showing them the four paths of adoring Him, lifts them by his hand of Grace, out of slough of birth, into eternal Bliss.

அநாதிமுத்த னாய்ப்பானா யலனாகி யெல்லாம்
அறிவுதொழில் அனுக்கிரக முடயவரன் கன்மம்
நுனுதிகமற் றொத்தவிடத் தேசத்திநிபாத
நுழைவித்து மலங்களெல்லா நுங்கநோக்கி
மனாதிகர ணங்களெல்லா மடக்கித்தன்னை
வழிபடுநல் லறிவருளி மாக்கருணைக் கையால்
இனாதபிறப் பினினின்று மெடுத்துமாறா
இன்பமுத்திக் கேவைப்பன் எங்கள்முத்தி யிதுவே.

YOGACHARA BAUDDHA'S STATEMENT.

1. The Yogachara, not throughly learned in Philosophic lore, states that it is Buddhi that is evolved as the senses and the forms of perception and that this intelligence is manifest only when in union with the sense experience (Vadana) and that intelligence is formless, and affirms therefore that the world is a dream and intelligence (Buddhi) is alone Sat.

HIS REFUTATION.

1. You asserted the existence of Buddhi and something else which you called sense experience (Vadana). They must be different according to you. If not, say that Buddhi and sense experience are one and the same. If so, know, that Vadana is the renewed activity displayed by the Buddhi when induced by Raga (desire), it once unites with sound, light &c. Dreams arise in the mind after an original perception.

2. If you say that Intelligence is the body, then must exclaim 'I am the body.' These are different. If you say they are different and the intelligence stands apart from the body and the universe no; when the body is united to the intelligence, the intelligence will not be apparent, as the crystal is lost in the colours reflected in it.

2. The Yogachara is the follower of the 'Mahayana School and called as such Mahayanikan in Tamil works. The founder of this School was Asanga on Vajra Satwa and it was introduced into China from Ceylon about 720 A.D., by Vajrawati whose great pupil was Amoga, Pu-kung. This is called the Tantra School and they borrow their rituals from Brahmanism and Shaivism combining with the doctrine of Dhyana Buddhas (of Nepal) and the Mahayana Philosophy. (Edkins).

Vadana is what is usually miswritten as Vedana in Buddhist Text books.

The statement and its refutation of this school is very brief, as this school virtually accepts all that the Sautrantika affirns and any recapitulation is therefore unnecessary. The points wherein they differ are alone set forth here. According to the Sautrantika, Buddhi is a product and not independent of the senses. The Yogachara is inclined to think that it may be independent of the senses but links it in a peculiar manner with sensations (Vadana). Any how this is an advance on the Saurrantika who is a thorough Sunyavada and Mayavadi.

MADHMIKA BAUDDHA'S STATEMENT.

1. It is the ten senses that appear as the body. When the senses perish, we cannot point to anything else as body, and as such there is no body at all (as a substance). As there is no body (substance) there is no such thing as Intelligence united to the body. Such are the ridiculous statements made by the Madhmika.

1. Madhmika is called Madhyamika in Buddhist Text books. He seems to be a thorough-going Nihilist altogether. This school was originated by Nagarjuna (B.C. 43) of the Tibetan Mahayana school. Hardy says "The philosophers in India had taught either a perpetual duration or a total annihilation with respect to the soul. He chose a middle way, hence the name of this sect." The work which bears his name in China is called 'Central Shastra" (chung-lun) and was translated into Chinese in the fifth century after Christ. This system reduces everything to bald abstractions and then denies them. The soul has neither existence nor non-existence. It is neither permanent nor non-permanent.

Vaibhashika literally means Viruddha Bhasha, (absurd language), one who rejects every other view except his own as absurd, a school which seems to have only too many followers even now.

HIS REFUTATION.

1. The parts or attributes (அவயவம்) present in a pot are not present in a cloth and vice versa; that which is present in each, saving its identity, is substance (அவயவி). These two form the substance or the body, as such not only is there a body, but also an intelligent soul.

2. (In Sushupti) though the senses and sensations and objects are ever present yet no perception (knowledge) is possible as the soul is not in union with the senses. When the soul unites with the senses (internal and external), then perception is possible. As such both Soul and its Intelligence is Sat.

VAIBHASHIKA BAUDDHA'S STATEMENT.

1. As redness results when saffron and lime are mixed together, so the visible world arises when the perceptive intelligence and objects of perception unite. This is Gnana Darsan. Those who perceive this clearly will attain Nirvana without doubt. So asserts lovingly the Vaibhashika.

HIS REFUTATION.

1. The objects are external and the mind internal, as such these two cannot unite. The mind is besides formless (Arupa) and the objects have form. As such too, they cannot unite. The Vaibhashika who asserts otherwise has no more to say.

GENERAL REMARKS.

Thanks to the labour of European scholars, the books relating to Buddhism occupy considerable space in any oriental Library and no religion has received so much attention in Europe and America and in India, in recent times as Buddhism. It has attracted the fancy of large classes of European who emerging as they do from a form of gross materialism and not being prepared to believe in a future life or God yet wish to have a beautiful fantasy to toy with, for the moment. We won't believe in a Soul or God. We will believe in man, in perfected man; Perfected Humanity shall be our goal. In current modern European thought, the national ideals of the European and Gautama are different. Gautama's countrymen have always considered life a burden, 'all is Pain, Pain,' and they wait for the first occasion when they can free themselves from the bonds of birth and death. On the other hand, the European would not consider his life worth living if there was not some ray of pleasure to be eked out at all events; and his whole aim is in fact to seek and add to the sum mum of Happiness, and we find Max Narday preach the new and true Gospel of Humanity, according to which everybody shorn off of all lies, shall enjoy the maximum of pure unalloyed pleasure, by means of song and dance and music and other social organizations. This is a modern evolution out of the old Lokayata and Buddha, and the place of Buddhism placed next to the Lokayata by all Hindu writers is easily perceived. The order is not a chronological one but purely a psychological one. And it will be useful to remember here generally that though our Hindu books old and new very often neglect to record historical dates and events, yet they are valuable, as no histories of any other nations are, in recording the mental history and evolution of the race and of an individual man. Same writers have also been misled by the mere order in arranging the six systems of Philosophy that one school is older than the one succeeding it. It will be certainly older if we are to count man's age backwards and not forwards as we do. It is old age that is second childhood. The Lokayata is the gluttonous and selfish child, and the Bauddha the thinking and generous youth; when life's troubles and temptations beset, it remains to be seen whether he will break or grow into robust manhood retaining his generosity and purity. The youth rashly vows that he will remain pure and true, when he does not know what the strength and allurements of vice are. But unless he does, at that very stage, sow in himself good seed, and what is most important, allow them to take firm root in good soil, all his labour will be lost.

We now turn to the personality of Buddha, and we may be allowed to offer our humble homage at his sacred feet. We have the greatest respect for the purity and unselfishness and nobility of his life. What is often forgotten by his admirers and opponents is that he was a Hindu, and a Hindu of Hindus, and as Dr. Rhys Davids puts it, he was the greatest and wisest and best of the Hindus. In his own time, he was honoured by the princes and peoples all alike. They did not care what doctrines he preached, provided his character was pure and answered to their ideal of righteousness. Sri Krishna places the Nirishwara Sankhya, Kapila, among the first of Sages. Is it because he approved of his theory? No, he often takes trouble to refute it. Jamini was an errant atheist, and he was a great Maharishi. And today, we see the same trait in the Hindu. It does not matter whether he is a Mahomedan or Christian, if only he leads a saintly life, we know how the Hindus will flock round him. And what capital, do not impostors make out of this by donning a Kashaya and sitting in ashes, and by pretending mounam, though they cannot read and write a syllable. Need we wonder therefore if Buddha Gautama was also regarded as a great Rishi, who had a particular mission to fulfil in life? The story goes it was Vishnu who incarnated as Buddha to preach his doctrines to the Tripura Asuras. In his own days Buddha was not considered as a heretic by the Hindus, nor did he regard himself as any other than a Hindu, just so as in the case of the revered Galilean, Jesus Christ. It was in the days of his followers and after the various councils, they seceded completely from the Hindus. Buddha was indifferent as to what they ate and when they drank and how they dressed, provided they cleansed themselves of desire, likes and dislikes, and when this இருவினையொப்பு is obtained, no one need consider what to go to or attain next. But Gautama calculated without his host when he constructed his beautiful structure on such slender basis. Could any religion be stable which is not built on the rock of a future life and that Rock of Ages? What was the result? The noble brotherhood, so fondly thought of, fell into dissensions even in his own days, and controversies raged hot subsequently on such questions as to the time of eating, kind of food, kind of dress, place of ordination, owning of property &c. &c., and the followers of each school called the others heretics and followers of Mara, and hurled denunciations on their heads. And in spite of Buddha's denunciation of rituals and priest craft, a close and rigid hierarchy with elaborate rituals came into existence and they have invented more heavens and more hells and Gods than are to be met with in the stories of all other nations put together. And the system had become so corrupt even in its birthplace that it had to be removed out of the country, root and branch. Dr. Rhys Davids says, "We hear of no persecutions till long after the time of Asoka, when Buddhism had become corrupt." And we won't say that there were no persecutions in India. But people should not go off with the idea that a persecution in India was at all anything like the ones we hear of in European History. It was quite a tame affair. It was more social than political. And a religious revolution was in a sense much more easily accomplished in those days than now. From several Periyapurana incidents, it would seem that both on the part of the Buddhists and the Hindus, the sole aim was to convert the king of the country, and when that was accomplished, they say the whole people had also been converted. So in either way the conversion could not at best be more than nominal. Our own belief is that the people, the laity, not those who clustered in Monasteries, had never been converted into Buddhism. The king turned a Buddhist and all the people styled themselves also Buddhists. This will account for the boasted spread of Buddhism in all India. However, the conflict came at last, and it is in Southern India, we have authentic accounts of such conflicts from the 1st century after Christ, though European Scholars know very little about it. The southern kingdoms were very powerful in those days and they were extending their arms north and south. Inscriptions record the conquest ofVatapi, the modern Badami in Bombay Presidency, and Ceylon was conquered more than once. And Buddhism seems to have been introduced into Southern India from Ceylon. And if we take the period of Manickavachaka as the first century after Christ, in his life indeed we meet with first conflict between Hinduism and Buddhism. And the fight was won by the miraculous cure of the dumb daughter of the King of Ceylon at Chidambaram. The account is given in full detail in Tiruvadavurar puranam, to which reference can be made. In our recent visit to Ceylon we found that the tradition of the cure of the dumb Princess is well known to have been on the ascendant, and the Tamil Saint Appar was a prominent Jain before his reconversion, and was styled as Dharma-sena. After his reconversion, he was himself bitterly persecuted by the King of Pataliputra, at the instigation of the Buddhist (Jain) monks. His contemporary was the Great Gnana Sambandha and he reconverted the King of Pandi, Kun Pandya, by performing various miracles, and gave a complete route to the Buddhists. This occurred in the early years of the sixth century, and in addition to the arguments adduced by the late Professor Sundram Pillai and Mr. Venkayya, we may point to the fact that the Chinese traditions and history point to the fact that in A.D. 526, Bodhi Dharma, who was a native of Southern India, and laboured long there, had to leave it for China, and the reason is assigned to be persecution at the hands of the Brahmans. And it is also related in his life that he was more a Jain than a Buddhist, though he promulgated a much modified form of it in China. And neither Buddhism nor Jainism ever reared its head again in Southern India, though the few who remained were never molested, but, on the other hand, were honoured with grants by kings even in much later times. The stories of Sankara and Ramanuja having routed out Buddhism are more apocryphal than true; they could not have been more than dialectical feats at any rate. There is reason to think however in the case of Sankara that he might have got hold of the few remaining seats of Buddhism in Northern India and established his own Mathama in imitation of the Buddhist Monasteries. We hear of no Mathams before the days of Sankara at all.

The morality of Buddhism has received very high praise from high quarters. Professor Max Muller says - 'The moral code of Buddhism is one of the most perfect the world has ever known." But the Buddhist moral code is feebleness itself when compared to the Confucianist. But its sanctions are very weak; and its power for good on various peoples has not been proved. Except in the case of Burmah, it has not improved the moral condition of the people. In China, says Dr. Edkins,"What virtue the people have among them is due to the Confucian system." Col. Olcott's own statistics show that the morality of the Singalese is much inferior to that of the Hindus, and a visit to Ceylon will amply demonstrate the fact. Even in Burmah, Dr. Edkins remarks, "The power shown by Burmese to win the faith of the Burmese , I should rather trace to the superiority of the Hindu race over the mountain tribes of Indo-Chinese Peninsula.... The superiority of Hindu arts and civilizations helped Buddhism to make this conquest." Bishop Bigandet says: "The Burmese want the capability to understand the Buddhist metaphysics. If the Buddhist moral code in itself has the power to influence a people so far as to render them virtuous and devotional independently of the element of intellectual superiority, we still lack the evidence of it."

And after all, what was Buddhism, but the child, the product of Hinduism? And "so far from showing," remarks Dr. Rhys Davids, "how depraved and oppressive Hinduism was, it shows precisely the contrary: for none will deny that there is much that is beautiful and noble in Buddhism."

NOTE OF NIRVANA.

And I need not go much into Buddhist metaphysics as that has been already done in the text. However, a word or two about the Buddhist ideal of Nirvana. Learned men have discussed at great length as to the precise meaning of this conception and they are all at logger heads. Professor Max Muller and Dr. Rhys Davids, however, say that this cannot mean the extinction of a soul. "It is the extinction of that sinful, grasping condition of mind and heart, which would otherwise, according to the great mystery of Karma, be the cause of renewed individual existence." The definition is so far correct but I beg leave to ask, if Buddha did postulate the existence of a soul and a future state or not. No doubt, latterly, as among the Chinese the conception was thoroughly materialised and votaries waxed eloquent about the beauties of the paradise. But the question remains, according to Buddhist metaphysics, was there a soul or not? Our own opinion is that Buddha did not go to affirm or deny a soul, though later Buddhists made him deny a soul and Iswara. (vide page, 60. Paul Carus quoted by Mr. Ramasami Aiyar ante). He contented himself with the fact that the cessation of all desire and suffering and birth must be the sole aim, and nothing further need be thought of. The other side represented by Hinduism was altogether ignored. In fact as we shall show, Buddha only took one side of Hindu metaphysics forgetting the rest. The idea of Nirvana as defined above is a purely Hindu idea. The word occurs in the Gita (V. 24, 25, 26) and in the Saivite rituals, Nirvana Diksha is the highest mystery. The word, literally means non-flowing (the same root as in vayu vahini), Achala, steady, peace; and as this peace was to be obtained by casting off desire, it has come generally to mean extinction (c.f. Nirvana in Tamil meaning - nude and Nirvani - nude person. The Arhat (அருகன்) is represnted as nude). All these words - Nirvana, Mukti, Veedu mean therefore casting off or giving up sonething. What is that which has to be cast off or given up? It is man's egoism (the feeling of I and mine), the feeling of like and dislike, desire, the cause of birth and death, and suffering and sorrow; and until man's egoism, his separate personality was destroyed, annihilated, no suffering and birth can cease. But this egoism is different from man's innermost soul; and that can never be destroyed and is never destroyed. This lives, clothed in Glory and Bliss and in a Higher Existence and is never conscious, and could not be conscious of its existence. Gnanis, Muktas both in the body and outside (there is no inside or outside) are dead to the world practically. He enjoys Ananda but is never conscious of such enjoyment. The meaning will be plain when we pause to consider the difference and distinction between a feeling and a consciousness of such feeling. In the union with the Supreme, there is no duality. The duality will be present only, if the soul in Mukti is conscious. In the absolute, both the subject and object merge, though the object is present, it ceases to exist as it were, by reason of cessation of object consciousness. Buddha never cared to go into these deeper mysteries or as some would have it, did not want to throw these pearls before swine. But the mischief has been done, and what he openly gave out has been crystallised into a system, and it holds in its thraldom millions of mankind. There is always a danger in proclaiming and emphasizing an half truth, however wholesome it may be at times. The Hindu himself meant to emphasize by the use of the words Nirvana, Mukti, Veedu, the supreme importance of giving up desire as the supreme means of Salvation, but he does not ignore as Buddha did, the entry of the soul into a Blissful state of existence. Though these conditions follow one another as cause and effect, yet these are two distinct experiences, and the latter condition depends on a Higher Will, than man's puny efforts; another condition precedent to it, is, that man must own his allegiance to the Higher-Self and melt himself into love of Him. I have elsewhere illustrated the difference of these conditions by the simile of the blind man. The blind man when operated on, in a dark room, does lose the defect, by casting off the film that covered his personality; but can that alone be his Goal. The Buddhist ideal will lead the Arhat only so far. He might regain his sight but he will still have to remain in darkness. It will do no good but this may be in itself a satisfaction so far. But with only such a motive, man cannot proceed far. Who will think it worth his while to go to an expert doctor and pay him a high fee and undergo some suffering too, if after regaining his eye-sight, the same doctor should prescribe that he should never see light. - Much better it would have been if his cataract had remained as it was. There are some other schools among as also which go by much more dignified names which would land us in the same difficulty. Some of these latter postulate utter annihilation of the soul at the moment of attaining Mukti and others again assert that there is no anubava at all. These views are met by Sage Meikanda Deva in his commentary on the 11th Sutra of Sivagnanabotha; and the connection between this Sutra and the foregoing one illustrates the point I have been discussing above. The tenth Sutra treats of Pasatchaya, removal of Pasa, or bonds, "இறைபணிநிற்க, மலமாயை தன்னொடும் வல்வினையின்றே." (In submitting to the Will of the Lord, Mala, Maya and Karma are all removed) and the 11th Sutra treats of Pathignana, Anubava, the entering into the Blissful condition, அயராஅனபின் அரன்கமல் செலுமே'. (with undying live it will enter the feet of Hara). The following appeared in the 'Notes and Comments' in the July number of this magazine, which I beg permission to quote.

"A reviewer in the April Number of the Asiatic Quaeterly Review, on Dr. Dhallman's work on Nirvana, points out that according to the learned Doctor, who is a great authority on Mahabharata, Nirvana is a pre-Bhuddhistic idea, borrowed neither from the classical Vedanta nor from the classical Sankhya but from an older system, in which Nirvana means Brahma-Nirvana, and entering into the Absolute-Brahman and that this system, is to be found in the Mahabharata and Gita. This is no new news to the Siddhanti, who jubilantly sings.

"ஊன்கெட்டுயிர்கெட்டுணர்வுகெட்டுன்னுன்ளமும் போய்
நான் கெட்டவாபாடித் தெள்ளேணம்கொட்டாமோ."

"Let me sing, 'I' am lost, my mind is lost, my sense is lost my body is lost."

"நாமொழிந்து சிவமானவாபாடித் தெள்ளேணம் கொட்டாமோ."
" Let me sing, I lost my 'I' and gained "Sivam"

These quotations are from Saint Manikavachaka's Thiruvachaka and to these I will add another quotation, which I hope by this time your readers have got by heart. I refer, of course, to stanza No. 7, in 'The House of God,' printed at page 51.

இன்றெனக்கருளி யிருள்கடிந்துள்ளத் தெழுகின்ற ஞாயிறேபோன்று நின்றநின்றன்மை நினைப்பறநினைந்தே னீயலாற்பிறிது மறறின்மை சென்றுசென்றணுவாய்த் தேய்ந்நுதேய்ந்தொன்றாந் திருப்பெருந்துறை யுறைசிவனே யொன்றுநீயல்லை யன்றியொன்றில்லை யாருன்னை யறியகிற்பாரே. This day in Thy mercy unto me thou didst drive away the darkness and stand in my heart as the rising sun. Of this Thy way of rising-there being naught else but Thou, - I thought without thought. I drew nearer and nearer to Thee, wearing away atom by atom, till I was One with Thee, O, Siva, Dweller in the great holy shrine. Thou art not naught in the universe, Naught is there save Thou. Who can know Thee?

The simile contained in this Hymn may be drawn out in the following manner to illustrate the meaning. The Sun rises on the horizon and proceeds to the zenith of its glory; and we have to watch a man and his shadow from early morning to midday. At the point of rise, the shadow is the longest, and when the Sun is just overhead the shadow vanishes altogether and the shadow is seen to decrease as the Sun mounts higher and higher up in the heavens. Man might fancy that the Sun is coming nearer to him, when in fact he is going nearer to the Sun; but the other also in fact; for, but for the influence and attraction of the Sun itself, the earth itself could not revolve on its axis. In the place of the Sun, place God; and in the place of man, his soul, and for shadow, his egoism, his anava, his imperfections, lies sin, As he nears his God, and gets nearer and nearer ('சென்று சென்று') with the thought past thought that there is naught but God ('நீயலாற்பிறிது மற்றின்மை நினைப்பறநினைந்தே'), his evil, his shadow gets thinner and thinner (தேய்ந்து தேய்ந்து) when finally all is removed, and naught else remains but the One Supreme Light which covers and swallows him in Its mystic folds.

ஆனாஅமுதே யயில்வேலரசே ஞானாகரனே நவிலத்தகுமோ யானாகியவென்னை விழுங்கி வெறுந் தானாய்நிலை நின்றது தற்பரமே. "O Thou Inexhaustible Ambrosia, Thou King with the sparkling spear, O Thou Ocean of Intelligence, can I speak it? Swallowing fully what I call my 'I', The Supreme stands One, alone, without a second" ---- Arunagiri Nathar.

In that short book of his Kandaranubhuti, consonant with the title of his book, how often does not Saint Arunagiri Nathar emphasize the same truth.

"யெல்லாமறஎன்னையிழந்த நலம்."

"The good of my having lost myself, forgetting all."

குறியைக்குறியாது குறித்தறியும் நெறியைத்தனி வேலை நிகழ்த்திடலும், செறிவற்றலை வோடுரை சிந்தையுமற்று அறிவற்ற்றியாமையுமற்றதுவே. "The moment my Lord showed me the way of knowing the mark without knowing it, I lost my bonds, I lost my mind involved in worldly converse, I lost my intelligence and ignorance." அறிவொன்றற நின்றறிவாரறிவில் பிறிவொன்றற நின்ற பிரானலையோ செறிவொன்றற வந்திருளே சிதைய வெறிவென்றவரோடுறும் வேலவனே. "Art thou not the Lord who inseparably dwellest in the thought of those who think of thee without thought? Thou dwellest with those who have lost their madness by losing their bonds, and their darkness." "ஆசாநிகளம் துகளாயினபின் பேசாஅனுபூதி பிறந்த்துவே." "After the rope of desire is cut asunder into atoms, the unspeakable Anubava came into being."

These last two lines puts in the Buddhist's and Siddhanti's position in clear juxtaposition. One says "ஆசாநிகளம் துகள் ஆக்கு" and stops with it and the other does not stop with it and proceeds to postulate a higher state of knowledge and enjoyment. With the foregoing, both in language and in sentiment may be compared the following verses from the Kural of Saint Thiruvalluvar, especially as he is credited to have been a Buddhist or a Jain. For one thing, Saint Thiruvalluvar believed in a Soul and God and a future life and there could be no doubt about it and he does not make it a secret. He postulates with Buddha that desire, tanha, is the cause of birth.

"அவாவென்ப எல்லாவுயிர்க்கு மெஞ்ஞான்றும் 
தவாப்பிறப்பீனும் வித்து"

"Desire is the unfailing cause (seed) of birth, always, to all living beings."

And in the nest verse, he says that this much desired freedom from birth is possible only by desiring the cessation of desire. And yet in other preceding chapters, he lays down that the bonds of birth are cut asunder, when desire is lost, "பற்றற்ற கண்ணே பிறப்பறுக்கும்," that for attaining this means of salvation, the desire of love of the Perfect Being is essential.

"பற்றுகபற்றற்றான் பற்றினையப் பற்றைப் 
பற்றுகபற்றுவிடற்கு."

The difference of Pasatchaya and Pathignana are also well brought out in the following verse with the familiar simile of light and darkness.

"இருள்நீங்கி யின்பம் பயக்கு 
மருணீங்கி மாசறுகாட்சி யவர்க்கு."

" The seer of the spotless vision, after losing his defects, 
obtains Bliss, shorn of darkness."

The similarity between மருள் நீக்கம் and இருள்நீக்கம் on the one hand, மாசறுகாட்சி and இன்பம் பயத்தல் on the other, and the difference between these two are what should be noted particularly in this and in verse 5, in Chapter I and the whole chapter itself.

இருள் சேரிருவினையுஞ்சேரா இறைவன் 
பொருள் சேர்யுகழ்புரிந்தார் மாட்டு.

If we turn to the Gita, for a moment and read again chapters 4 and 5, we will find how word for word, these repeat themselves. As an eminent Indian once observed, we have to read the Gita from backwards, and then the connection of 5th and 4th chapters will be apparent. Chapter 5 treats of Karma Sannyasa-yoga and chapter 4 of Gnana-yoga and the same distinction of Pasatchaya and Pathignana is brought out to the full, by the use of the words and the same figures as in the Tamil passages quoted above. "He who acteth, placing all actions in Brahman, abandoning attachment, is unpolluted by sin as a lotus-leaf by the waters (V.10) (c.f. இறைபணி &c.) "The harmonised man, having abandoned the fruit of action, attaineth to everlasting Peace; the non-harmonised, impelled by desire, attached to fruit, are bound . (c.f. ஆசாநிகளம் &c. above). Verses 14 and 15 by the way, meet the common fallacy that God is the cause of our material nature and is the author of the evil, and that all evil and good should be ascribed to him. Nothing can be a greater mistake than this. Nature, Maya, explains the universe of mind and matter and action. Ignorance, Anavamala covers the naturally pure human spirit. "Verily, in whom Agnana is destroyed by Brahmagnan or Pathignana, to them is revealed the Highest, Shining as the Sun." 'Thinking on That, solely devoted to That, they go whence there is no return, their sins dispelled by Wisdom. (Verse 16 and 17 c.f. "இனறெனக்கருளி)." "He whose self is unattached to external contacts, finds joy in God" (Verse 21 c.f. பாசம் கழன்றால், பசுவுக்கிடம் பதியாம்). "The Rishis obtain the Brahma Nirvana, their sins destroyed, their duality removed; their selves controlled, intent upon the welfare of all beings." (Verse 25) Having known Me, as the Enjoyer and Rewarder of Yagna and Tapas (Medapatim), the Maheshwara of all the worlds, as the Lover (Suhirtha, Sankara) of all beings, he goeth to Peace (Santi Nirvana- Brahmananda) (Verse 29). Mr. Kuppusami Aiyar, following the commentators translates the word Brahma Nirvana into Brahmalaya, Brahmananda and Moksha, which no doubt is true. But this double trouble to bring out, is this the same, as the Buddhist view of Nirvana? Where is the meeting between the two? No doubt both follow the same route and meet at the famous statue with the shield; but the one will only look at the one face of the shield, lying on the shady side and refuses to go over and look up to the other face, exposed to the Full Effulgence of the Radiant Sun, and which blinds him with Its unspeakable Light and Glory, the very moment he looks up (a second blindness and death surely, but one where the craving for light and birth is all lost). When, therefore, in all seriousness, and in all humility and in the cause of truth alone, the inadequacy of Buddhism, and its one-sidedness (this one-sidedness producing evils as it filters down to the masses and in its actual working, which we could not conceive, who have in its actual working, which we could not conceive, who have no means of judging of its practical effect on the life and instincts of man, and who but look upon its as a mere theory, a beautiful vision) are pointed out, what is the good of our being referred to a beautiful moral code, whose beauty nobody denies? We will admit the correctness of the definition of Nirvana, we quoted at the beginning of this article that it is the extinction of that grasping condition of mind and heart. Mind and heart! Is the mind and heart at least a positive factor which rests in Peace and Bliss? Is there no higher thing than mind (Buddhi) and heart? Is there no such thing as Soul and God? Or, is it true, that even according to the so-called Hinduism and Brahmanism the notion of a Soul and of a God are also mere phantoms of the brain? Surely, the saying of the Lord is as true as ever. "Whatsoever a great man doeth, (sayeth) that other men also do (say); the Standard he setteth (the opinions he holds) by that the people go." There is a fashion in opinions as in dress, and Buddhism is the latest fashion of the day; and he who runs counter is indeed a guy and a gawk.

JAINISM :- NIKANDAVADI Sect.

1. Let us state the views of the Jains of the Digambara sect, who worship the Asoka tree laden with sweet-scented flowers, covered with bees, who, in the performance of Tapas, inconsistent with the Vedic Dharma, go about without clothes, and with dust covered body, remain ascetics abjuring family life, and feeding sumptuously, carry about with them mats and peacock feathers.

1. Nikanda means literally without clothes and these are otherwise called Digambaras, which means clothed with sky; and the secondary meaning Nirvana also means a naked person. Digambara and Nirvani are both names of Aruga and Siva.

2. Our Lord is the Immortal Aruga, full of glorious attributes, praised by the Gods, who, leaving all the eight evil qualities, is clothed with the eight immaculate virtues, as the full moon clothed in coolness.

2. The eight virtues (எண்குணம்) are Anantagnan - endless Intelligence, Ananta Darsanam - Limitless vision, Ananta Viryam - endless power, Anantasukam - endless joy, namelessness, sectlessness, (Gotra), agelessness, and Immortality. The eight evil qualities எண்குற்றம் are Ignorance, Defective Vision, Belief in the Vedas, Sensuality, Possessing name and Gotra and sorrows arising from age and bodily pains. The glorious attributes (சீர்) are Perfection, Omniscience, Benevolence to all sentient beings, Joyfulness, Activity, Being possessed of the fourteen wonders, Being seated in Devaloka & c.

3. Our Lord filled with austerity, has rid himself of the evil senses and know in an instant what takes place in all places and in all time, and is gracious to those who worship him and worship not. His other good qualities will be further described.

4. Leaving the evils of hunger, thirst, fear, envy, liking, lust, thinking, abusing, disease and death, sweating, surprise, pride, wondering, eating, and birth, and sleep and being covered with the eight good attributes, and being seated in the Highest Heaven above this world, He imparted his 'One word' to the host of Siddhas who surround him.

5. Following that one word, the Siddha composed several treatise called Charana, Yoga & c. so that mankind may not be misled. The gist of these books is that Time, space, Dharma body and Adharma body, Punyam (virtue) and Papam (sin) Atomic bodies, Atma Bandam and Moksha are all eternal verities.

6. Of these, Time spreads over the past and the present and the future, and comprise all the three kinds of Time in one moment; Atma, which is limited by this Time, is present in a body and fills it wholly, passes through periods of youth, adolescence and age, undergoing various changes, and is intelligent and eternal.

7. The Dharma Body causes the Astral body (பூதகாயம்) to die, so that it may not develop again. The Adharma body causes the permanence of the Astral body. Virtuous acts (Punyam) is conducive to the Dharma body and evil doing (Papam) is always the cause of Adharma Body. Space gives room to everything. We will state the nature of the material Body (புற்கலம்).

8. Material bodies are all objects with forms like iron, stones, trees, &c., which have a power of their own and are present everywhere. The six kinds of perception, such as sight, taste &c. which cause evil constitute Bandha. Good Karma or Tapas is performed when we are losed from the control of these senses. This Tapas will bring about good births. When we get rid of both Punyam and Papam after eating the fruits thereof by repeated births, we attain to Moksha.

 

REFUTATION OF JAINISM.

1&2. If you say that your God Aruga is associated with good qualities as the moon and its coolness, then the comparison is not true. His evil was in him before and as such he belongs to the order of men, (His good was not inherent as coolness in the moon but only associated and acquired). If you say that God Aruga attained perfection by his virtue, then it implies the existence of one who laid down the rule of virtue for the purpose of effecting salvation and someone who followed it to attain salvation. As such we will have to postulate a Being who is above your God who is worshipped by those who do not kill. Therefore which of these will you accept as God?

3. You asserted that your God sees and knows everything without the intervention of the bodily senses, and yet you assert that his body is immortal. If so, his mind and other senses cannot leave him, and without these and his body he cannot understand. He cannot know all time at once either.

4. All those who get rid of their evil qualities such as anger &c. cannot attain Mukti as your Aruga is a Jiva in a body. If you compare him to a King who bestows benefit on mankind, then why should he dwell in the City with the golden walls?

4. If like a King, he must dwell on earth and punish the wicked and reward the good, but God Aruga is said to be good, to the wicked and the virtuous.

5. If you say that the perfected Arhat derived his teaching from the one word of the Eternal Aruga, and gave it out to mankind, then as you do not postulate his having senses and mind &c., and give it out again. This is like the dumb teaching the dumb.

6. The Aruga dwelling in the Blissful Regions cannot know the sorrows of this world and so cannot come as a teacher to remove it. If he can know, even from where he is, then he has experience of sorrow and the Blissful Heaven ceases to be such, and I have really no answer to give you.

7. You asserted that the Soul fills the whole body. If so, where any portion of the body is defective, then the Soul must be defective in proportion. Besides this body will die, and when it dies, the soul must die also, as the water is lost when the pot is broken.

8. You say that both the Dharma body and Adharma body elevates and depresses man, in the same body at the same time. This cannot be. If you instance the case of beetles and birds which fly and sit their actions are not simultaneous.

9. If you say there is no God who knowing the good and bad Karma of Mortals, makes them eat the fruits thereof, then there will be no undergoing the joys of heaven and the pains of hell. If you reply that virtue and sin attaches to a person of their own force as an arrow shot from a bow, then your simile implies a person who shot that arrow and we require a God like the Bowman.

9. Both Karma and man have to be actuated by a superior power and without It, there will be merely inert. Man cannot choose his own good and bad and cannot foresee the far reaching consequences of his Karma and guide his own conduct thereby.

10. You said that bodies like iron, stone &c., have Souls with one sense. But all life is seen to be destroyed, but we never see stones and metals die. Besides if these have souls, they must attain Moksha also. You are alone in asserting life of such lifeless things as stones &c.,

11. You say that Tapas is performed when the six kinds of perceptions are lost. But no wealth can be acquired in trade unless wealth is invested in the trade. (So action is necessary for Tapas). If you say that Tapas is reached by the fruits of past Karma, then the same Karma explains the growth and extinction of the evil perceptions. So you cannot reach Tapas except by action.

11. Mere inaction or Passivity cannot prevent one's rebirth and give him eternal bliss. If so, then all inanimate things can attain Moksha; and man himself will be reduced to a condition of a log or stone. It is opinions like these promulgated by the Jains, that mere inactions is virtue that accounts for the often unwarranted slur that is cast upon the Hindu System of Ethics. The misfortune is that some of the phrases and words have become so common that they are used by everybody and anybody whether with meaning or without meaning, whether appropriate or inappropriate and hence arises a great deal of confusion, And then these little systems having each had their day, have not altogether ceased to be and they have left their marks in the public mind and morals. If the fact be true that Jainism was dominant in South India for several centuries and all the best literate and moralists of the period were Jains, it is no wonder some of these fallacies have still lingered among them. Jainism preached a life of rigid asceticism and morality and was thoroughly exclusive. And the 6 kinds of evil actions were considered to be cultivation, mechanical industry, writing (Being in office), trading, teaching and sculptures. This was against the very genius of Hinduism whose ideal was the four Dharmas - Virtue, Wealth, Pleasure and Bliss. Hinduism though preaching control of the senses, and cessation of all desires, only does so, so that it may reach higher spheres of activity. " செயற்கரிய செய்வார் பெரியர்" (The great sage does actions, impossible for others) says Saint Thiruvalluvar in his chapter on "நீத்தார் பெருமை" (The greatness of Freed Beings). That real asceticism does not mean merely giving up family and children and is possible in one and all the various ashrams was exemplified in the life of this very Sage, who lived with his wife, and continued to live by his spindle. In Siddhanta works, wherever the greatness of these seers are described, their entire benevolence and love of all God's creatures is invariably set forth. Says Saint Thiruvalluvar in the same chapter,

"அந்தணர் என்போர் அறவோர்மற் றெவ்வுயிர்க்கும் 
செந்தண்மை பூண்டொழுக லால்"

"The sage is called Anthana, as he is full of virtue, and is full of kind actions to all sentient beings." Says Saint Umapathi Sivacharya, in his similar chapter on 'அணைந்தோர் தன்மை' in his 'Light of Grace,' கள்ளத்தலைவர் துயர்கருதி தங்கருணை 
வெள்ளத் தலைவர் மிக.

"Out of the depths of their love, they are troubled and tossed about for the sorrows of their erring kind." Saint Thayumanavar also devotes a chapter to the same subject of "The path of Bhaktas" (அன்பர் நெறி) and he says "எவ்வுயிரும் தன்னுயிர்போ லெண்ணுந் தபோதனர்கள் செவ்வறிவை நாடிமிகச் சிந்தைவப்ப தெந்நாளோ."

"O for the day when I will think of the Wisdom of those ascetics, who consider all life as they would regard their own life." Compare also Gita V. 25.

But different people and nations have different ideas of what is good for themselves and for others. A Christian missionary remarks that "all this time the philosophy of quietism has been sound asleep or with its eyes fixed on the point of its nose,' according to the directions of the Gita, it has been thinking itself out of its wits;"and puts such things as the want of Railways and Telegraphs, prohibition against widow marriage, want of education and civilization and good Government, evils of caste &c., to the discredit of Hinduism (vide page 99. Selections from the Upanishads by Dr. Murdoch). One might as well retort and ask if all Christian countries are free from all vice and wickedness and social evils. If Railways and Telegraphs are such great boons, why were they not invented by the founder of Christianity. There are more Godless among scientists and inventors than among other classes of people. There are more unredeemed and God forsaken slums in London alone than in all India put together. St. Paul's first advice to widows is that they should not marry. Count Tolstoi's views on Christianity (which we believe is the true view) is condemned by other Christians as thoroughly impractical and unfit for public acceptance and public Government. Regarding the views of Gita itself, they are unmistakable. Over and over again, Lord Krishna says that action is necessary. Such action covers the whole field of Chariya (சரியை), Kriya (கிரியை), and yoga, no doubt, and any of these acts performed with an object and for purely selfish ends are condemned in the strongest terms by Lord Krishna and other Siddhanta writers (vide chapters on சரியைக்கழற்றி, கிரியைக்கழற்றி and யோக்க்கழற்றி in ஒழிவிலொடுக்கம் of Kannudaya Vallalar). The 64 charities (அறம்) enjoined on the Hindu cover a larger field of usefulness than those known to the Christian Missionary. The charity of the Hindu is proverbial. In his fasts and feasts, he remembers the poor and the helpless. We require no poor and famine, you cannot, imagine a more contented and happy and hopeful individual. If he does not rise against oppression and tyranny, should that also be put down to the discredits of Hinduism. The strong hold of Hindu Loyalty is his Religion. Be it said also to the credit of Hinduism that its ideal of a holy man is not that of a sport-loving Missionary whether the sport be dancing, acting, tennis or cricket-playing, fishing or hunting. The ascetic and saintly life led by the early Christian fathers of the church does not commend itself to modern day Christian and Dean Farrar is forced to write an apology for them almost, though the tradition is well-preserved by the modern Catholic church.

12. You say that subjecting one's body to great privations is the greatest Tapas. Then you must assert also that persons undergoing the greatest agonies from bodily disease are the first to get to your heaven. If you reply that to desire vainly Moksha is itself undergoing bodily pain, then you had better cut off your nose in view to your securing Imperishable Bliss.

12. Mere physical privation could be no object unless it is undertaken in the service of God or your fellow creatures. Bhakti and Gnana and cessation of desire alone can lead one to Moksha. The commentators add that the worship of Jivas, like God Aruga (Arhat) though by their Karma they have become powers, and principalities and Devas, cannot secure this object and the Love and service dedicated to the Supreme One alone who was never subject to births and deaths, who is Anadi mukta and Nirmala, will be of avail.

13. You say that we can reach the golden city after the fruit of past Karma have been eaten up. As Karma is endless, what certainty is there that you will finish eating them. If you do succeed, even then, when your Karma ceases, your body and its senses (begotten of Karma) also cease. Your case is like the cat waiting to eat the fish after the Southern Ocean dries up.

14. Your trying to reach Heaven, without a God (a First Cause) is like the attempt of the pot at the bottom of the well to reach of itself the top. As one at the top has to lift the pot out, so be wise, and own your allegiance to Siva.

JAINISM: - AJIVAKA SECT.

1. We will now state the case of the Jains of the Swetambara sect, who though professing to be filled with grace to all creatures, as to one's own self, yet prescribe such austerities to all mankind, productive of immense pain, similar to their own suffering, when they pull the hairs out of their head.

2. The word of the Lord Aruga, with endless Intelligence declares that there are five atoms or entities which fill everything. They are the earth, the water, the fire, the air, and the Jiva. If we are to describe the nature of these five, then, the earth is hard, the water is cold, the fire is heating, the air is flowing, and the soul is intelligent.

3. Earth and water have a downward tendency to spread. Fire and air spread upwards. And the Jiva enters bodies formed of these, and these atoms individually. When it enters bodies, it obtains the nature of the particular body to which it is united. This is the way these atoms act.

4. The first four atoms cannot know each other; neither can one atom change into another atom. One atom will not enter and abide in another atom. Yet they will unite in the living body. These never come into being newly; nor do they die by lapse of time. They always unite together and not one by one; and they never change their nature.

5. These atoms (அணுக்கள்) as such never undergo creation, development, destruction or resolution, can neither be eaten, nor swallowed nor digested nor spit out; neither made nor unmade. These pass beyond the vast worlds, and enter all bodies and forms. These spread always and everywhere and are of the same unvarying nature.

6. The Jiva cannot be seen by the eye (is formless) Induced by Karma, they are born in bodies with form; and even then, the Jiva cannot be seen by mortals, but can be seen by the Immortal Gods. We will describe the way, the other four atoms mix among themselves.

7. Neither any three of these nor any two of these will be found united together. But with earth, all the four will be united together; with water, the other two (fire and air) will be found together; with fir, air will be found together; and air will stand alone. This is the way these four mix among themselves.

8. There are six colours, namely, white, golden, red, blue, green and pure white. Of these, pure white is the colour pertaining to the Heavenly regions. The other colours are found in earthly forms and are perceived by the soul by touch, perception &c.

9. Wealth and Poverty, pain and pleasure, living in one's own country and going abroad old age and death, all these become attached, by the result of previous Karma to the Jiva, in the womb itself. And the world moves on subject to the laws of Karma.

10. Our Lord has further declared that with Punyam and Papam, these are entities in all. Those who understand this to be wisdom will reach the Highest Heaven.

REFUTATION OF AJIVAKA JAINA.

1. From moksha, there is no return. As such there can be no return of your Lord to the earth to reveal his word; and hence there can be no authoritative book for you. As the five atoms cannot reach your heaven, your Lord can have no body. He cannot be omniscient for all time nor can be know all things at one time.

1. The commentator here asks "How do you know your Lord is omniscient? If you say, it is because he has attained to the condition of mona, then you say that all dumb men and animals &c., are also perfect. Besides, if he ever remains in mona, of what use is he to mankind? He will be merely an useless sinner.

2. You say that Arhats are of two classes, called Mandalar (beings of earth) and Sembothakar (the perfect) and that the Mandalars return to the earth and reveal the teaching. Then these Mandalars become indistinguishable from the jivas of the earth. They cannot partake both the earthly and divine elements in themselves.

3. You state that the soul becomes intelligent by contact and full union with the body. The soul is not so, when a person is not intelligent or when he is an infant. As such your statement is false.

4. If as you say, of the four atoms, some two spread below some two above, they cannot form any one body. If they can form one, then the atoms will undergo destruction. If they don't unite, there must be interstices in the body between these atoms. As such they cannot unite into one body. They will be so various and there won't be any harmony and coordination.

5. If you say that these various bodies are made possible by there being innumerable atoms, yet as these cannot unite, they cannot form one united body. As these atoms spread in different directions and are contrary in nature, they cannot conduce to the soul being present in them. Your theory is ridiculous. Even a thousand sticks cannot form one pillar.

6. The atoms themselves cannot unite to form bodies as they have no intelligence of their own. If you say that air unites all the other atoms with the soul, the air cannot know the other atoms and the souls to be united, so as to enable it to unite them. If you say Karma effects this union, it cannot be, as it is also non-intelligent and cannot know the person to whom it has to be united. Therefore learn to know the One who brings about the union of these various atoms into bodies united to each soul according to its Karma.

GENERAL REMARKS.

Indian writers, both Sanskrit and Tamil, place Jainism usually after Buddhism, in their general retrospect or review of the various Schools of Indian Philosophy and we have once more to call attention to the fact that this is not altogether an historical or chronological order. The caution would be unnecessary but for the fact that eminent writers chiefly European, have been misled and have concluded that Jainism had no independent beginning and that it was a mere offshoot of Buddhism and as such have failed also to grasp its essential differences, and have therefore bestowed very little attention to this system and its Bibliography. And in consequence, this School of Philosophy has not attained to that amount of importance in the European and Indian minds of today, as Buddhism has. But for all that, so far as South India is concerned, it has played a greater part and for a longer time than Buddhism and its effect on the South Indian People and their literature has been much more beneficial and lasting. Jains are still found all over South India, and they hold quite a respectable place in society, whereas not a Buddhist can be found anywhere even as a sample. Long after Jainism received its death blow in the hands of the Great Saint Sambanthar, its professors were allowed to remain unmolested by the people, nay, their kings and nobles encouraged them openly by grants of land and endowments for their temples &c. There were many things in them which commended them to the other classes. They were very strict moralists and they led exemplary lives. At one time, all the learning of the land, in the departments of literature and grammar and ethics and the learned sciences was in their hands and it could not be in better safekeeping. Some of the best classics in Tamil, most of the Ethical treatises, and that excellent grammar Nannul, and lexicous were composed by Jains. Added to this, in their works, they never went out of their way to be unnecessarily offensive to the other classes of the people and in their life they conformed to the life of their neighbours as much as possible. If the outer man can be a fair index of the inner mind, you have only to compare a Jain and a Buddhist and a Hindu in their externals. The Jain could be hardly distinguished from his Hindu neighbour. Even in Buddha's days, his followers have debated and differed as to, what sort of animal food can be eaten or not eaten, though they say Buddha taught kindness to all creatures, (one European writer goes to say that the Hindus never even had this doctrine before his days!) and his followers of today (the mass of them) are gross flesh eaters all over the world; but in the case of Jains, they were throughout and are even down today rigid abstainers from all kinds of fish, flesh or fowl. This was such a marked trait in their life and character that their neighbours and successful rivals tried to excel them in their good trait, that Brahmans of all classes in South India, unlike their neighbours in the West and in the North are rigid abstainers; and the more civilized and intelligent classes of the non-brahmin classes are also rigid vegetarians - Saivites - we were going to say. Among the Vellalars, there are certain sections of them, who by birth are vegetarians and call themselves Saivites. Our Pundit friend once shrewdly suggested to us that these Paramparai Saivas, (vegetarians for generations) must be descendants of ancestors who were once Jains and subsequently reconverted. And Saivaism today is so rigidly vegetarian, that the words are almost used synonymously by all classes; and some of the Saiva Vellalars, though since converted to Vaishnavism are still rigid vegetarians and call themselves Saivas. We may trace also to the influence of Jainism the stopping of all animals sacrifices in all Hindu shrines in South India, though they are still in vogue in some of the North Indian Temples. The general disfavour with which all Wajapeya (Vedic) sacrifices are looked upon by the people must also be due to this Jain element. The general mildness of the character of the South Indian people, their extreme docility, piety and modesty may all be traceable to their influence also. In their Psychology and Metaphysics too, there was much greater affinity between the Jain and the Saiva than between the Buddhist and the latter. We today add the opinion of Dr. H. Jacobi, the learned translator of the Jaina Sutras, as to what Buddha taught in regard to the postulates of Soul and God, believed in by the Hindus and the same passage contrasts the views of the Jains on this point. He says in his inroduction (Sacred Books of the East, Vol. 23 p. xxxiii), "Whatever Buddha may have taught and thought about the state of Nirvana, whether he went the length to identify it with absolute non-existence, or imagined it to be an existence, different from all we know or can conceive, it is beyond doubt, and a striking feature of Buddha's philosophy that he combated the Brahmanic theory of A'tman, as being the absolute and permanent soul, according to the pantheist as well as the monadic point of view. But the Jainas fully concur in the Brahmanic theory of the A'tman, with only this differences that they ascribe to the A'tmans a limited space Anu, while the Brahmans of the Sankhya Nyaya and Vaisheshika Schools contend that the A'tmans are con-extensive (vubhu) with this universe. On the other hand, the Buddhistical theory of the five Skandas, with their numerous sub-divisions have no counterpart in the Psychology of the Jainas." The learned Doctor also proceeds to point out, what seemed to us as very curious in the theory of the Jains also. "A characteristic dogma of the Jainas which pervades their whole philosophical system and code of morals, namely, the hylozoistically theory that not only animals and plants, but also the smallest particles of the elements, earth, fire, water and wind, are endowed with souls (jiva). No such dogma on the other hand is contained in the philosophy of the Buddhists." Our own opinion seems to be, if we may judge from some of their rules for drinking water by straining &c., that the Jain Philosophers seemed to recognize the presence of active life-germs quite invisible to the naked eye, and which are ever present all about us, in the very dust that we tread, in the very water that we so scrupulously drink, and in the very air we breathe; and much more largely in all our articles of diet; and which are now revealed to the microscopic eye of the European Scientist who raises them up all around us in such numbers as almost to strike us with terror. We take the liberty to quote the following passage also, as they exactly square with our own conclusions on the subject."

"To Indian philosophers the various degrees of knowledge up to omniscience are matters of great moment. The Jainas have a theory of their own on this head and a terminology which differs from that of the Brahmanic philosophers and of the Buddhists. Right knowledge, they say is fivefold: (1) Mati, right perception; (2) Sruta, clear knowledge based on mati; (3) Anadhi, a sort of supernatural knowledge; (4) Manah-paryaya, clear knowledge of the thoughts of other; (5) Tavala, the highest degree of knowledge consisting in omnisciences. This psychological theory is a fundamental one of the Jainas, as it is always before the mind of the authors of the sacred books when describing the spiritual career of the saint. But we search in vain for something analogous in the Buddhist scriptures. We could multiply the instances of difference between the fundamental tenets of both sects, but we abstain from it, fearing to tire the reader's patience with an enumeration of all such cases. Such tenets as the Jainas share with the Buddhists, both sects have in common with the Brahmanic philosophers, e.g., the belief in the regeneration of souls, the theory of the Karman, or merit and demerit resulting from former actions which must take effect in this or another birth, the belief that by perfect knowledge and good conduct man can avoid the necessity of being born again and again &c. Even the theory that from time immemorial prophets (Buddhas or tirthakaras) have proclaimed the same dogmas and renewed the sinking faith, has its Brahmanic counter-part in the Avatars of Vishnu. Besides, such a theory is a necessary consequence both of the Buddhistical and the Jaina creed. For what Buddha or Mahavira had revealed was, of course, regarded by the followers of either as truth and the only truth. This truth must have existed from the beginning of time, like the Veda of the Brahamans; but could the truth have remained unknown during the infinite space of time elapsed before the appearance of the prophet? No would answer the pious believer in Buddhism or Jainism, that was impossible; but the true faith was revealed in different periods by numberless prophets, and so it will be in the time to come. The theory of former prophet seems, therefore, to be a natural consequence of both religions; besides, it was not wholly unfounded on facts, at least as regards the Jainas. For the Nirgranthas are never spoken of in the Buddhist writings as a newly risen sect nor Nataputta as their founder. Accordingly the Nirgranthas were probably an old sect at the time of Buddha, and Nataputta only the reformer of the Jaina church, which may have been founded by the twenty-third Tirthakara, Parswa."

His conclusions are (1) "that Jainism had an independent origin from Buddhism, that it had a development of its own, and did not largely borrow from the rival sect; (2) that both Jainism and Buddhism owed to the Brahmans, especially the Sannyasins, the ground-work of their philosophy, ethics and cosmogony;" and in the proceeding pages he proves that how all the ethical rules of both Jains and Buddhists were both copied from the older Bodayana and Apastamba and Gautama Sutras.

The learned German Doctor has stated the Psychological difference in somewhat general terms. We will proceed to state them more fully. Hindu philosophers generally classify all tatwas or categories into 36 or 96, of these the lowest 24 are the elements (5), Tanmatras (5), Karmendrya (5), Gnanendrya (5), Antakarana (Chitta, Mana, Ahankara and Buddhi). As it is, the 24th is Buddhi-tatwa.

It is this Tatwa which the Buddhists affirm as the only truth and as the highest truth. Beside and beyond this there is no other reality higher or lower. All the 23 that are below the 24th tatwa are only phenomenally or momentarily true. If anybody were to assert that there was anything higher than the Buddhi tatwa, the Buddhist would regard him as telling an untruth, as suggesting a fiction. In his table of Skandhas, Vignana-skandha is one of them; but this Vignana-skandha is merely the six kinds of sensations or knowledge perceived by the 5 external senses and Buddhi as the 6th sense. As such this Vignana is only derived from Buddhi and what would be regarded as born of Maya or matter. To confound therefore this material Vignana with the Vignana of the Upanishads as meaning the non-material Atma is highly unscientific. Passing beyond the 24th tatwa, the Hindu postulate Guna which means attribute or quality. This is the quality of the Moolaprakriti. This guna is divided into Satwa, Rajas, and Tamas and when the soul is clothed with these 3 gunas it attains its distinctive individuality. Though this guna gives him the peculiar individuality, the soul in its own nature is distinct from the 3 gunas. But the Jains would seem to hold that this individuality, apart from anything like a soul or A'tma behind it. And it is this individuality which the Jain would call an A'tma in his turn, just as the Buddhist would call the Buddhi itself an A'tma if need be. It follows therefore why the Jain could not postulate omnipresence (co-extensiveness with the universe) to his jiva, but only a limited condition, (Anuthvam and not Vyapakatvam). According to the Sankhya and the Siddhanti, the Soul (A'tma) in its own nature is a Vibhu and not an Anu* [*Ramanujas assert that the soul is only an Anu and not a Vibhu and the Vedantins that it is only a Vibhu and not an Anu.]; but it becomes limited (Anu) by its assuming the coat of the gunas. As it is, the A'tma postulated by the Jain is not exactly the same thing as the A'tma, postulated by the Sankhya or the Siddhanti, but as this guna personality persists in the Sakala condition of the soul, and undergoes various transformations as -

"Grass, herb, worm, tree, animal of sundry kind, Bird, snake, rock, man, devil, angel, titan, Of evil might, sage, godling, - These and all else in this wide universe! Have I been born, and I am weary O Lord." (Tiruvachakam).

and many more, the Jain's belief is not in actual conflict with that of the Hindu. Popular Hinduism does not carry ordinarily its idea of the highest felicity (Bliss in Moksha) further than the regions of the Gods, Indra, Brahma, Vishnu, and Rudra. According to the Siddhanta these mightiest Gods Indra to Rudra are only regarded as the ordinary souls (Jivas) of the last class called Sakala. We recognize higher orders of souls called Pralayakalars and Vignanakalars who are not clothed with either the Tamas, Rajas, or Satwa guna and who are yet far from having reached the final goal from which 'there is no return,' 'there is not return.' The highest condition of felicity thought of by the Jains is also a god-hood similar to the condition of these Devas. We therefore understand why the Jains also believe in the Hindu gods as beings who have attained to A'rhatship. We thus see how the Jain's position is much greater in advance and a more positive one from the stand point of the Hindu over that of the negative postulates of the Buddhist. The coming chapters in Siddhiar will show how other schools of Indian thinkers have gone in advance of the Jain view.

It only remains for us to add that the founder of this sect Mahavira is regarded by Dr. Jacobi as a distinct historical personage who flourished at or before the time of Gautama Buddha himself.

BHATTACHARYA'S STATEMENT.

1. We here set forth the doctrines as now extant in this sea girt earth, of Jamini Bhagavan as expounded by his disciple Bhattacharya, to the effect that the Vedas alone are true and there is no God and that by performing Karma heaven will be reached.

2. The souls have lust and other Gunas (attributes). If the Veda are given out by man, they cannot be accepted as true: as he is educated, he becomes intelligent and without education he will be something like a baby or a dumb man. (So it is impossible man himself could have given out the Vedas).

3. If you say that he who made the Vedas is God and He is not a man, when He attains a body He must be a man only and his measure of knowledge is as he is educated. If He gets no visible body, then he can have no (mouth to utter) and mind to think.

3. This last stanza proves that no man could have been the author of the Vedas as man derives all his knowledge from the Vedas themselves. And no God could have revealed it either, which if true, he must have a mouth and mind and senses like man to utter the Veda - in which He is reduced to the condition of man and the former objection again applies. So it is not only among those who disbelieve in the Vedas there are atheists but those within the fold also.

4. All the Devas, Sages and Siddhas and elementals, and everybody else assert that they never heard that the Vedas were revealed by anybody. This is what was been imparted from generation to generation. It could have no human author either, as it treats of future births and states.

5. In the Vedas are comprised all the six angas and the three Upa-Vedas. All knowledge is centred in it. It is eternal, having neither beginning nor end. It is ever consistent and in constant usage.

5. The six angas, are Numbers, Nirukta, Grammar, Chandas, Astronomy, and Kalpa. The three Upa-Vedas, Ayur-Veda (medicine) and Thanur-Veda (science of warfare) and Gandarva-Veda (music).

6. It contains rules and prohibitions, and the description of the true paths and the various mantras and their respective Devas, and the description of the various sacrifices are contained in the Vedas and as such they cannot be all similar. When people understand all the past, present and future, the Vedas appear in some form in all its truth.

7. Observing faultlessly the rules of dividing the words of the Veda, the rules of pronunciation, the Karma prescribed by the Veda should be performed. Then the great boon of Moksha will be secured and all bonds (Pasa) surrendered.

8. The vast universe has neither beginning nor end and is not caused by anyone and is eternal and filled with souls, inseparably united to Karma and manifests itself in the tatwas from earth etc.

9. The Soul is eternal and is omnipresent and is intelligent and is united to Buddhi and other Karanas and is pure and formless and attains bodies in accordance with its previous Karma and understands through the senses.

10. As grass and other leaves used as manure in the fields reproduce themselves, so the past Karma will attach itself to the soul in its next birth and produce frutis.

11. The daily rites performed by a man according to the law will secure happiness. He will secure all kinds of boon he desires, by peforming Agnihotra. By performing Vedic sacrifices (yagnas) he will attain liberation.

12. By means of both the Gnana-kanda and Karma-kanda, a man can liberate himself. By pursuing Gnana marga alone one giving up rituals becomes an out-caste (sinner) and the Vedas themselves do not prescribe any rule of salvation for such a person.

12. Here Gnana marga simply means the belief in the Veda as eternal and uncaused.

1. Of course by inference and by Agama pramana it is proved that the Veda was revealed by God. The Agama praman, comprise the 28 Agama revealed by Siva Himself. Lord Siva has Five faces (Panchanana); from the lower 4 faces the 4 Vedas were uttered and from the upper one the 28 Agamas.

13. The Vedas declare that performance of sacrifices by killing pasu is virtue; following this precept as true if one recites the indestructible mantras he will derive happiness as one, hungry, removes his craving by eating.

HIS REFUTATION.

1. Except your words there is no authority in the Veda itself that the Veda is uncaused (Swayambhu), if there is, you had better show me. The great Mahabharata itself is an example. In the same way the Mahabharata has an example. In the same way the Mahabharata has an author and in the same way as we infer from the presence of things made of earth and cotton, that they were made by potters and weavers, so we infer that Veda was revealed by an author. And the Lord with the crescent moon is also the authority for the Word that the Vedas were revealed by Him.

2. If you say that the Veda was act revealed by God, then they will be merely noises like those heard from the sky without any meaning. And as such they will be faulty. If you say that the Veda spreads its light and makes itself known like a lamp then it must be limited in its nature. This is also what sage Kapila says. Then it must follow what he also says that they have a beginning and an end. How do you prove also that the Veda was formless at one time and became clothed in form at another time? What you have said is simply foolish.

3. You say the Vedas will appear united to a person, as you don't describe the person, even a frog is likely to utter your Veda. If you say that the Vedas do not mention a particular person as its vehicle, that it will be conveyed to a proper person who is proper and fit to receive it, it cannot be. Even when we receive clothes from distant islands we infer there must be a person who manufactured those clothes even though we have not seen them. So there must be an author for the Vedas.

4. You say the Vedas are uncaused as people of different countries speaking various languages accept the Vedas as true. So also are similar pots made in various countries. Hence there must be an author who understanding the words and their meaning reveals those words without fault. If you say the words and meanings become naturally combined as the flowers and their fragrance in a garland even then there must be a person who must choose the words, otherwise they will be merely like the unmeaning roar of the sea.

5. In the same way as we are united to our body so God dwelling in the universe as His body graciously revealed to us the Word or (Vedas) and having been revealed by the eternal uncaused Being, it has been the usage to call also the Veda as eternal and uncaused, in the same way as people regard any letter containing the command of the king as திருமுகம் ( Royal presence itself).

6. If you say that the three higher castes of Brahmans etc., speak the language of the Vedas, then explain how the astrologers who come from the 4th caste learned their science and how is it also that in the North no caste is prohibited from reciting the Vedas. To say that the Veda containing everything in itself is of the nature of sound and that it has no author is to say that persons came to being without a mother.

7. If you say that the soul is intelligent as it is united to the body, then it will be destroyed as the body is destroyed. If you say that the bodily organs themselves become united to the soul, then it has no such power. They became united by the intelligent action of a creator. Plants sprout from seeds in the rainy season and they all die out in the hot weather so the body also dies. Hence the word cannot be said to be eternal.

8. If you say that the soul is omnipresent, then it cannot pursue the paths of virtue enter heaven and be born again. Or if you say it fills the body as the fragrant smell a pot then it will follow that as the body decays the soul must also decay, but you are aware of Yogis leaving one's own body and entering another. As you have not understood the meaning of the Veda in full, your ideas are so confused.

9. As the acts performed by a man die with this body, how do you say that the past reproduce themselves. If you instance the case of manure, then you can as well say that the food eaten every day having been reduced to mere excrement, the excrement can again produce food. As the acts die with the body they cannot of themselves be united to the body in a future birth. There is a Gracious Lord who unites each to eat the fruits of his proper Karma as persons who employ labour give each man his wages according to the work turned out by him.

10. If you say that by performing sacrifices and knowing that the Veda is true you can attain final liberation, but this very performance will induce desire for wealth etc. which will in turn prevent your securing higher knowledge and thus lose all chances of final liberation. The more a man enjoys pleasure by securing wealth the more will his desire be to secure more wealth again. Similarly the desire to perform sacrifices to attain heaven will only induce the desire to perform Karma more and more.

PRAPAKARAN'S STATEMENT.

1. We will state to the world wherein Prapakara differs from Bhattacharya in the exposition of the Doctrines held by that austere ascetic Jaimini Bagavan from a diligent study of the Vedas.

2. Such a thing as Apurva arises after a man has performed austere sacrifices, and it (Apurva) again produces fruits, (in the next birth) after its past Karma has been performed by the body in conjunction with the intelligent Soul. When the Soul has attained to a condition of freedom from all action and results, and remains quiet like a block of earth or stone, then it is that the soul has attained Mukti. This is his statement.

HIS REFUTATION.

1. The Vedas assert that it is the past Karma that produces fruits and you now set up against the authority of the Vedas some new thing as Apurva. If the fruits are not the result of the past Karma but derived newly from Apurva, then we may assert that the flowers of the sky acquired their fragrance, after they were worn on the head.

2. The Vedas speak of Ananda in Mukti, and what you state therefore is erroneous that cessation of intelligence and action is Mukti. As well could you say that the man in a swoon is in Mukti. Fire deprived of its redness (heat) loses its identity. Your assertion that the soul can subsist in Mukti after it loses its intelligence cannot be admitted by us.

2. The Prapakara sets up a new postulate calling it Apurva to explain the Karma being undergone in one's life time, and he does not try to explain it as the effect of past Karma. Apurva means something which did not exist before. The explanation is as much no explanation at all, and naming such notion is like explaining the effects of opium by saying that it is due to its somnolent power.

SABDA BRAHMAVADI'S STATEMENT.

1. It is Sabda (Sound) which is delusively understood as the Universe. The substance postulated by the ignorant, (as different from sound) is a mere myth The right understanding of this doctrine is real Mukti. So says the Sabda Brahmavadi, without a proper study of the nature of the Universe.

2. This delusive perception is caused by the differentiation and increase (Parinama of Sabda); and this results in the seen Universe. As such the only real entity is Sabda. What is called the substance (meaning) is merely the product of Sabda. If you assert otherwise, then no substance does exist without sound name.

3. In two such words 'பூ' and 'ம' meaning respectively flower and Lakshmi at one time and earth and animal at another time, the words (sound) remain the same though the meanings differ. As such it is the words (Sabda) that we lovingly utter that contains the concept meaning different things. This is similar to rice becoming fried rice.

4. It is after we utter a word, we become conscious of the substance; as such, understand that the word (sound) is the only real substance. If you say that the word and its meaning are related together conjointly, then, even when you give the meaning, it is a word.

HIS REFUTATION.

1. If you say the Universe was formed by the delusive differentiation of Sabda, then you had better admit also as a substance this delusive differentiation. If believing in Sabda as a reality is itself Mukti, then you conflict in this matter with the express teaching of the Vedas which insist upon the performance of rites and the attainment of knowledge as the means of salvation.

2. As the Sabda is formless, it could not think of attaining forms when becoming the Universe. If you compare this change to the change of milk into curds, then curds could not become milk and the world could not be reduced back to sound, and your Sabda (sound) will perish.

3. When you predicate change (by Parinama and Vivarthana) of Sabda you must admit at the same time that Sabda is perishable, as the substance indicated by sound is everywhere, the words (sound) become merely the symbols of the things when we wish to know them.

3. Says a commentator : If the thing is the Parinama of sound, then which we utter the name 'fire,' fire must be produced. If the thing is Vivarthana then when we utter the name fir, our tongues must be scorched." As such the thing cannot be derived from Sabda by either mode. The word is a mere symbol or mark (குறிப்பெயர்), by which we have learnt to call the thing.

4. You said that the substance has no form except from sound and that therefore sound is the real substance. The word (sound) அரி has two meanings 'Vishnu' and 'monkey'. Then can you say that Vishnu is monkey if sound be the real substance?

5. Rice requires fire to become fried rice (so the analogy is fallcious). As a number of meanings is united in a word, the learning to know the meanings is knowledge of Sabda; and real knowledge consists in learning to know the distinct Padarthas (things). As such the knowledge of things (substance) is of greater importance than the knowledge of Sabda.

6. The name indicates the thing we have already perceived or about to perceive. As such the substance is really the thing perceived and not the name (sound). Where did you learn to say that Sabda is substance and not the thing.

7. Perecption (knowledge) of a thing is induced when the soul is in conjunction with the internal and external senses and their cause (Prakriti) and the thing perceived and the light of God. In such a perception or knowledge there is no name but only the thing or substance.

8. As a lamp lights the things lying in darkness, so Sabda is an instrument or aid for understanding the substance. The Sabda is not eternal; it will perish. This Sabda was produced by the Almighty God and as such the Sabda cannot be God.

NOTES.

As thus explained and exposed, it might be thought that the system deserves very little consideration, that this represents an effete and obsolete system. But the fallacies inherent in this system are so deep-rooted that they can be detected in many a subtle reasoning today. Many of the word-juggles existing in the Vedanta philosophy can be traced to the influence of this system, such as the myth of the Nama Rupa Prapancha, as illustrated by the simile of the sea and the wave and the foam and in many another argument. The names or sounds are themselves taken for things and hence the confusion in thought. It is forgotten that a name is 'merely a mark attached to a thing to enable it to be spoken about,' and that there may be knowledge without language and things without names. Says Dr. Bain, "The knowledge that guides the lower animals is unconnected with language. They observe by their senses the things about them; and the observations are remembered in sensible forms. The brush that gives shelter the herbage for food, the animals to be preyed upon, are known and sought after, by the sole guidance of sense impressions."

"Human beings have numerous experience of the same kind involving the order of nature, without being connected with words. The child has a large stock of sense-knowledge before it can understand and employ language. The skill of the artisan consists, for the largest part, in associations between sensible appearances and movements; so the stone polisher the sight of the surface at once suggests the next blow. Even in a highly intellectual profession, as the practice of Physic, the consummation of skill requires a large sense of knowledge passing beyond the scope of language. The physician learns from books, everything that can be expressed in words; but there are delicate shades of diagnosis that no language can convey, stored up without verbal expression, in the eye, the ear and the touch." "And there are numerous sources of error, pitfalls and snares in the use of names, and mostly in the abuse of abstract names, which is exemplified in the almost irresistible tendency they have to suggest the existence of things in the abstract." The other branch of the Sabda Brahmavadis, believe in the Vedic mantra (sound) as all powerful and that no higher power like God is at all necessary to explain the existence and origin of the Universe and that Sabda is itself God. There are believers in the Veda like Jaimini and his pupils and in the efficacy of Vedic rites and ceremonies, and yet who believed in no God. Among the modern day Brahmins, many may be found who strictly adhere to the belief that the Vedic mantra alone is all powerful and Siddhis &c. can be acquired by the power of the mantra without belief in God. The phrase 'Mantric Power' embodies the fallacy of the whole system, as opposed to Divine Power. Consider the following quotation from Barth, "Sacrifice is only an act of preparation, it is the best of acts, but it is an act and its fruits consequently perishable. Accordingly although whole sections of these treatises (Upanishads are taken up exclusively with speculations on the rites, what they teach may be summed up in the words of the Mundaka Upanishad, 'Know the Atman only and away with everything else; it alone in the bridge of immortality.' The Veda itself and the whole circle of sacred science are quite as sweepingly consigned to the second place. The Veda is not the true Brahm; it is only its reflexion. And the science of this imperfect Brahm, this Sabda Brahm or Brahm in words only is a science of a lower order. The true science is that which has the true Brahm, the Para Brahm for its subject." The Rishis of Tarukavana were votaries of the Sabda Brahm and they believed that they could effect their salvation by the Vedic Mantra alone and thought, like Indra and Agni of old noticed in the Kena Upanishad that they required all their powers by their own will and independent of the Divine help, and became thoroughly filled with Egoism (Ahankara). This Ahankara had to be destroyed. Their power and sanctity had to be put to the test. Their power was so frail that their sanctity left them the moment they and their wives saw the form of Mohini and Bitchadana. Then they tried their powers to destroy these மான்மறை chiefly as the sound uttered by it is supposed to resemble the Vedic chant and the Rishis created a gigantic deer and sent it out to kill Siva. It raised such a tremendous bleat as to reach the uttermost regions and yet it affected not the Supreme; and the One took it in its hands and held it quite close to its ear. This allegory truly illustrates the principle that however loud we may shout out the name of God, we cannot reach him and know him, unless we do it in all love and in all spirit. One other remark and we close our notes. In regard to Bhattacharya's system, that the Veda is unrevealed (Swayambu) it will be interesting to note that of the present day Hindu systems, except Saivism, all the other schools hold to this doctrine and Saivism alone believes in the Veda as revealed and God as the revealer. If other schools, hold that the Veda is not revealed, it is because the Beings they believe in are not expressly mentioned in the Veda itself as the revealer or they have not ascended to the true idea of God as the revealer of all knowledge out of His Infinite Grace. In any view, it cannot be true that the Veda was self-caused. It must either have an human author or a Divine author and it can only be an euphemism to call it Swayambu.

MAYAVADI'S STATEMENT.

1. We will state the system promulgated by the Mayavadi himself, who incorrectly believing that he is himself God and all the world is a whirl car, and yet dwelling in the body, professes to initiate other Jivas in his path.

1. Some uncomplimentary epithets are applied to the Mayavadi, as he mistakes the Jiva subject to karma, birth and death and suffering, who has no independence (Aswatantra) and is of imperfect intelligence with the Being, who is eternally free and intelligent, and omniscient, self-dependent (Swadavne) and self-luminous (Swamprakasa) and all powerful; and the inconsistency of his position is brought out that while he professes to be himself God he could not avoid dwelling in this body of sin and sorrow and while he professes to reject the whole world as delusive, he believes in the authority of the Vedas and the rules prescribed therein.

2. This Brahman is the cause of all the worlds, the limitless bliss and intelligence, is formless, omnipresent and eternal, is true and pure, free from all marks and attributes, and is the measure of the Vedas, and is without distinction of Gnathuru and Gnana.

3. As the one Sun shining in numerous pots of water leaves its reflection in each and yet passes beyond, so this one God lives in each body and yet is imperceptible to the senses and andakaranas. Accordingly God cannot be known by the 6 kinds of proof such as observation &c.

3. The 6 kinds of logical proof admitted by the Mayavadi are obeservations inference, Agama, Upamana, Aruthapatti and Abava.

The being above the andakaranas is God, Jiva being also above the andakaranas Jiva and God are identical. Professors of this school however quibble and differ a good deal about the precise meaning of the Jiva or Atma or Purusha or soul. One learned Swami defined it as a combination of Brahman's shadow, a bit of andakarana and a bit of Avidya! Another talented lady when we asked for a definition, and we expected more light from her, gave an answer of the type of the old school master's definition, 'refer to the dictionary' and we were told to refer to the Gita and Brihadaranyaka. We will discuss these definitions and others later on.

Will any Sanskrit Pundit tell us in which of the 108 Upanishads this illustration occurs? Whether it occurs in any of the 12 Principal Upanishads?

4. The rope appears as snake in darkness. When light dawns, the rope appears as rope and the snake disappears as a delusion. Similarly, the world appears as Sat when deluded; in spotless wisdom, the true Chit appears as Sat; and all the world's allurements will appear mad.

5. The world appears derived from the Nirvachana Brahman. If not, it cannot come into being at all. If it is an independent material cause, it must exist for ever. (The reason why it changes is) because is a delusion. When both the shell and the silver piece are thrown into the furnace the silver comes out bright but the shell is destroyed. So, in paramarthika, the changeless God appears as true and the world disappears as false.

6. The material cause of the world is the Sat. As the spider produces from itself the thread and works it into a web and then takes it back into itself, so God, originates the world as real, and sustains it and when he resolves it, it becomes unreal again. Looking to its place of origin, the world and all its appearances are also Sat.

7. The course of evolution is this. From Brahm was produced Akas, from Akas air; from air fire; from fire, water; from water, earth; and from these elements, plants, and from plants food, and from food, the body and its six component parts.

7. The 6 parts are skin, bone, blood, nerves, flesh, and semen.

8. The above mentioned six parts constitute annamayakosha; when the air vitalizes these, they constitute the pranamayakosha; with the manas, they form the manomayakosha; with buddhi and gnanendriya they constitute the vignanomayakosha; with the above and karmendriyas, they constitute the anandamayakosha.

8. Kosha means an organ or part.

9. This Brahman appears united in this visible body composed of the above mentioned Panchakoshas. The way in which he so appears is similar to the rays of the Effulgent Sun which is difficult to be reached in the sky becoming reflected in several pots of water. Yet God does not become tainted by such contact, as Pasa cannot bind God.

9. If so, we have asked, to whom is Bhanda, birth and death, sin and sorrow to whom is moksha? Do all these happen to the Atma or to the body? If to the body, and the soul does not suffer, why care we to attain freedom from death and birth? What reek we if the body suffers all this? Are we really seeking moksha for the flesh and not for the soul? Are all these things delusions merely? If so will not the attempt to free one from delusion be itself a delusion? And then why should it not remain in eternal delusion? Are there any defects attached to remaining in this state of delusion and what are they? These question and more have been asked again and again, and except the honest reply that they are nor answerable, no reply has ever been forthcoming. And yet the tide rolls on forever and how many get plunged under its blinding waves?

10. As the same thread strung through countless beads of different colours appears also as parti-coloured, so the one God dwelling in different bodies appears as different beings and appears as undergoing different kinds of enjoyments without in fact undergoing such.

10. To whom does he appear as different and as undergoing different experiences. To himself or to others? If to others, who are they

11. The one Brahman is known by different names by its union in different bodies and appears to undergo enjoyments of pleasure and pain. It undergoes in the body the four avasthas, Jagra, Swapna, Sushupti and Thuriya. In Jagra it is in conjunction with the organs; in Swapna with four; in Sushupti one; and in Thuriya all these organs, and the resulting enjoyments vanish.

11. The five external senses, eye, ear &c., and the five sensations sabda &c., and the four andakaranas are the fourteen organs active in Jagra; the four active in Swapna are the four andakaranas; and the one in Sushupti is chitta.

12. To identify all the bodily organs as the self is Bhanda; when this false knowledge is destroyed, mukti is attained. The seed of Bhanda is in avidya; and by its acts, maya and its products attach to the Brahman. When avidya is destroyed, maya also vanishes, when this happens, (gnana) is secured, and Butha knowledge disappears.

13. By practice of Karmic rites andakaranas get purified. This purification will induce Gnana (wisdom). This Gnana will induce the knowledge of 'Aham Brahmasmi' 'I am God.' When this 'Ahambrahma' knowledge attains perfection, the self can be perceived in maya as the Moon's reflection is seen in still water.

13. Who attains Gnana, Brahman or something else? Is this attainment real or false? Why should this be possible by the purification of bodily senses? Cannot the Brahman see his form except in Maya and before he attains Mukti?

14. Brahmagnana is knowledge that the Ego is Brahman. And when the self becomes self, and enjoys the self in the self, and when such things as body, senses, prana, lose their form and name, when the great elements are destroyed and the self remains unchangeable, this knowledge is possible.

15. When we understand the Mahavakyas such as 'Tatva masi' &c., enshrined in the Vedas, they teach us no more truth that that thou art God. Those who do not attain this knowledge perform worship on the five Asanas (postures) and eight kinds of yoga, for the purpose of attaining this soham knowledge.

15. The five asanas are Kurmasana, Anantasana, Sihmasana, Padmasana, and Yogasana. Eight minds of Yoga are Iyama, Nyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyakara, Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi.

MAYAVADI'S REFUTATION.

1. The confusing statement of the Mayavadi that he is god and that jivas should attain Mukti by attaining Ahambrahma gnanam does not explain the true meaning of Soham Bavana and Mokshananda. His statment is like that of one who says that the barren crow picked a piece of rock flesh, and with it fed its young ones, to satisfy their hunger and thirst.

2. If it is true that the Veda states that there is only One, (without a second Padartha), then as the same Veda states that there are gnathuru, gnana and gneya the statement that there is only one becomes refuted. Besides the statements being contradictory, the value of the Vedic authority will suffer (or that statement of Ahambrahmagnanam is inconsistent with the Vedic doctrine of 'Tatvamasi'). As you do not postulate an intelligence as the soul, separate from God, Anubhuti (enjoyment) in Bliss is rendered impossible.

2. Gnathuru or the knower is the soul. Gnana is the chit sakti of God whereby the soul knows. Gneya, the known is God. Anubhuti implies both perception, knowledge and enjoyment. Unless difference lies at the root, such perception or knowledge is not possible.

3. Your postulate of the only one Existence cannot be true, as, following the analogy of one Sun shining in many pots of water, the one (God) is formless (unextended) and it cannot unite with a body with form (extended) and cannot produce reflexion (extended form); and no reflexion is also possible, as there is no second thing in which the reflexion can be formed; and as it also follows that someone else is required to see the reflexion of the Sun (God) formed in the water (body).

3. Other objections are taken as follow. How can the limitless and formless and eternal Being originate in a finite and changeable and extended body? The sun is limited and extended, its reflection is further limited and extended, and the pot of water is also limited and extended. What is reflected is not the sun but one only of its countless rays. There is as such division of the one God involved. And no one mistakes the reflexion itself for the sun.

4. The being dwelling in the body does not understand except in conjunction with the different senses external and internal, shastras also support such view; and yet you assert like the man who asserts the existence of hare's horns, that the One Brahman in union with the body knows by itself. And then the Brahma Gnana said to be attained by your One Being cannot be of much real import. Difference does exist between the Supreme spirit and the human spirit.

4. In this verse, a fact is appealed to as proof, besides authority. The fact is that human intelligence is found to be possible in manifestation only when in conjunction with the bodily organs. Between the human mind and the body there is an exact correspondence, correlation and connection and the one rises or falls with the development or decay of the bodily organs. If this being is a vibhu, the bodily powers tend to limit this intelligence and it becomes an anu (அனு). This fact is either real or not. If real, it requires an explanation. Which is the being which is so limited by the body or which grows or decays with the growth or decay of the body itself? Which is it therefore which is in Bhanda? We point to a being which is in Bhanda; and which is this Being? It cannot be God or Brahman, as the very idea of God is opposed to all sense of limitation, growth and decay. What else is it that is in Bhanda? The Siddhanta view that it cannot be God and that it is the soul different from God that is actually in Bhanda becomes irresistible. If the soul is not postulated, the Bhanda will and must surely be ascribed to Brahman. If the idea of Bhanda is itself declared unreal, then the idea of seeking liberation from it, the usefulness of Tapas, Sadana, Sadushtaya and Yoga and Gnana the idea of moksha are also delusions and we will be landed in a practical absurdity, and moral suicide. We need not quote more than verses 36 to 38 in Gita chap. 3, to strengthen the position that man is really dragged into the mire and made to commit, as it were by will constrained (Sankara explains as a servant by the king) and Avidya and Maya becomes the Kind as the Jiva becomes the servant. (See the whole note in pp.24 to 32 in my edition of Light of Grace). What can it else be but blasphemy to call 'this' that a smoke-enveloped and rust-covered and sin-subjugated, as the one Supreme Light which is 'Svampara Prakasa,' 'Svadavhne,' and 'Sva Yasase,' 'Siva, Svahan' and 'Sva Yasya'?

The brilliance in the ruby is only a separable accident. In darkness it has no brilliance. The brilliance is really derived from external light. As God is nirguna, His relation to the soul or world as guni and gana cannot be postulated. The Mayavadis would deny to God, Will, Intelligence and Power, his authorship of the world and would interpose a lower brahman, who possesses these attributes; and South Indians who belong to this school regard this lower brahman as asat or no Brahman at all, whereas those in the north of Swami Vivekananda school (the editor of the Light of the East asks why should we distinguish between Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra because all these are only asat) fully identify the two, saying the distinction is without difference. Some in the South again would deny that this one is Satchidananda, while those in the north admit it to be such. Under any system of theistic philosophy Indian or foreign, the only proof we have of God is because we require an intelligent and an all powerful Being who is the author of the origination, sustentation and resolution of this world and possesses neither gnana and kriya, the position of the Lokayitha is only thereby strengthened and we cannot prove the existence of such a god. We have elsewhere states our reasons why the brahman referred to in the second of the Brahma Sutras, cannot be regarded as the lower one in addition to the reasons pointed out by Dr. Thibaut.

5. If you compare the oneness to the unity of the ruby and its brilliance, you only destroy the oneness. Besides, the ruby and its light are related as guni and guna. If you deny even the attribute of Ghaha, Gnana and Kriya to the One, then the One cannot create this world and It cannot be intelligent.

6. You state that the world is produced from sat as when the straw sticking out of an ant-hill is fancied with great fear to be snake. If so, the person, becoming so deluded must also be the Vikara or modification of your Brahman. Such doctrine will only induce deluded knowledge and you will never attain Divine Bliss.

6. The fallacy in this simile is in omitting the seer in the Prameya to whom God appears falsely as the world. There being merely God it is unintelligible how any betha knowledge will arise at first unless the one himself became a Vikari modified by delusion. When He clothes himself in delusion the world would result, when he did not choose, the world will not result. As such, maya becomes a real Bhanda of Brahman? Fancy how it looks that this Brahman should forget himself and mistake himself for what he is not. In our human experience and in the illustration of rope and snake, it always happens that when such illusions are caused, the very thing involves the existence of two real things and of these two one is mistaken for the other. Both snake and rope are real things. Both of them we know independently. We mistake the rope for the snake. Why? Because our eyesight is dimmed by darkness or weakened by some nervous condition of the system. With perfect vision and in light, we will never make the mistake. The real cause of the mistake is thus traced to an imperfect intelligent mind and does not exist in the rope or snake itself. So the question resolves itself into this. Why is the human mind imperfect? If it was ever perfect, why did it become so? This question is fully discussed in the article 'Another Side printe in No.3 of Vol. I of this journal and need not therefore be discussed by me at length here.

That the simile involves a real difference of padarthas combined with a mistaken similarity is well pointed out by Sri la Sri S. Somasundara Nayagar in his numerous works. The two things will not be mistaken for each other if there were no points of similarity between the two. The snake will only be perceived in a rope twisted as a snake is. It will not be perceived in a piece of rock or clay, or shell or silver or any other dissimilar thing. The snake perceived will be of the same dimensions as the original rope. Are all these circumstances present in the Prameya. God is Sat, Intelligent and Ananda. The world is asat, unintelligent and sorrow producing. Is there any point of contact between the two?

7. How do you make out that the world is Nirvachana? Can any fool talk of a thing which is existing and not existing at the same time? If it has an origin, then it must have an existence. If it does not exist, it will never come into being. When we, however, ordinarily speak of its non-existence, we simply refer to its resolution into its invisible primordial cause.

8. If you say that God and the world bear some resemblance to each other though different like the shell and silver, then we may mistake the world also to be God or an illusion. If you say that Maya was only real when we mistook it for God but became unreal when we saw otherwise, this cannot be. The world in spite of its changes remains unchangeable. Earth cannot become air or fir or vice versa. So the world is real both in Vyavakara and Paramartha.

8. The argument contained in this verse is more pithily expressed in the following couplet.

"இருபொருளுமுண்டேல் எழும்விபரீதம் ஒருபொருளிற் றேன்றாதென்றேர்." "If both things exist, then will arise illusions; Not, when one alone exists."

For an illusion to be called an illusion, there must be a reality underneath the illusion. When all are illusions, the dividing line between an illusion and a reality is destroyed, and the illusion itself becomes a reality. So it is that the Mayavadi is able to perform the remarkable somersaoult, that while he loses no moment, no opportunity to call everything but his Egosim - we beg pardon - his Ego to be false, he is as much rooted to the things of this earth as anybody else.

9. If you state that the false world arises out of Brahm as the threads which came out of the spider, then it must follow that (the changeless and formless) Intelligence becomes changed and formed into the visible world and corrupted and deluded. If you reply that the spider is not caught in the toils of its own web; but, (then the change would otherwise be impossible), as no cloth can come out of mud.

9. These two quoted by Gnanapragasar contain the same arguments in simpler language.

"சிலம்பி நூல்போலச் சகம்பரத் திற்றேன்றின். மலம் பரத்துண் டேமதி." "If as web from spider, from God the world appear, Sin is present in God, it is clear. இன்றேற் சடமண்ணிறுவாய்ப் பரத்தெழா இல்றே படமண்ணிலே; "If not, the achit world will not from God arise As cloth from mud you can't in any way surprise.

Of course, some belonging to this school, possessed of a 'sharp intellect and bold understanding do not pause to assert the identity of God and Maya, but we need not be forced into such absurdity if we understand the simile aright. The Mayavadi understands the spider to produce the web which did not exist before or to produce from the same substance as itself. If, however, we distinguish the spider into its life principle, the being with intelligence, volition, judgment &c., and its body, from the shapeless secretions of which the beautiful web is designed, no better simile can be thought out for describing God's creation of the world. The world and creatures stand to God as the body to the soul. From out of His body, from out of the shapeless Maya, He wills that these worlds should arise. The intelligence and design apparent in creation is all his own and can no more be due to Maya, than the beauty and design and judgment displayed in the web can that of the web itself. The material fo the web was neither non-existent before nor after. And it cannot be said to be of the same nature as the spider's life principle. So all this material cause of this world was neither non-existent before nor after and cannot be of the same nature as God's . But as in popular language we always identify the soul and body together, our poets and philosophers always sing of the identity of the worlds and God; though they at the same time take care to assert their difference. Even the insignificant spider has a purpose in making its web; but by denying the existence of the separate souls, Mayavadi's would deny to God that He has any purpose in creating and resolving these worlds. c.f. Sweta Upanishad vi 10. "May the One God who, spider-like, enwind's Himself with threads spun from Pradhana, following His nature's law, may He bestow on us regression into Brahm."

10. You say that God manifests Himself in different bodies. If God, is so present, then why does He not manifest Himself when the body undergoes various avasthas, such as Swapna, Sushupti, &c., (or in dead bodies). If you explain, that it is so, as manas and other karanas are not active, then, it must be, that either God became non-intelligent at times, or with all His presence, the senses became dead.

10. The Purvapakshi cites as an example the presence of Akas in different pots. To this, the following objections are taken. Why does Brahman leave the dead body? Even when Brahman is present, why do the senses become active and inactive? If the same Being is present in all bodies, why do you hate some people and love others? Why is one of different thinking from another? Why is one an athiest, and another a theist? Why does one undergo misery, when another undergoes pleasure? Is the person suffering in hell, the same as one entering Moksha? Are the King punishing, the felon punished, and their respective capacities the same?

11. You assert that Brahman is present in these bodies, without any attachment. Yet this Brahman, would not leave the body even when it becomes sinful and deceased by old age &c., and shudders at the very thought of such leaving! Though you are fully aware that your Brahman, soul is attached, it is your vain hope that it be not so.

12. You spoke of the beautiful beads strung on one string, and of these beads being different and yet resting on the same string. You are no doubt correct in comparing the different worlds to the beads and the one unchangeable God to the string. So the worlds change but God remains unchangeable; but that does away with your doctrine of Abetha.

12. The Siddhanta accepts the simile, and no wonder, because the simile occurs in the Gita a non-mayavada work. "There is naught whatever higher than I, O Dhananjaya. All this is woven in me, as multitudes of jewels on a string." (viii. 7)

13. Hear O, madman, who say that God is covered by aviddei and maya in union with the body and undergoes pleasures and pains, and yet at the same time assert that He has no attachment. This only appears from your statement that the doctrine of non-attachment cannot be true. If not, why do you undergo pleasure and pains from attachment in actual life. If you say that this is only a bavana of the Jiva, then you must have really no shame to say that the Brahman has no attachment and that the Supreme is past thought and speech and that this Supreme Being is yourself.

14. If the A'tma fills each and everybody entirely then it cannot undergo the avastas, and become inactive. If you say that it is not the A'tma but the andakaranas that undergo the avastas, then where did your God who was present in the body hide himself? If God was present, the Karanas could not become inactive. If you compare God's action on the andakaranas to that of the magnet on a piece of iron, then the same analogy does not explain how the andakaranas become inactive.

15. If we can see today a sun veiled by darkness, then may a Brahman exist veiled by ignorance mistaking its body and senses for itself. The statement that the soul having its ignorant covering, attains knowledge by clearly perceiving itself to be God, and enters moksha, where the soul becomes itself the only Sat, can only be ridiculous as it involves the proposition that the amala (Pure) God can, at the same time, be impure, to necessitate its removal.

16. Purity cannot become an accident of the Supreme Praram. It is an eternal attribute of Him. You ascribe impurity to the chit (soul) derived from Brahman, and in consequence, you impute impurity to its cause, Brahman also. You do not understand the nature of the soul and mala and karma and maya and their First Cause, the Supreme God. If you instance the analogy of fire latent before and now manifest in wood, this only applies to the case of body and soul, and implies duality.

17. When you speak of the self enjoying in the self, duality is clearly involved. If you say that you do not perceive yourself on the enjoyer, then the person enjoying himself is gone. If you say that Moksha is merely removal of ignorance, even then there will be sentience present. If you deny this sentience and say that conscious sentience is only Maya then your Brahman itself can only be all Maya and be therefore destructible.

18. Understand well the meaning of the Vedic Text 'Tatvamasi' (Thou art that). Knowing well the distinction between yourself and the Supreme Cause, practice Soham bavana. To approach the Feet of the Lord difficult to be thought of by the Gods, practice the beautiful Sadanas and attain Yoga and Gnana.

PARINAMA VADAM.

1. Though agreeing with the Mayavadi in regarding the Veda as Swayambu yet he differs from him in regard to the end of the Veda, and postulates both betham and abetham of Brahm. This philosophy we will expound herein.

2. It is Chit that evolves by Parinama into this world and Jivas, so Sat (Brahm) is all. The Vedas declare the means whereby the bliss of Moksha can be secured. If these means are followed, the Jiva will lose his separateness and become One with Brahm. So the Parinamavadi states.

HIS REFUTATION.

1. Brahm cannot become this world, as the same entity cannot become matter and yet be separate from matter. If you instance the salt present in union with sea-water, even then, the nature of salt is quite distinct from the water and the subject cannot divide itself into subject and object. Why do you confuse yourself whose intelligence is so ponderable!

2. If you assert that this world forms only a fractional part of God, then this part becomes destroyed in time, and is reproduced from maya. If you say that it resolves into Brahman itself, then this portion of Brahman becomes mere insentient matter only, by reason of this origination and dissolution. And as you yourself evolve with this world, your intelligence aspiring to soham cannot itself be real and cannot but be insentient matter.

2. The seed and the tree, gold and ornaments, sea, and salt produced from sea are the familiar analogies of this school.

3. You instanced the seed as the Brahm and the true as the world. Then your describing God as Eternal and unchangeable cannot be true and your Brahm will change into insentient matter and die out again as such. Besides, when the seed develops into the tree it has the support of the earth (for nourishment etc) but whence does your Brahman derive support.

O you, who have become Brahman, you will be ridiculed by the world as mad.

4. If you say that as from gold is produced all kinds of ornaments, so all the world is God, then it must follow that there must be a person who created this world and persons for whom this world was created, as we infer from your analogy, persons who made the gold ornaments and persons who wear them.

5. The Jiva cannot reach the Heaven of Moksha, if its intelligence and volition die out. Yet you say, he can reach Brahman by losing his intelligence and volition. If this individual intelligence &c. die out, then there is nothing to unite with God. If without such annihilation, you can reach bliss, then why don't you enjoy it in this body, but instead, try to rid yourself of it and subject yourself to all sorts of mortification.

5. Mula or Root is here identified by our commentators with Chitta or Intellect, in which case what Mr. Davies says cannot be correct. He says, "The mental physiology of Kapila is imperfect. The 'intellect' (buddhi) merely represents sensational ideas in a complete form to the gaze of the soul and the soul never acts. It does not appear therefore how abstract ideas are formed or by what means a course of reasoning can be carried on. The Vedantists add a fourth faculty called Chitta, the thinking or reasoning faculty." We are not sure also if he is correct in translating buddhi as intellect and chitta as reason. See pp.48 and 49 Sivagnanabotham for our definiton of these terms Puriashtaka comprise Manas, Buddhi and Ahankara and the five tanmatra, sound, sight, touch, smell and taste. Vikriti are the gross elements and senses, ----- namely, five elemetns, five organs of sense, the eye, the ear, the nose, the tongue and the skin; the five organs of action (Karmendriya) the voice, hand, the feet, the anus and the organs of generation. The Sankhya Karika gives a slightly different classification. Prakriti (mula) is not produced. Prakriti in this sense is the Tamil word Pakuthi (பகுதி). That which is produced is Vikriti, same as Tamil (Vikuthi) (விகுதி). Mahat or Buddhi, and Ahankara and the 5 tanmatras are both Pakuthi, (பகுதி) as they are producing and Vikuthi (விகுதி) as they are produced from Mula Prakriti. The rest 16 are Vikuthi (விகுதி) only (including the 5 elements and 5 senses and 5 organs of action and manas). The five tanmatras are produced from Ahankara. So the number of tatwas (Prakriri) is variously given as 24 or 19, when we include the 5 tanmatras or omit them in the enumeration. Including Purusha, the total number is 25. The Siddhanta classification, as will be seen from the table printed in No. 11, Vol. I of this Magazine, accepts these 25 tatwas and postulates 11 more, c.f. Vayusamhita, Purva 25, Ch. 15.

"Sankhya yoga prasiddhani tatvanyapi kanichit

Siva sastra prasiddhani tatonyaniyapi critnasah."

Prakriti is called Mula as it is the root of all the 24 tatwas, and as it is the first cause and is causeless it is called Param. The Puriashtaka form the Sukshuma Sarira. The gross body, Stula Sarira is formed of Manas, Buddhi, and Ahankara, 5 tanmatras, 5 senses, and 5 organs of action. Mula Prakriti or Pradhana is called Vyakta or manifest. The manifested or seen is Sat, and the manifested is Asat (unseen). The soul or Purusha or Buman is unmanifested or Avyata. Asat is explained as அப்பிரகசமாய் நிற்றல் or விளங்காமல் நிற்றல் or முனைத்திடாமை by Saint Meikandan and Saint Arul Nandi and that this is the original and true meaning and not unreal or non-existent or illusory will be apparent from the learned note on 'Sat and Asat' from Mr. J. A. Davics M.A., which we take the liberty to extract today. We stated elsewhere how this misreading and misunderstanding and incorrect translation have been the parent of so much confusion and tortuous reasoning. The phrase 'Sat and Asat' and 'neither Sat nor Asat' occurs very frequently and always in conjunction as a phrase in the Gita, Mahabharata and Upanishads and Vedas; and when it is said of God or Soul that it is 'neither Sat nor Asat' the meaning is intelligible enough if the phrase (Sat and Asat) means only Prakriti (both unmanifest and manifest), but it is quite unmeaning if God is spoken of as neither existing nor non-existing, neither real nor unreal. The mistake consists in reading into these primitive words mistaken notions developed in quite medieval times. The original meaning is still preserved in popular language when a man states what he saw with his own eyes and saw with his own ears, that is Sat and Satyam (truth) and the rest is not Satyam. A hearsay evidence might be as much of a truth by itself as direct testimony, and yet the latter is alone truth, though a witness giving hearsay evidence is not a liar. The word Sat originally meaning seen and latterly meaning truth, and from truth to permanency, and the only thing permanent, thus it came to be applied to Soul, and God and as distinguished from them, Prakriti was called Asat, and when the word Sat has been more often confined to God, the word Satasat has been brought into use to mean Soul or Purusha. The same changes can be traced in other words also, as in the word Atma, which beginning to mean mere life, living things, animals, living body, manas, soul and going up to God has been latterly confined to mean Soul and God, and necessity arising to distinguish between these two 'Atmas, the words Paramatma and Atma have come into use. In the Tamil language these last meanings have become fixed. Atma meaning only Soul or Purusha and not God; and Paramatma meaning God, though owing to the recent Sanskrit revival, some thoughtless writers of Tamil are again trying to confuse these words vide - Chudamani Niganta.

NOTE ON THE MEANING OF SAT AND ASAT.

There is a general misunderstanding of these terms as used in the philosophy of the Hindus, especially in the system of Kapila, Sat is supposed to mean existence and Asat is therefore represented as its logical opposite or rather contracictory, the negation of being, or non-existence. Thus Dr. Mule writes: 'These ideas of entity and non-entity seem to have been familiar to the Vedic poets and we find it thus declared (R. V. X. 72, 2, 3), that in the beginning non-entity was the source of entity. 'In the earlier age of the gods entity sprang from non-entity in the first age of the gods entity sprang from non-entity (asat).' In the Atharva Veda (X.7.10) it is said that 'both non-entity and entity exist within, the god Skambha;' and in V.25 of the same hymn, 'powerful indeed are those gods who sprang from non-entity. Men say that that non-entity is once the highest member of Skambha.' The Taittiriya Upanishad also (p.99), quotes a verse to the effect: 'This was at first non-entity. From that sprang entity (Sat0." And in a note he adds" "This phrase is also applied to Agni in R.V. X.5.7, where it is said that that god, being 'a thing both Asat, non-existent (i.e., unmanifested), and Sat, existent (i.e., in a latent state or in essence), in the highest heaven, in the creation of Daksha, and in the womb of Aditi, became in a former age the first boon of our ceremonial, and is both a bull and a cow." (Progress of the Vedic Religion, Journal A. S, 1865, p. 317). So also Professor Max Muller writes: "Some of the ancient sages, after having arrived at the idea of Avyakrita, undeveloped, went even beyond, and insted of the Sat or To on, they postulated as Asat, To my on as the beginning of all things. Thus we read in the Chhandogya Upanishad "And some say in the beginning there was Asat (not being) alone, without a second; and from this Asat might the Sat be born" (Sans. Literature, P. 324). There is occasionally some confusion in the minds of Hindu writers, especially the later ones, about the meaning of Sat and Asat; but, with Kapila and his exponents, Sat denotes the existence of things in the manifold forms of the external world, the Daseyn of Hegel, the Natura naturate of Spinoza, and Asat is the opposite of this or the formless Prakriti, the mind-matter from which all formal existence has sprung. Sat corresponds in each separate form to the "being-this" of Hegel, and Kapila argues, as the German philosopher, that "by virtue of its predicate of merely being this, every something, is a finite." and therefore it is an effect, because otherwise we could only conceive it as absolute being, and therefore unlimited. Soul was something different from both. So in the Satapatha Brahmana (X, 5, 3, 1) it is said, "in the beginning this universe was, as it were, and was not, as it were. Then it was only that mind. Wherefore it has been declared by the rishi, 'There was then neither non-entity (asat) nor entity (sat); for mind was, as it were, neither entity nor non-entity." The meaning is that mind is neither the primal matter (Prakriti), (which Kapila assumed to be the source of all formal existence), nor the sum of existing things. The Vedantists taught that this primal matter was the Sakti, or productive energy of Brahma. So says Sankara Acharya 'We (Vedanthists) consider that this primordial state of the world is dependent upon the Supreme Deity, (Parameswara) and not self-dependent. And this state to which we refer much of necessity be assumed, as it is essential for without it the creative action of Supreme Deity could not be accomplished, since if be were destitute of his Sakti, any activity on his part would be inconceivable." (Comm.) on the Brahma Sutras, Muir's Sans. Texts IV. 164). The full development of the Vedantist's doctrine made the external world to be only maya, illusion. There is nearly neither Sat nor Asat, but the Supreme Spirit is absolutely the All. Nature is only the projection of the One, or, as Hegel thought, for he was essentially a Vedantist. "The idea in its externality, in having fallen from itself into a without in time and space," but this is only a manifestation of the absolute. "The Absolute, the being-thinking (the ultimate synthesis of existence and thought, of object and subject), passes through the three periods, and manifests itself as idea in, and for itself (thinking); secondly, in the being otherwise, or in objectiveness and externality (nature) thirdly, as the idea which from its externality, has returned itself, (mind)." (Chalybaus, Hist of Spec. Phil. Eng. ed. P. 362). As Mr. Morrell has expounded his views and correctly, I may add, "With him God is not a person, but personality itself, i.e., the universal personality which realises itself in every human consciousness, as so many separate thoughts of one eternal mind... God is with him, the whole process of thought, combining in itself the objective movement as seen in Nature with the subjective as seen in logic, and fully realising itself only in the universal, spirit of humanity." (Mod Phil. II. 189). Pure Vedantism? though Hegel, if he were alive, would protest, against such a statement. But Kapila, was not a Vedantist. With him, the aggregate, of existing things, and each separate existence (Sat), and the formless Prakriti from which they issued (Asat), were objectively real and eternally distinct from Soul, though both Soul and Prakriti are eternal, and uncaused. Dr. Muir, however, refers to the commentators, on the Rig-Veda, who explain Asat as meaning, "an undeveloped state" and adds that if we accept this statement, there will be no contradiction Asat does not mean simply an undeveloped state but the state of pure or formless existence, of the primal substance from which all forms have sprung. It is clear, however, that if Asat means, an undeveloped state then Sat must mean, not the essence of anything, but a developed state, the development of the existing world as Kapila uses it. The writer of the Vedic hymn (R. V. X. 57) meant to say that Agni was Asat, but, became Sat in the birth. (Janman), of Daksha and in the womb of Aditi. It is clear also that Kapila, in this part of his system, incorporated, an older theory, in which Asat denoted, at least the undeveloped state from which existing things have been developed. Sat was the whole of existent things. In Rig-Veda I 96, 7, Agni is called Sat as gopa, the guardian of that which has a present being. There is also the germ of another part of his system in a hymn of this Veda. (X. 129). "There was then neither Asat nor Sat." There was only the one Supreme Spirit dwelling on self-existence. "Desire, then, in the beginning, (agree) arose in It, which was the earliest germ of mind, and wise men there behold in their heart, not being ignorant, that this is the bond between Asat and Sat." In the system of Kapila, it is an unconscious impulse on the art of Prakriti, or instinctive desire to set the soul free from matter which causes the emanation of Prakriti into the manifold forms of developed life (Sat). This latter was, in Kapila's view, an effect, because developed, and implying therefore a developing cause.

HIS REFUTATION.

1. If the Purusha's intelligence is pure, Prakriti cannot envelope it. As such, even after Moksha, he will become covered again. As we cannot get rid of the evil effects of Prakriti by perceiving them to be evil with the aid of the Supreme Intelligence (Parasakti or Divine Arul); he can never attain Moksha. To the Pure Being (God) there is no veiling by Mulaprakriti.

2. When the Purusha is united to Prakriti, the Purusha's intelligence becomes cleared up a little and with this it guides the dark Prakriti and eats the fruits therefof, as does the lame man seated on the back of the blind man guides the latter, so the Purusha is not the Lord (God). He who unites both and actuates their intelligence and activity is no other than teh Ninmala (Hara).

3. The Purusha is not self-luminous. Prakriti is insentient. Know that there is a First Cause who evolves these two. If mukti is attained by knowledge (that you are not prakriti) no, you cannot get it by such knowledge. For removing the bondage, the help of the person who brought about the union is required. This bondage will be removed by the Grace of God. By following the fourfold path of Sariya, &c. secure the Grace of the Ninmala God, and remove your physical bondage.

PANCHARATRI'S STATEMENT.

Note:- [It may be distinctly understood that we do not want to open any sectarian controversy on the subject matter of this chapter. We would fain have omitted it altogether but it would spoil the completeness of the work under translation. This chapter closes the Parapaksha, and God willing, we would enter on the colossal work, composing the Supaksham of Siddhiar.]

1. Mayan (Vishnu) who is the Beginning, the Formless, the Indivisible, the omnipresent and the Wisdom-Light, took a form of his own free will, and from out of his just grace, slept in the midst of the vast ocean and gave out the Pancharatra Agamas; so begins the Pancharatri his statement.

2. Producing Brahma from his navel and creating the worlds through him, and creating Hara to destroy these worlds and becoming Himself the Protector for such worlds, He is thus the author of creation, destruction and protection.

3. The Pancharatri states further that his Lord out of His great mercy has incarnated in this world as the Fish, the Tortoise, the Boar, the Man-Lion, and the Vamana, Parasurama, Rama and Balarama and Krishna and will incarnate still as Kalki and He is the God of Gods also.

4. Our Lord had borne the seven seas in his gill, (as the Fish) and the great mountain on his back (as the Tortoise) and discovered the earth which became submerged, (as the Boar), and split the body of Hiranya (as the Lion), and measured the three worlds (as Vamana) and became the king of kings (as the three Ramas) and had thus protected the earth by destroying the wiles of the Asuras. He will even become the Horse in future.

5. When that elephant was caught between the tooth of the crocodile and was unable to get home and cried out 'O my father, my Lord, O the first cause,' who else but our Lord whom we worship for our salvation, ran with rapid strides to his help and killed the fierce crocodile and gave Moksha to the elephant.

6. Our Lord of Illusive Powers churned the ocean and distributed the ambrosia to the Devas, destroyed the evil doing Asuras and protected the worlds, and gave out the true meaning of all the Shastras to his Bhaktas out of His grace, and thus became Supreme.

7. Our Mayan, is himself, the Maya, himself the Jiva, himself the product of Maya, himself the Maya that binds the mortals, and this Maya bandham cannot vanish except by his aid. Full of this conviction, if a man worships Mayan, his Maya will vanish and he will be taken into the Vaiguntam, by Mayan.

HIS REFUTATION.

1. If he was the Beginning, this beginning will have an end. So the Vedas say he has neither beginning nor end. If he is Light and Wisdom, then he cannot unite with Maya (darkness). If his body is formed of indestructible Intelligence, then it cannot be formed of the Subda-Datu.

2. That he possessed the elements of the human body (such as flesh, blood, &c) is evidenced from the episode of Sankara going and begging for sacrificial food. When Vishnu opened out his head, was it not his blood that flowed out and from loss of which he fainted and fell down. Our Lord raised him from his fit and he who slept on the waters walked behind Him.

3. If Hari can assume form of his mere will, then why did he not make good his own head, on that day when he went to eat at the great sacrifice and lost his head by the fearful act of Virabhadra. At the entreaty of his devotees our Lord gave back Narayana his head.

4. You said that Mal (Vishnu) gave out the Vedas and explained their meaning. Who but our Lord, taught the great truths from under the Banyan tree, when the whole world lay confused through ignorance of the Vedas. He it was who is the real author of the Vedas.

5. You said that Hari begot Ayab (Brahma). He was not able to create the (fifth) head of Brahma nipped off by Rudra. And is it not therefore false to assert that this Brahma begot Rudra. Understand therefore without mistake that all are Siva's acts.

6. You assert that he is God and incarnated of his own will to protect the world, him who was born like ordinary mortals from the wombs of a few individuals! The Lotus-born Brahma unable to create, prayed to Hara, and the Lord of the Vedas burst forth from Brahma's forehead and taught him the act of creation.

7. As Narayana begot Brahma and Brahma created Narayana, so each is the cause of the other. The first cause of both is the Lord who cleaved the body of the elephant-Asura, is asserted by the Veda. As such indeed, Vishnu and Brahma became merged on either side of Hara.

8. You said that the world is destroyed by the FIAT of Hari. But he cannot stay his own destruction which comes at the end of time; and the Relics of Vishnu's frequent deaths, are worn by Rudra. So too is destroyed the assertion that by the fiat of Hari everything is destroyed. The Destroying Siva, it is He, who also creates and develops the world.

9. You stated that Mayan protected the three worlds. He, to cleave the body of Salandara of whom he was afraid, prayed to our Lord for the Discus, and on obtaining it he killed the Asuras and protected the world and this episode is well-known everywhere. As such Sankara it is, that protects.

10. When Mal assuming the form of a fish carried the seven seas in its grill and threatened the whole world with destruction, presuming that he was the Lord of Samharam, the Lord of the trident speared the fish and severing the gill and eyes, put them on the trident as an ornament.

11. When Vishnu assuming the form of the tortoise bore the mountain Meru as a supporting piece of Rock he became puffed with pride and asserted that he was the support of the whole world. And the devas kept silent without supporting or repudiating his claim. And Hara, looking on, broke the tortoise open and put on the shell as an ornament.

12. As the Boar, he cleaved through the seven worlds and bore them on his tusk, and put himself forward as the only Adorable Light of the world. Then did the Lord who delights to dance in the Burial ground, tear out the boar's tusk, felling him down crying.

13. When Hiranya asked if Vishnu was in that pillar and struck it with his foot, Vishnu appeared as the man-lion and catching him cleaved his body and assumed the God. Then did Hara appear as the Saraba Bird and subdue the man-lion.

14. Begging for alms, and obtaining the three foot of earth, and taking the Heavens also, he took a mean advantage and imprisoned the giver Maha Bali. Such as he, cannot be the Lord. They are not the best of men who injure their benefactor.

15. You would make him as the Lord of Maya, him who not knowing the illusive deer as a deceitful creature, was caught in the toils of the Rakshasa and thus lost his wife. Becoming bewildered (from the loss of his wife), he went and killed the Rakshasa and to purge himself of the sin of killing, worhipped the divine Father (at Rameshwaram).

16. Parasu Rama, a devotee of Parameshwara, conquered all the race of kings, and for freedom from the consequent sins, he again performed austere penance and worshipped Parameshwara. Bala Rama again stood in Yogic contemplation by meditating on Uma's Lord adored by the whole world.

17. When Maharishi Upamanyu bestowed his gracious look, on Vasudeva (Krishna) and touched his head with his hand and made him a vassal of Parameshwara, do you know that the said Vasudeva dedicated his body and soul and wealth to the service of his teacher and fell down and worshipped him.

17. The Anucasana Parva of Mahabarat gives the full account of Lord Krishna's initiation.

18. You said that as a horse (Kalki) Vishnu will become incarnate in the future. If he does, we do not know what will befall him from our Isa. You have learnt what happened during the previous avatara. Nothing but the glory of the Lord whose crown is adorned with kourai (cassia) flowers did shine everywhere.

19. Simply because the elephant cried out "O First Cause,' should God Vishnu be held therefore as such. When any one cries out "justice! justice! O king," does the King himself run up to him. This act of the Lord of Protection is like that of the City Magistrate who renders justice.

19. Both derive their power from a Superior Power, which to all appearance is invisible and inscrutable and lateout: but the moment the inferior power begins to misuse or abuse its authority, then will the Power of the King and Master be brought into certain play.

20. Besides, the elephant was a vassal of Vishnu, and if it called its master "Adimulam,' the latter does not thereby become so. For instance, your own slave calls you 'my Lord,' and hence you are not to compare yourself to your Lord Vishnu.

21. You said the Devas partook the ambrosia by the aid of Vishnu who swallowed the earth. When the fearful poison arose from the sea, and Vishnu and other gods fled to the supreme king and cried "Save us O Lord from this untimely death", then if the Supreme Pasupathi did not swallow the poison, how could the gods have partaken of the ambrosia?

21. This story is given in Valmiki's Ramayana. This story is the aptest illustration of the nature of the supreme being as defined in the Kural " வேண்டுதல் வேண்டுவமாரிலன்"

22. When Vishnu fled from fear of the Asura Sura Padma, the latter was killed by God Kumara, the Son; Asura Tharuka was killed by Sakti Kali; the three forts of the Asuras were burnt down and Jalandhara was smashed. Did not Ishwara protect the world by all these mercies?

23. When Partha (Arjuna) seated on the car saw the assembled hosts and all of them his kinsmen and he refused to slay them with his sharp arrows and reign as king after their death, the wily words uttered by Vishnu to induce him to fight, you accept as your high authority. Why don't you also accept the words of the Buddha Avatar of Vishnu, propagated for the conquest of the Tiripura Asuras.

23. God Vishnu is said to have taught Buddhism to the Tirupura asuras, to prepare them for their defeat, on the principle laid down by the Mahabharat "The man for whom the gods are preparing defeat is deprived by them of understanding; he sees everything pervertedly." Dr. Muir also quotes the paralled lines from Latin and Greek.

"God deprives of reason those whom he wishes to destroy." But when the God brings evil upon a man, he first injures his understanding" and he cites from the Bible also passages containing the same sentiment.

24. Maya cannot become souls; nor souls maya. Mayan cannot become these last nor they, Him. These padarthas, Pasa, Pasu and Pathi are eternal. He being omnipotent He appears as the All in all; (and cannot become these).

24. It is this nature of the union of souls and matter and God that people would not understand. This union is advaita and is not dualistic nor external and internal nor Parinama nor Vivarta. Have any of the schools of modern Hinduism compared the simile of vowels and consonants postulated by the Siddhanta, with the similes of rope and snake, gold and ornaments &c. &c. Everything is in Him and He is in everything. God is imminent in all nature and yet he is beyond all. Light is in darkness and yet beyond it on. God has no opposite. In his Presence everything else is naught. "ஒன்றும் நீயல்லை அன்றியொன் றில்லை" Says Saint Manickavachaka. In this single sentence is exhibited the Highest Doctrine of Pure monism or Advaita.

25. When the pure Agamas assert that mukti is obtained by the soul ridding itself of its Pasa and uniting itself to the Pathi and when you would senseless say that your Immaculate Vishnu will become ignorant and the ignorant soul, will not the wise feel ashamed and leave this confounded theory to yourself.

25. The novel doctrine sometimes broached is that the so called God though clothed with three gunas (the substance of Prakriti) as any other mortal is, is not contaminated by it. The Puranic traditions we possess of these Gods only prove the contrary.

26. When Brahma and Vishnu fought for each other's superiority as the Supreme Brahman, and the Supreme looked on and stood in their midst as a Pillar of flaming fire, He was not understood by the fighting Gods. Such Vishnu you say is the Supreme!

27. He cannot be God who in his fight with the Maharishi Dadichi was vanquished by the latter.

28. He cannot be God who was punished by the Rishi Durvasa; and from the scar left on his chest, is he not called Tirumarumarbhan, ' He with the scar in his chest'?

29. When Maharishi Brigu found marks of violence left on his wife's body by Mal, and swore on the strength of his true allegiance to Isa, that such a violator of women's chastity should undergo ten evil births, Mal fell down shuddering.

30. When in fear of this curse, he prayed to the Supreme (Para) the latter appeared and comforted him and asked him what he wanted and when he preferred his prayer that he should be rid of Bhrigu's curse, the Lord replied that Bhrigu was his Bhakta; and when he further prayed that he should be redeemed at every one of his births, the Lord of the world promised to do so.

31. He cannot be the Ninmala God who bound by the curse of Bhrigu was born ten times and endured sorrow and pain. As such be assured Hari cannot be divine. Be advised and worship the lotus feet of the Blue-throated God of gods.

31. The unfortunate part of it is, that in such an orthodox and philosophic Vaishnava treatise as the Tatvatrayam, the truth of this story is accepted, and the explanation offered that the God only sought this curse as an excuse to be born and do goo, certainly cannot commend itself to the intelligent.

 

SUPAKSHAM.

With the commencement of the new year, and with earnest prayers to the Supreme Sivam to give strength and light, we proceed to translate the Supaksham of Sivagnana Siddhiar, a work so far unparallelled for the lucidity of its thought and felicity of its expression, and closeness of its reasoning. Our Pandits fall shy generally of Sivagnanabotham, but this work is more popular with them; and its words and phrases thoroughly permeate their speeches and writings, and one feels so far quite at home in Siddhiar when one take it up, after an acquanintance with the writings and speeches of our Pundits. The verses are flowing whether long or short, and there is very fine rhythm about them, and we recommend our readers to read them even along with our translation, familirize themselves with the expressions and the technicalities and so to assimilate them much more into their thought and life than otherwise.

Our achariar begins his work as usual with an invocation to the Supreme and a preface.

INVOCATION.

TO THE SUPREME.

1. He, who has no beginning, middle and end, the Infinite Light, Form of Love and Intelligence, the Consort of the Mother of the world-clusters, the Principal Gem in the crown of the Devas, who praised by the world, with the hanging coral braids, adorned with the half moon, dances in the arena of spreading Light (chitakas); His pollen-covered Lotus Feet, I will make my crown, and let my unchanging love grow towards Him.

2. Let me place on my head, the feet of Siva who stands as the goal of each of the six forms of Religion who stands in the special Forms conceived by the various internal schools of Saiva Religion, and yet stands beyond all conception as set forth in the Vedas and Agamas (according to the Ideal of the Siddhanta Saivam), and fills all intelligence with his Love, and becomes my Heavenly Father and Mother and fills inseparably one and all.

In the following Mangala Verse, the author seems up the subsets on of all his teachings, for the elucidation of which, the student is requested to look up Sivagnanaswami's commentary.

SAKTI.

3. She, who becomes manifest as Isa's Supreme Will, and Power, Gnana, and I ove, working for the origination, sustentation and resolution of these worlds, and who assuming both Rupa, and Arupa and Ruparupa, becomes God's Supreme Consort,these worlds and their contents; who giving birth to all forms of life, and making them eat their fruit, in the respective worlds, destroys their bodies in due time; She, my Mother seats Herself in Majesty with our Father in the hearts of the Sinless Devotees. Her, gracious Feet, let me place on my head.

GANESA.

4. For the completion of this my work in Tamil verse without any obstacle or blemish, I praise with love and fervour the lotus Feet of the Elephant-God Ganesa who, begotten by the Omnipresent Light and His Mountain-Wife, has five hands, four shoulders, three eyes, two feet, and a long tusk and a big belly.

SUBRAMANYA.

5. The gracious Infant Guru, who taught the import of the rare Vedas and Agamas, Angas and Shastras to Agastya; the Muni of Vedic Munis, The Deva of Devas, the loving Child of Siva, the God of the Yogis; the Hero of victorious Heroes, the Scanda, who gives liberation from the bodn of births to those who worship Him incessantly with flowers of holiness and water of purity; His Twin Feet let me plant on my heart and on my head.

ST. MEIKANDA DEVA.

6. The gracious Sun, which shinning on this universe, opened the lotus-bud of the human hearts, on the opening of which, the bees of the ancient Vedic hymns hummed about, the fresh honey (of love) gushed out and the fragrance of Sivam spread forth; He, Meikanda Deva, who lived in Tiruvennainallur, surrounded by groves in full bloom, the great saivite Teacher, His Goden Feet which outrivals the lotus, resting on my head, I shall ever worship.

The imagery in this verse is simply exquisite.

PREFACE.

7. My attempt to declare the knowledge of the Supreme, who was imperceptible to the Gods and the Vedas, and in the presence of the Lord's devotees who have no infirmity except that of clinging to the Feet of the lord, after knowing in truth the substance of the Vedas and agamas and other books of knowledge, is like that of the water standing under the hoof of the cow braving itself out for comparison with the roaring and spreading flood of the seven seas when brought together.

8. Men and women of this world dote over the unmeaning babblings of their darling children, and fondle them ever so much as their greatest treasure. Indeed, the learned also, out of their gracious regard for me will not notice the faults in my verse.

9. My attempt to describe the feet of Him, who could not be understood by the Vedas, Vishnu, and Brahma, by the mind and speech, and by argumentation, will surely excite the laughter of the learned.

10. Nevertheless, it is possible, by the Grace of God, to know Him by the teachings contained in the Agamas; and also by proper argumentation, and to perceive Him in our heart by Gnana-Sadana, our doubt having vanished, and to remove the darkness of Maya, and to dwell in the company of the Holy.

11. As different ways lead to the same town, so will the various religions taught in the Agamas given out by God who is self-luminous lead to the same truth. But those, who listen to the inconsistent sayings of people who are led by their own self-conceit and not by God's revealation will fall into the depths of the sea, though seeking to reach the heights of Mount Meru.

12. Leaving those who have attained to the Highest knowledge, and those who are incapable of any, I write this work for those who are in search of a way for reaching the truth, from the instruction imparted to me by my teacher by means of his Sivagnanabotha, derived in succssion from Sanatkumara, Nandi and Parameshwara; and I call my work Sivagnana Siddhi.

13. Those Devotees of the Lord who worship Him in this birth, owing to the strength of their previous attainments in other births will be led to the Purest Seat by the Lord Himself. To others only who desire to seek the goal by the reading of books, do I undertake to show the path of reaching His Lotus feet.

14. Let me here expound the nature of the Parameshwara, and the books revealed by Him, the substance of Logic, and the things discoverable by its methods, and the sadana to be pursued by the truth seeker, the nature of both the Bound and Freed condition of Souls, after removing by question and answers, the false doubts and misgivings induced like a mirage by the various sectarians and thus try to arrive at clear truth.

15. Let me here expound the truths of Saiva Siddhanta, following as my chief guide the work of Meikanda Deva, who, out of mercy, adorned my head with his twin-feet, and placed the knowledge the True Self in my heart, and thus plucked me from the sea of human births and suffering.

FIRST SUTRA.

First Adhikarana.

1. All the worlds that are denoted by the words he, she, and it, originate, and are sustained and are resolved into its primal condition. Hence, a First cause that can effect these changes is necesitated. He stands at the beginning and end of things and reproduces these worlds, (for the benefit of the eternally bound souls) as He is the eternally Free, and Intelligent Sat. Hence Hara is the Supreme First Cause.

2. If the Lokayitha could say that this universe undergoes neither creation nor destruction and that it is eternally permanent, then I need no deductive and inductive proof to refute him, as even our own observation shows the origination and destruction of every component part of this unvierse.

NOTE. In the Parapaksha, the views of other schools were considered and criticized. In the Supaksha, the Siddhanta is stated and the objections met.

3. If it be said that it is by nature that the universe undergoes change, then what undergoes change cannot be natural. If it be said, that it changes because its nature is so, then except as changing there is no such thing as nature. The argument that the four elements constitute nature and these undergo change implies a First cause who brings about such change of condition, as the object universe is inert.

4. Of the four elements, air produces the other three from itself; fire destroys other elements; water contains them all and so on; and as such, these elements themselves produce and resolve each from and into the other; and consequently no First cause is necessary. If this be your argument it is faulty, as all these elements undergo evolution and resolution together, and a First cause which has neither a beginning nor an end is accodringly required.

NOTE. Verse 2 to 4 refute the Charvaka's position.

5. If the argument is that as all things arise by Kshana Bhanga, and from the previous attachment, no First cause is necessary, then he should say whether the birth is of things existent nor non-existent. Non-existent will never come into being, and the existent need not come into being. What is neither or Anirvachana (as argued by the Madhyamika).

NOTE. This refutes Sautrantika Buddha.

6. (Even this argument is faulty) as if it is only existent it will come into being; otherwise it will never come into being; and no origination of the universe is possible. The truth is that effects are produced from causes, as the potter produces the pot &c. from the clay, but could not produce cloth &c., from the same cause.

NOTE. This refutes the Madhyamika Buddha's position.

7. If it be asserted, that the same thing is both existent and non-existent and that no efficient cause is required, it must stand to reason that no one thing can possess such contradictory qualities. If the cause is said to exist, and the effect not be existent in the cause and vice versa, this is also incorrect as the effect is really existent in the cause (being identical) and the change necessitates an efficient First cause.

NOTE. This meets the Jaina objection.

8. The birth and death of the body is seen, but we do not see the end of the world, how do you conclude that the world has also an end, (says the Purva Mimamsaka). We reply that this is possible as this illusive world is evolved in succession from Akas, and other elements and is resolved in return.

9. If it be said, that only a portion of this universe is destroyed and a portion re-formed and that the whole is neither produced nor destroyed all at one time, No. The universe as a whole in due time, is, destroyed and reproduced, as the seeds produced in the autumn are destroyed in the summer.

10. If it be said that it is Time that produces these changes and is the only God, No; time is in itself inert and non-intelligent. Though it is true, we find time producing changes, it is because, God as the efficient Cause actuates Time which is the instrumental cause.

NOTE. - These three preceding verses meet the objections of the Purva Mimamsa school.

11. If it be said that the atoms reproduce themselves as the universe, after the primal resolution, with the aid of karma, No; because karma and these atoms are said to be inert and Jada. Besides, these themselves undergo resolution at the final destruction of the world.

12. If it be said, that if the atoms as cause and destroyed, the universe itself could not originate, No; from the cause Maya, the universe could be produced. The objection that we do not see Maya but only the atoms, is met by the fact that these atoms are the visible product of the imperceptible Maya.

13. If it be asked how the atoms can be called a product and not a cause we find it so by its having form and parts; and all products like a pot which has form and parts are seen to be destructible. Therefore it is the indestructible Maya that produces these atoms with form and parts.

14. The wise declare that the world evolves from Maya and the common people also can point out that in the seed, the tree and branches &c, are contained in a suitable condition, and otherwise, they wont be produced; and these words you have forgotten. Understands therefore that Maya is the material cause.

15. If you deny that the world is produced from and resolved into a cause, Maya, then you will be asserting the existence of hare's horns. If you again object by saying that it will be true if the dead leaves of a tree will go back into the tree and come out again as fresh leaves, our reply is that when these leaves are reduced to the primal condition, by time and other causes, * they will again come out as fresh leaves.

* Mr. Conn points out in his Story of the Germs, that but for the action of Bacteria, which reduces all dead animals and plants into a condition fit for being assimilated as food by plants, the world will be fully stocked with dead things and wuite uninhabitable.

16. As the world is produced as an effect from a cause and as both effect and cause are real, the world also may be said to be eternal and indestructible. But as a Supreme God creates and destroys it at stated periods, this world may said to have a beginning and to be destructible, on account of the change of condition it undergoes -

NOTE. - The definitions and distinctions drawn herein have to be fully borne in mind. And it will expain why even in Siddhanta works like Thayumanavar the world is said to be false, illusive and ephemeral &c. They all refer to the changeability and unstability of the world and the worldly pleasures.

The last time in the Tamil Verse has to be read with the one which follows and hence its translation is omited here. The last 6 stanzas establish the principle of "Ex nihilo, nihil fit" "Out of nothing, nothing comes," which is called "சற்காரியவாதம்" Satkaryavadam, a doctrine peculiar to the Sankhyas and Siddhantis; the other schools being called Variously Sunya-vadis, Parinamavadis, Vivarta-vadis &c.

17. If you object that Maya does not require any other creator for its undergoing evolution, Hear then. The universe appears as teh work of an intelligent Being; The Purasha (soul) is not conscious unless when in conjunction with the body and senses; and Maya appears as the material cause of such body and senses; and Maya is not conscious and as such non-intelligent. Hence, the One God (who is self-dependent and intelligent) is necessitated for creating these worlds out of Maya.

18. Causes are of three kinds, The material cause, the instrumental cause, and the efficient cause. Taking an illustration: The clay is The Material cause, the wheel is the instrumental cause and the potter is the efficient cause. Similarly, the Lord like the potter creates the worlds from Maya as the material cause with the aid of His Sakti as the instrumental cause.

19. From Sudda Maya, Maya (Sudda Sudda Maya) is evolved and from the latter Asudda Maya is evolved. From the first, the four Vaks Vaikari & c., are evolved. From Maya Ragam, &c., are produced. From Mulaprakriti, the three gunas are generated. And these undergo evolution in the Presence of Siva Sat.

The reader's attention is drawn to the distinctions here drawn and what follows. And the table of Tatwas printed in p. 244 Vol.I. may be also referred to usefully. But the terms are used variously. The first Sudda maya is also called Maha Maya and Cudila and Kundalini, and even as Sakti and Vindhu. The four Vaks that are generated from this are Sukshuma or Para, Paysanti, Madhyama, and Vaikari. The second Maya is called Asuddhamaya but in reference to the still grosser one Mulaprakriti is called Suddha Suddha Maya. The tatwas which generate from this are Niyati, Kalam, Kala, and Raga and Viddhei and they form the body of the Nirguna Souls or Pralaya kalars. The last kind of Maya, is variously called Mula-prakriti, Prakriti, Pradhana, Avyakta, Mahat or Mahan, and its essence are the three gunas, Satwa, Rajas and Tamas. A more elaborate table of tatwas containing greater details with reference in the Vedas, upanishad & c for the various tatwas included in the Siddhanta will be shortly published and it is hoped it will afford greater help to the student in understanding these details.

This maya sakti of God is not Abinna or Samavaya but it is Binna sakti called also Parigraha-sakti.

God does not undergo any weariness or trouble in creating these worlds, and the evolution takes place as the lotus undergoes all the various processes of evolution in the presence of the sun, its light and heat.

20. Vaikari Vach is the power which is felt in the Hearing as sound, full of meaning, and understood so by the understanding. This Vach is caused and influenced by the bodily Udana-vayu and by the Prana-vayu.

21. Not audible to the ear, but softly arising and audible in the throat and intelligible to the understanding, guided by the Prana-vayu and not by the Udana-vayu, without being able to throw out the well formed letters (sounds), and differing both from Vaikari and Paisanti, such is the nature of Madhyama Vach.

22. Just as the white and yolk of the egg conceal in themselves all the body of the pea-cock, so does Paisanti Vach contain in itself in an undifferentiated and highly subtile and self luminous condition all the various sounds.

23. The Sukshuma or Para Vach is the Luminousness of the Highest body, indestructible in itself but destructible in its products such as Paisanti &c. If one can witness this subtile light he will reach the unvarying intelligence and bliss and immortality (of Apara-Mukti) without being subject to birth and weariness and change.

24. These four vachs become different when united to the five different kala such as Nivirti. These vachs are produced, from Mahamaya and not from Prahm by the process of Parinama nor by that of vivarta but by the process of Virta as when cloth is made into a tent.

The five kalas out of which different bodies are produced are (1) Nivirti Kala, with Sthula Vach, (2) Prathista kala, with Sthula-dara Vach (3) Vidya Kala with sukshuma vach (4) Santi kala with Adi sukshuma vach (5) santiatitha kla with Adisukshuma Dara vach.

25. To the Mantra Ishwaras, and Viddyeshwaras, and Sadasivas, their Pada, Varna, Buvana, Mantra, tatwas, bodies, and senses and enjoyment are all formed out of Vindu or Suddah-Maya Sakti.

The number of mantra Ishwaras (of Suddha Bija tatwa) are said to be 7 crores. Those who dwell in the Ishwara tatwa are eight namely Anantar, Sukshumar, Sivottamar, Ekanetrar, Trimurti, Srikantar and Sikandi and are also called Ashta-Vidyeshwaras. Those who dwell in the plane of the Sadasiva tatwa, are called Anushadasiwas and their names are Pravanar, Sadahkiar, Tirtar, Karanar, Susilar, Sukshum or Kalar, Desasar, and Ambu.

26. All the three classes of souls, cannot have any knowledge unless they are associated with the intelligence Power of Sudda-Maya and the four vachs. When a person can however ascend to the knowledge beyond this Mayavic intelligence, then alone can reach the Feet of the Supreme Siva.

27. All this universe is spread out and multiplied from the Primal invisible and subtle Maya into visible and grosser and grosser forms, as life and body; and these forms again are resovled in the same order and they appear as one and as one-and-different. The One Supreme Being also is one and different and one and different from the world.

28. If it is objected that the visible cannot proceed form the invisible, know how the Akas contains the other elements air and fire &c., and how from the same other clouds and lighting and thunder start up.

End of 1st Adikarana.

Adikarana 2.

29. The pots are produced from the clay by the potter. Isa creates all forms, and these effects are produced each from its own material cause. Hear me, if you want to know where and how He creates these things.

30. It is not possible to understand His nature by anything we see in this world. As such, there is no one who could understand His Supreme Form. However, His action may be compared to that of Time, which brings about the origination, development, and destruction of the seven worlds.

31. As the words and ideas we had learnt become imbedded and arise out of our minds, as the different states of wakefulness, sleep &c. arise out of our life, so are the worlds evolved and ingathered by the Supreme God, who stands united and at the same time not united to this world.

32. If you ask why the souls and worlds are reproduced from Hara after resolution, this becomes necessary owing to existence of Anava Mala. The necesity or its undergoing resolution in particular is to be found in the fast that the bodily energies become exhausted. The effects are destroyed and resoloved into their cause. And Isa reproduces these forms as before.

NOTE. - The repeated births are necessary for the purpose of washing off the inherent Anava-mala, by gaining experience and knowledge and spirituality. The resolution is required as rest for the tired bodily energies just as we take rest during night to recoup our energies for the task of tomorrow.

33. If you say God will undergo change, once we attribute to him powers of creation, &c., No. In the presence of the sun, the lotus blooms, the crystal emits fire, and water evaporates.

The sun does not undergo change by any of these operations, and much less does God undergo any weariness or change.

34. If you ask, how it is that we ascribe all the powers to the one God, when all say that these three powers are held by the three different Gods Brahma, Vishnu &c, our answer is that these Gods, by the height of their Virtue receive the Agnja Sakti of the Lord at His bidding.

35. At the end of time, only One alone remains. If more than One, then it cannot be called Samharam. Hence Hara alone remains at the end, as He it is that destroys all. And as He is the support of all also, from Him also, do the worlds originate and develops again.

36. If you ask why God should exercise these powers, we may reply that this is His mere play. We may also point out that by these acts of Grace He makes the souls eat the fruits of their Karma and thus get rid of their Mala and attain Mukti.

NOTE.- What is meant by play here is, that the exercise of these powers is so easy for Him, as when we say, that it is a mere child's play for Him. It also means that these works are performed not for His own benefit.

37. Samharam is to give rest to the souls; Srushti is intended for the purpose of enabling souls to eat their Karma, and thus to remove it. When souls eat their Karma, Sthithi is exercised. In Droupava the powrs of mala are under check so that they may mature; He exercises His power of Anugraha when he frees us from our bonds. All these five functions are acts of His Grace. Revile not.

38. If you ask me to let you know whether the Creator has form or no form or has formless form, I may tell you that all these forms belong to the one and the same Supreme Being.

39. You object that when form is ascribed to God another creator like the one who creates our own bodies will be required, and that if God wills His body, the Jivas may be said to will their own bodies also. But we cannot assume any body we like. Our Supreme God assumes any wondrous form He thinks of, just as Siddhas do.

40. You say that if God take form just as Siddhas do, then He becomes one like them. But these Siddhas exercise these powers only through the Grace of God. And if all forms are born of Maya, then the forms of God are also from Maya.

41. The bodies formed of Maya are obtained by the souls as they are covered by the Anava Mala. As the Supreme One is free from Maya and Anava Mala, and is pure absolute intelligence and imparts both knowledge and power to soul, His body cannot be formed of Maya but is formed out of His own Sakti.

42. If you say that even if His form is from Sakti, it must undergo change, and consequently God cannot be eternal and so God can only be formless. But He is not one of the six Atwas (formless material things). As you seem to be intelligent you had better hear further about the supreme nature of God.

NOTE.- There are formless objects which are limited and are formed of matter, and as such, there is nothing gained by simply calling God formless.

43. All objects of this world either have forms of no forms and some objects cannot change their form either. If, therefore, the Being of immeasurable intelligence is called formless we will only be ranking it with one of these objects.

44. He is not one of those objects which are subject to bonds and are free. He has neither beginning nor end He is infinite. As such, it cannot be postulated that my Supreme Father is only this and that, and that He cannot become this and that; and therefore any such postulate regarding the nature of the Supreme does not admit of any refutation either.

NOTE.- Compare the following stanzas from Devaram and Tiruvachakam.

(1) "மைப்படிந்த கண்ணாளும் தானுங்கச்சி மயானத்தான்வார் சடையான்மாசொன்றில்லான் ஒப்புடைய னல்லனொருவ னல்ல னோரூ ரனல்ல னோருவமையில்லி யப்படிய னவ்வுருவனல் வண்ணத்த னவனருளே கண்ணாகக் காண்பதல்லால் இப்படி யனிவ் வுருவனிவ் வண்ணத்த னிவனிறைவ னென்றெழுதிக் காட் டொணாதே.

"This Self is now attainable by explanation, nor yet by mental grasp, nor by hearing many times, by Him whom so He chooses - by him is He obtained. For him the Self its proper Form reveals." (Mund. 3-2-2.)

(2) "இன்பமுந் துன்பமு மில்லானே யுள்ளானே அன்பருக் கண்பனே யாவை யுமாயல்லை யுமாஞ் சோதியனே துன்னிருளே தோன்றாப் பெருமையனே ஆதியனே யந்த நடுவாகி யல்லானே. (3) "வேதமும்  வேள்வியு மாயினார்க்கு மெய்மையும் பொய்மையு மாயினார்க்குச் சோதியுமா யிருளாயினார்க்குத் துன்பமுமா யின்ப மாயினார்க்குப் பாதியுமய் முற்று மாயினார்க்குப் பந்தமு மாய்வீடு மாயினார்க்கு ஆதியு மந்தமு மாயி னார்க்கு ஆடப் பொற்சுண்ண மிடித்தும் நாமே."

45. As He does not possess the defect, as an object of perception, and, as he is possessed of both absolute Intelligence and Power, as he is not possessed of likes and dislikes, the Ninmala God can assume any form out of His Grace.

NOTE.- If an object, He will be capable of change and cannot be called self-dependent. If possessed of finite intelligence and power, He can only be limited. If possessed of likes and dislikes He will be subject to sin and sorrow. Not being possessed of these defects, none of the limitations which apply to human beigns and matter apply to him at all.

c.f. (1) "அண்டமா  ரிருளூடு கடந்தும்பர் பண்டு போலுமோ ரொண்சுடரச்சுடர் கண்டிங் காரறி வாரறி வார்க்கெலாம் வெண் டிங்கட் கண்ணிவேதிய னென்பரே.        (2) "விரிகதிர ஞாயிரல்லர் மதியல்லர் வேதவிதி யல்லர் விண்ணு நிலனுந் திரிதரு வாயு வல்லர்செறி தீயு மல்லர் தெளி நீருமல்லர் தெரியிங் அரிதரு கண்ணியாளை யொருபாகமாக வருள் காரணத்தில் வருவார் எரியரவார மார்பரி மையா ருமல்லர் இமைப் பாரு மல்ல ரிவரே.

46. If he did not, out of His Supreme Grace, assume forms, there would be nobody who could give out, Vedas and A'gamas, and there would be nobody who could impart instruction, in the form of the Guru, to the Gods, men, and the residents of the nether regions; and so nobody can secure salvation.

c.f. (1) "மூவரு மூப்பத்து மூவரு மற்றொழிந்த தேவருங் காணாச் சிவபெருமான் - மாவேறி வையகத்தே வந்திழிந்த வார்கழல்கள் வந்திக்க மெய்யகத்தே யின்பமிகும்." Tiruvachakam.     (2) "திருக்க ளிற்றுப்படியார்:- ஆகமங்க ளெங்கே யறுசமயந் தானெங்கே யோகங்க ளெங்கே யுணர்வெங்கே - பாகத் தருள் வடிவுந் தானுமா யாண்டிலனே லந்தப் பெருவடிவை யாரறிவார் பேசு.

47. His form is love; His attributes and knowledge are love; His five functions are love; His organs like arms and feet &c., and His ornaments like the crescent moon &c., are also love. These things are assumed by the Ninmala God, not for His own benefit but for the benefit of mankind.

c.f. "His Head is surely love; Joy His right wing, delight His left; Bliss is His self. Brahman where on He rests." Tait ii.5.

48. None know that His form transcends the universe. None know that in His form, the universe rises from and merges. None know that He is the life and the body of this unvierse. Ignorant of His Supreme form, they call Him as one of this world.

NOTE.- The author here refers to the vedic texts in which Rudra is called Viswadhika, Viswakarana, Viswantharyami, and Viswaswa oroopi.

49. They call Him as one of the Devas, but they know not that Siva is all the three gods, that half of His body is Uma, that neither Vishnu nor Brahma was able to fathom the great Jyothi. And they neither know not what Form arose out of this great Jyothi.

NOTE.- In this verse the auhtor illustrates by Puranic episodes the vedic texts referred to by him above.

The episode of Brahma and Vishnu searching for His crown and feet and not finding them proves that God is Viswathika. The same story which further states that the three Gods appeared from the Great Jyothi shows that God is Viswakarana. The same story which further states that the great Jyothi subsided into the Linga form shows that God is Viswa Antharyami. The Puranic episode that Uma Haimavathi became half of His body shows that God is Viswa Soroopi.

That Siva is all the three Gods, as it is His Power that shines in them, and that yet He is different from them, in essence and that the latter do also belong to the order of souls but to a very high order, is a position which has been very often explained in thse pages. When the power of the Supreme God is manifest in the person and Body of the Tirumurties and other HIgher Powers, Maheshwara and Sadasiva, the identity of the two is perceived, nay the Light of the supreme is alone perceived, owing the the tenuous Body of the Gods, just as we perceive only the light and light alone where looking at a chimney lamp from a distance and the bright, chimney corresponding to the person and body of the Gods and Jivan muktas, is altogether imperceptible. Hence the defence of the worship of the three Gods; and of the Linga which Symbolises the fifth order of Gods, the Sadasivas, which is both of form and formless. When we remember how out of Sadasiva Tatwam the next tatwa of Maheshwara and the three lowest, Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra arise, the Linga Purana story that the Great Light (Jyotis), "that the Pure Light of Lights," the stainless, Partless Brahm, "placed within (man's) radian highest Vesture" (Mund.Up.3-1-9). From whom all words fall back not reaching Him, mind as well (Tait.ii.4) "சோதிமணி முடிசொல்லில் சொல்லிறந்து நின்ற தொன்மை ஆதிகுண மொன்றுமில்லான்); and "whose form stands not within vision's field, with eye no man beholds Him," (Katha. ii.5. 14) and who according to another Upanishad again is "not grasped by eye, nor yet by speech, nor by other powers nor by mere meditation, or even by bold deeds." (Mund. iii. 1.8), was not perceived by the greatest gods, who were waging war against each other out of Unmitigated Ahankara; and that when from that Light and "Life, which flames through all creation, Mund.iii.1.4), arose that Mighty Sound (Omkara) and subsided into the Visible form of the Linga, (Sadasiva Form) and that from this Linga again three Gods arose " as of that Brahman Supreme, it hath also been sung, in Him is the three" (Svet.i.7), acquires full force and meaning and it cannot be relegated as merely a sectarian story. When Vaishnava writers freely wuote from the Svetas vatara Upanishad for instance, and take the Rudra and Siva of these passages as denoting the Highest Brahman, and put within brackets "Narayana," next to such words, Saivas could not be doing violence to themselves or to any body when they take the Siva and Rudra of the Puranas (whose sole purpose is to explain and illustrate Vedic Meanings) as denoting the Supreme Brahman. And we heard a Vaishnava Pundit explain also that there are other Vishnus and Narayanas besides the Highest Narayana who with the Tirumurti Rudras are classed as Jivas. And it will stand to reason that the Jivas, Rudra, Narayana cannot surely comprehend either the Rudra, Para Brahm, or as one of our respected Vaishnava friends took objection to the story of Siva's feet and crown being scarched as a blasphemous imagination, will be proved by the standing memorial of the Tiruvannamalai Temple, and the Kartigai Feast, and by Vaishnavas also celebrating this feast, in the same way they unwittingly celebrate, Dasara, Brahmotsava, and Kaman Pandigai. According to the Saivas, the Kartigai Feast, and Tiruvanamalai celebration, (celebrated in every other Temple also), and the raising of the great coloumn of Light refer to this Linga Purana episode; but what explanation Vaishnavas have for their Vishnu Kartigai, we are yet unable to discover, expect that they followed suit.

The story of the Ardhanareshwara formation clearly illustrates that Sivam and Sakti is one. Uma means literally light and wisdom, and this can never be identified with matter and darkness. This episode by the way gives also a refutation to the theory that 'Uma' Kalis is Maya.

50. They know not that in His Bhoga Form He grants enjoyment to jivas. They know not that in His Yoga form He grants perfection to yogis. They know not that in His fearful form, He makes the souls to eat their Karma. They are fools without discernment who call him one of the gods.

51. By the One assuming different and inconsistent Forms, they know not that His Form is not of this world. They know not that all his different Forms are assumed for manifesting His different acts of Grace.

They know not that when He destroys He only destroys the sin of the world.

They know not that His possessing various and inconsistent Forms prove that He is not of this world; they know not that all these Forms are manifestations of His Grace. And that His Act of Samhara (destruction) is an act whereby He destroys Sin.

NOTE.- The great Poet Kalidasa brings out the meaning of the first three lines as follows, in his Kumara Sambhava

"No selfish want e'er prompts a deed of mine; Do not the forms - eight, varied forms - I wear The truth of this to all the world declare." And he observes in another place "The gods, like clouds are fierce and gentle too Now hurl the bolt, now drop sweet heavenly dew, In summer heat the streamlet dies away, Beneath the fury of the God of day Then in due season comes the pleasant rain, And all is fresh and fair and full again."

Long before the gifted gift, Lord Krishna had brought out the self-same contraditory character of the Supreme Being in the following passage:

'Large-armed Yudhishtra, understand from me the greatness of the glorious, multiform, many-named Rudra. They call Mahadeva Agni, Sthanu, Maheswara, One-eyed, Tryambaka, the universal formed and Siva. Brahmin versed in the Veda know two bodies of this God, one awful, one auspicious; and these two bodies again have many forms. The dire and awful body is fire, lightning, the sun. The auspicious and beautiful body is virtue, water and the moon. The half of his essence is fire, and the moon is called the (other) half. The one, which is his auspicious body, practises chastity; while the other, which is his most dreadful body, destroys the world. From his being lord (Iswara) and great (Mahat), he is called Mahesvara. Since he consumes, since he is fiery, derce, an eater of flesh, blood and marrow, - he is called Rudra. As he is the greatest of the gods, as his domain is wide, and as he preserves the vast universe, - he is called Mahadeva. From his smoky colour, he is called Dhurjati. Since he constantly prospers all men in all their acts, seeking their welfare (siva), he is therefore called Siva" etc, etc.

European scholars have puzzled and bewildered themselves over this character of Rudra,* and they have sought to explain it on various hypotheses. [* Dr. Muir collates the passages as follows:

The characters ascribed to Rudra in the hymns of the Rig Veda are most heterogeneous and frequently indefinite. I shall endeavour to gather from different places and to group together those epithets which have most affinity to each other. This God is described as wise, bountiful, and powerful, (i.43,1; i114,4), as the strongest and most glorious of beings (ii.33,3), as lord (isana) of this world, possessed of divine power (ii. 33,9), as unsurpassed in might (ibid. 10), as the father of the world, mighty, exalted, undecaying (vi.49, 10); as cognizant of the doings of men and gods by his power and universal dominion (vii.46.2); as putting the waters in motion (x.92,5); as self-dependent (vii.46,1), and as deriving his renown from himself (i, 129,3; X.92,9); as the lord of heroes (i.114,1,3, 10; X 92,9); as the lord of songs and sacrifices (1.43.4), the fulfiller of sacrifices (i. 114.4) brilliant as the sun, and as gold (i. 43.5), tawny-coloured (this epithet is frequently applied), with beautiful chin (ii.

33, 5), fair-complexioned (ibid 8), multiform, fierce, arrayed in golden ornaments (ibid 9), youthful (v, 60, 5), terrible as a wild beast, destructive (ii.23, 11), wearing spirally-braided hair (i. 114. 1.5); and as the celestial boar (ibid 5). He is frequently represented as the father of the Maruts or Rudras (i. 64, 2; i. 85, 1; i 114, 6, 9,; ii. 33, 1; ii. 34, 2; v. 52, 16; v. 60, 5; vi. 50, 4; vi. 66, 3; vii. 56, 1; viii. 20, 17). He is once identified with Agni (ii. 1, 6). He is described as seated on a chariot (ii, 33, 11), as wielding the thunderbolt (ii. 33. 3), as armed with a bow and arrows (ibid 10, 14; v. 42, 11; 125, 6), with a strong bow and fleet arrows, with sharp weapons, (vi. 74, 4; vii. 49, 1. viii. 29, 5). His shafts are discharged from the sky and traverse the earth (vii. 46, 3), He is called the slayer of men (nri-ghre iv. 3, 6). His anger, ill will, and destructive shafts are deprecated (i. 114. 7, 8; ii. 33, 1, 11, 14; vi. 28, 7; viii. 46, 3, 4). But he is also represented as benevolent (i. 114, 9), as mild, and easily invoked (ii. 33, 5), beneficent (ibid 7) gracious (Siva, X 92, 9), as the cause or condition of health and prosperity to man and beast (i. 114, I). He is frequently described as the possessor of healing remedies, and is once characterized as the greatest of physicians (i. 43, 4; i. 114, 5; ii. 33, 2, 4, 7, 12, 13; v. 42, 11; vi. 74, 3; vii. 35, 6; vii. 46, 3; viii. 29, 5). He is supplicated for blessings (i. 114. 1, 2; ii. 33, 6), and represented as averting the anger of the gods (i. 114, 4; ii. 33, 71). In R.V. vi.74, 1 ff., he is connected with Soma in the dual, and entreated along with the latter to bestow good and avert evil.] Some have thought that the conception of God was borrowed by the Aryans from the aborigines and savages of Southern India, who they say copied it from the Hamidic tribe of the Jews, and some go to say that the addresses to Rudra as gentle and beneficient, are made by way of flattery and not otherwise and that his beneficence consisted more in refraining from doing mischief &c., & c. Some of these views we have met elsewhere, and the following remarks may also be borne in mind. European scholars have themselves moted how the God Rudra, even in the Rig Veda, is now spoken as the god of storms and clouds (Indra) and father of Maruta (winds) and as wind itself, (vayu), and now as fire (Agni) and now as the sun (Surya and Vishnu) and now as the moon (Chandra) and is associated with Soma, as the healer and Supreme Physician. He is spoken as the Destroyer, and the Destroyer of Andhaka (yama) in the Atharva Veda. And these scholars speak of the God Rudra having slowly supplanted all the Vedic deities Agni, Vayu, Mitra, Varuna &c., except Vishnu themselves as the Lord of sacrifices (medapati) and the Lord of all living creatures (Pasupati - Pasu meaning jivas and not cattle) and the ruler (Isana) and God of gods (Mahadeva) and as deriving his power from himself and as self-dependent. None of these epithets are connected with other gods. And as lord of sacrifice and Pasupati, He gets the first portion of the offering, and the hands have to be washed after giving the first portion. Connecting these with the position He holds in the Upanishads, Itihasas and the Puranas, as the only one without a second and as the Supreme Brahma and consort of Divine knowledge (Uma) the Position of Rudra, as the Supreme Being, identified with all animate and inanimate existence, being the indweller (as ashta-murti) in all Nature, and who is the Generator, and Preserver and Destroyer - the universal Evolver - is readily perceived; and as pointed out by Kalisdasa and Arulnanthi Sivacharya, and by Miss Annie Besant, His cruel or destructive aspects, though apparently so, are really the most beneficent aspects. This is also explained by the Puranic description of Him as "inwardly benificent" (Antas Satwam, and "outwardly cruel" (Bahis Tamas). And when we perceive the really beneficent action of the terrible storms and clouds, and thunder and Lightning, Sun and Heat in such a purely agricultural country as India, we can also conceive, how His wrath is productive of the greater benefit to suffering and Sinning humanity from freeing him from this mortal and effete body and from this world, as the Vedic Poet so rapturously sings, like a cucumber severed from its stem (Yajur Veda) to regenerate (srishti) again after proper rest (Droupava) to undergo with greater strength the struggles of Life, and thus eat off his karma and eventually to obtain final release from birth, and rest in God. The whole difficulty of European scholars will vanish even on their own evolutionary method, if they will only see that in and around the Personality of Rudra or Siva, the Highest Ideal of the God-head was slowly and surely accreting from the time of the Rig-Veda, and which is most distinctly evolved in some of the Upanishads like Swetaswatara, Kaivalya, Atharva Siras, &c., and much more plainly in the Mahabahrat and several of the Puranas, though since and after the days of the Mahabharat, the cult of Vishnu, influenced by the tales of Rama and Krishna was gaining greeater footing, though it never succeeded in supllanting the oldest faith anywhere in India.

In the stanza again, the reference to His being the killer (Devourer of Katha Up.) is to his power of destroying our Pasa (sin and sorrow and ignorance), and our material environments (body & c.) and as the Killer of evil, He is represented as fierce and terrible, and yet as He is the saviour of our soul by this very same act He is called Siva (gracious) and Sankara (Beneficent), and Sambhu (the beautiful) and Nandi (Lovable); and the reason is not far to seek why the latter act of names became more popular than the former set of names, such as the generator (Brahma) and ugra (fire), &c., Rudra (destroyer of sorrow) &c. And what our author has now in view are all the Puranic episodes in which the supreme One or His consort Uma, or His sons (Kumara) are represented as fiercely contending with Manmatha and Demons, and Asuras, the real meaning of which of course is that God is the destroyer of Lust and Evil and Ignorance and His aid is absolutely required for man to conquer sin and death. And the most popular festivals representing these conquests of knowledge are the Brahmotsava, and Dasara and Kaman-Pandigai and Skanda-Sasthi and Vinayaka -Chaturti. Writing to the Hindu some years back on the Brahmotsava we gave the following account.

THE BRAHMOTSAVAM OR THE CAR-FEAST.

In every grand feast lasting over several days, each day is performed what is called an 'Aithikam' (ஐதிகம்), a logical term meaning an ancient tradition or truth and which I may compare to the mystery plays. And the grandest evernt in a Bramotschavam is the car-feast; and that feast only is called Bramotschavam in which the car-feast is one of the events. The Bramotschavam would mean a feast in honour of the true Brahm or where the Truth of Brahm is manifested.

To describe briefly the festival; the principal thing is the huge car, in the body of which all the 'Devas' are worked in wood. We find attached four horses, and above them is seated a figure with four heads, and behind this figure its modern representative is the 'Kammala' waving his red handkerchief. Behind him the musicians. In the middle is seated the representation of the 'Deity', with a single arrow and bow in its hands. We see the whole town or village turning up to see what is popularly called Katch (காட்சி) or Darsan, meaning the manifestation of God's grace.

The breaking of the car's axle is also an ordinary event in the car-festival. Now, consider the ancient tradition recorded in the Yajur Veda and elaborated in the Puranas* and Mahabarata and the story is also alluded to in the Ramayana. [* Matsya Purana. Chapter 129 - 140.

Skanda-Upadesa kanda: Chapters 70-72, and Linga Puran Purva 72 chapter cf. in last:-

Athaha bhagavan Rudro devan avalokya Sankara: 
Pasunam adhipatyam me dattam hanmi tatosuran.

'Thus Sankara, the Bhagavan Rudra looked to the devas (and said) the Lordship of Pasus was given to me and therefore I will kill the Asuras.']

The story I allude to is the story of the Tirupurasamhara, I give the story first as given in Yajur Veda (6th Kanda, 2ns Prasna, 3 Anuvaka and 12th Mantra).

Tesham Asuranam tisva pura asannayasmayyara matha rajatatha harinita deva jetunna Saknuranta Upasadaiva jigi shakthasmadahye yaschaivam Veda yascha nopasadavai.

Mahapuram Jayantiti ta ishum Samas Kurva ta gnim anikam Soman Salyam Vishum tejanam te bruvan ka imam asishyatita Rudra iti aleruvan rudro vai Krura; Somya twiti sobravit Vavam Vrina adham eva Pasunam Adhipatevasaniti tasmat rudra: Pasunam adhipatistan rudrova Srijat Satisra: Puro bhiteva ebhyo: lokebhys Suran pranudata†

[† There were the three cities of iron, silver, and gold (belonging) to Asuras. The gods not being able to win them (by fight) wished to win them by seige. (The great) say that He (the Brahmin &c). who knows (what ought to be known) and he (the non-Brahmin &c) who does not know - they are able to win by seige the great city which cannot be overtaken by fight: (then) the gods made an arrow composed of Agni as (the bottom hilt) wood (அநீகம்) Soma as (the middle) iron (சல்லியம்), and Vishnu as (the top) (தேஜகம்) and declared (consulted) who will discharge it, and determined Rudra, the cruel (was) able: He (the Rudra) said the boon was made over, I am the Lord of Pasus (both the two-footed and four-footed); so Rudra the Lord of Pasus discharged it, broke up these 3 cities, and blown up them all from these worlds (பூமி, அந்தரிக்ஷ்ம், சுவர்க்கம்).]

Three Asuras‡had acquired by their tapas (human will and desire) three flaming forts whereby they were committing woe and destruction on men and Devas.

[‡ Our own account follows the more improved puranic accounts where incidents and details are altered somewhat to bring out the esoteric meaning much more fully - for instance, the Puranic account states that the arrow was never fired and that the car became a ruin.

Cf. Tiruvachakam. - ஈரம்புகண்டிலம் ஏகம்பர் தம்கையில் ஒரம்பே முப்புரமுந்தீபற ஒன்றும் பெருமிகையுந்தீபற தச்சு விடுத்தலும், தாமடி யிட்டலும் அச்சுமுறிந்த தென் றுந்தீபற அழிந்தன முப்புர முந்தீபற

This very stanza is very suggestive of the true meaning தச்சு விடுத்தல் as leaving off one's human ties when யடியிட்டல், initiation by the Divine Guru happers, and then அச்சு முறிதல், முப்புரமழித்தல், our Pasu Botha and Pasa coats are all destroyed.]

The 'devas' repaired in a body to the supreme and invoked his aid. He consented to destroy them provided each rendered his help as he is described as "தன்பெருமை தானறியாத் தன்மையன்" (He who is not aware of His own greatness). Then the 'devas' shaped the huge car in which each had his part. The upper and lower halves were the 'heavens' and the earth. The sun and the moon became the wheels. The four vedas became the 4 horses, Brahma its charioteer, Mount 'meru' and Vasuki became the bow and string; and the arrow was shaped out of Vishnu, the iron, Vayu, the feathers, and Agni the head. The structure had become complete and the Deity had taken its seat, and the dreaded asuras were tempted by curiosity and were nearing to view the 'wonder.' (அற்புதக்காட்சி). When, lo! pause! The Devas could not contain themselves and each began to think "I foolishly invoked the aid of 'the one.' what could he do without my help.' The very moment the Deity smiled; the three puras (three flaming forts) had joined and were consumed to ashes; and the three Asuras took their stand by the Deity, and the axle broke and the car was a ruin. The devas woke up smashed and addressed the Deity that he is the Pasupati and that themselves are all pasas. And from that day, the one began to be addressed as Tiripurantaka and Pasupathi. And it is to be noted that in Ramayana the Deity is addressed as Tirupurantaka and Pasupathi in the same verse.

Now for its meaning. Not to be accused of the foolish and blind error ascribed to the 'modern Hindu Revivalist,' I simply quote the verse from 'Thirumantram' of Thirumular which is being translated and published in these pages.

"அப்பணி செங்சடை யாதிபு ராதனன முப்புரங் சொற்றன னென்பர்கள் மூடர்கள் முப்புர மாவது மும்மல காரியம் அப்புற மெய்தமை யாரறி வாரே."

Here the three puras* are compared to three mala or Pasa or Human coats of the soul or Atma. And I proceed to draw out the parallel. The Asuras typify the human monad in itself pure but working mischief through its encasement in the flesh and senses (flaming forts). Liberation comes when these coverings are destroyed and the feet of the Lord reached. "பாசங் கழன்றால் பசுவுக்கிடம்பதியாம்." To effect this liberation is the effort of the humanity and their labour and perseverance is ruly wonderful. They pray to all sorts of gods and read all sorts of books and think out all sorts of methods, but the one thing running through their whole fibre, their Egoism, that pride of self, Ahankara and Mamakara, they do not forget, and it ever and anon crops up. Even when they pray to the 'true One' this pride of self does not vanish and he exclaims 'what a great gnani, what a great bhakta am I'. "Am I not achieving Salvation by my own Gnanam and by my own Bhakti." This poor human effort can only provoke a smile, and the huge structure built by this so-called Gnanam and Bhakti falls to pieces. And yet the Asuras who nearing to view the Supreme (they forget their own peril, their self) for the time being) unite their forts, i.e., attain 'மும்மலபரிபாகம்' or 'இருவினையொப்பு' to the indifference of the self, by the balancing of pleasure and pain, yet these attain to the feet of the Lord, their Mala being destroyed, by the ire, yea, the smile (Grace) issuing from the lips of the Lord. And this is called destruction or samharam. This is merely destructive conquest of flesh, a conquest of Agnanam by knowledge and Grace of God (Pathignanam). And the heading to Pathihgam called 'திருவுந்தியார்' in 'திருவாசகம்', describing 'Thirupura Samharam' &c., is called 'Gnana vetri' (ஞானவெற்றி conquest by gnana). As this conquest by its fierce conflict too, the Deity is sometimes represented in a dread aspect and yet called, 'Sivam' 'The Blissful'. And when we approach the Place of Peace, when our passions are reduced to ashes and from which there is no return, this is the real mashan* or burial ground and not where our earthly bodies are consumed from time to time and ever and anon to assume another by our flaming unkilled desires and passions. (See a beautiful passage in the first section of the open court lectures by that really inspired lady, Mrs, Annie Besant where the yogi of yogis is described.)

[* This Rudra Bhumi is represented on earth by the sacred shrine of Varanasi (Benares) where yogis obtain release through the fontenelle and obtain the feet of Siva the blissful, (hence all men aspire to die there-Oh-if only they will really reach the true Varanasi!) in the same way as the cave of the yogi, the Haradakasa, for the Dhakara upasana is represented by the sacred shrine of Chidambara in South India. The word cmacana both mean a crematorium and Benares.]

"One thing more - Have we not here discovered the true nature of the Pathi, and the nature of the Pasu covered by the pride of self (Pasa) and the way this pasa (three puras) can be destroyed, and can we then question the propriety if in this place the 'gods' describe themselves as 'Pasu' adn the 'One' as the Pasupathi in the veda. And can we cavil if the feast illustrating all this is called Bramotschavam? As regards the working of the institution, if the object of any religious method is simply to draw out man from his own self and to make him look up to and to own allegiance to the Highest, then I have seen the populace display more real enthusiasm and religious feling at the drawing of a car in the streets under a burning sun than the most cultured in society in gilded palaces and under zephyr breathing punakas."

DURGA PUJAH.

Last Saturday (Oct 14) was a day of universal rejoicing and sacredness in the land of Ind, and from the poorest peasant and village artisan to the richest and bravest warrior and king, and the devout Brahman all unite their gladsome heart in doing Pujah to the Universal Spirit which is all knowledge and all bliss. As is generally the case in Hindu Religion, the central idea is one thing and it assumes symbolism and slowly and surely in course of time, the thought and symbolism is expanded and extended and adopted in the multitudes of creeds and sects, we have among our midst. The central thought is that the Supreme Intelligence and Wisdom arises out of darkness and conquers evil, and that it is only with the aid of this Divine Light we can conquer also our darker passions. This idea runs through stories of Indra and Vritra, God and Satan, Ahura and Ahriman, the sun myth and Buddha and Maya &c., &c. This central thought is contained in the famous "Na Sad Asid" hymn of the Rigveda (x. 129).

3. In the beginning there was darkness hidden in darkness; all this was indistingusihable chaos. That which, being everywhere was wrapped in indistinctness grew into one (Sat) by the Great Power (Kriya Sakti) of the austerity of contemplation (Gnana Sakti).

4. At first arose Desire (Ichcha Sakti) which is that primal germ of mind; Sages searching with their heart's thought have found the kinship of the existent in the non-existent.

5. Their spreading ray of light, was it across, below or above? These were impregnating powers, these were mighty forces; Self-supported was below, and the Energiser above."

As all the Vedic (mantric rituals and philosophy were subsequently clothed in Agamic (Tantric) symbolism, the thought comprised in the above verses were symbolised by Durga warring with Mahihasura and trampling him under foot triumphant and her standing also on the bosom of Her Lord Siva. Durga is the "Power," "thought" and "Desire" (Kriya, Gnana and Ichcha sakti or chitsakti) of the above mentioned verses, and she is the Energiser and her Lord is the Self-Supporting Sat. Mahishasura, the Asura with the buffalo head (what more stupid than the buffalo to the Hindus?) means Ignorance, Avidya or evil. This is the Universal war going of from eternity and which war is represented in various shapes from time to time. This exactly is the meaning of the war in the Skandapuran, in the Ramayana and in the Mahabharatha.

"Whenever there is decay of Dharma, o! Bharatha, and there is exaltation of Adharma, then I myself come forth for the protection of the Good, for the destruction of the Evil doers, for the sake of firmly establishing Dharma, I am born from age to age". says Lord Krishna the master and Guru of Arjuna, and Arjuna is enjoined to fight out the evil in himself, his egoism. This story also is instructive in this way that without the divine Guru (Arul Sakti) we cannot know ourselves and our God. And the original of this story and teaching is in Arul's (Sakti) own person in the famous Brahme Upanishad (Kena), teaching the nature of the Brahman, the Supreme. This Supreme Wisdom, this Maha Sakti, this Great Chit, this Mahadevi (whose feast is the Mahanonbu) this Durga who is addressed as the "One with the Brahman" in the famous Hymn of Arjuna in the battlefield of Kurukshetra, this Uma (Wisdom, Light; see a beautiful article on who derivation of the word and history in the Madras Mail by Charles Johnston) highly adorned, the daughter of Himavat, tells the highly conceited Devas, who thought the victory was theirs, when the Brahman it was who obtained the victory. "It is the Brahman, It is through the victory of Brahman, that you have thus become great." This Brahman who is (verses 1, 2 and 3 of the 2nd khanda) known and thought by one who thinkest he does not know Him, and is not known to him who thinks he knows. The Devas each in his own mind, thought he was the great being, the great actor; and their own insignificance and the great truth, they did not know, till they were told by the Supreme Sakti (Arul) herself. This teaching is repeated in the story of the Thirupura Samhara. This is what is taught to Arjuna by Krishna, not to think that he is the actor, that he fights, and that he kills, but that he should dedicate all his acts to Ishwara as His acts, in whom he must fix his thoughts, attaining a mind perfectly balanced towards evil and good. When therfore Durga or Sakti means Supreme Sakti or Wisdom, it is easily conceivable after the nine dark nights of conflict of good over evil, all arts and learning and knowledge and work and sport should receive their light and life, and the Puja to Mahadevi, Mahalakshmi and Mahasarasvati and weapons and tools (Ayudha pujah) &c., should be celebrated. This was originally celebrated in the spring, when after the death and darkness and misery of winter, nature herself put on her best and freshest robes, and everything assumed beauty and life and light. But it was changed from spring to autumn as Rama woshipped Durga in this season before commencing his great fight with Ravana. And Arjuna invokes her aid also in the famous battle of Kurukshetra, and it is said that 'Durga Ki Jai' was the universal war cry in India.And from this also, we gather what were the notions of true warfare among Hindus. No war could be justifiable unless its object was to put down injustice and vice and lawlessness; and no war could be sanctioned which had merely the object of greed and gain and power only.

People may ask why God should be represented as terrible at all, but this goes to the history of evolution of all religious ideas in this land and elsewhere (even the god of the Christians is an angry and jealous god), and we gather also our own feeling on the matter when we speak of "righteous indignation." The story of Uma Haimavati being the mediator* [* cf. The famous lines "தாயுடன் சென்றுபின் தாதையைக்கூடி" "follow the mother and embrace the father."] between the Ignorant gods from Indra downwards is repeated in all the Saiva puranas, with the more explicit mention of Siva as the Supreme Brahman and this has vast bearing also on the history of the evolution of the Brahmic Ideal. This story taken with the stories of Daksha's sacrifice, and the sacrifice performed by the Rishis of Dharukavana, leave no doubt about the true meaning.

THE FIRE SACRIFICE.

In any of its three forms was the original mode of worship by the ancient Aryan, and in this worship all the gods are invoked. Thereby the idea of the only One without a second was being forgotten, and the rituals and sacrifices became more and more formal. The improving conscience and thought of the people felt that something must be done to make the sacrifice to the One true God more explicit, and to eliminate from the category of the true God, all the minor gods who were till now addressed as one with God. And greater veneration was being paid to the sound of the Vedas as mantra and not to the true spirit, (this class gave rise to the Purva mimamsa or Sabda Brahma Vadam) and this pernicious influence had also to be checked. And hence, the Pauranika, who narrated not facts in political history, but a much more important aspect of history, namely, the mental and spiritual history of a people, invented these episodes, to illustrate the usual trend in the public minds, and the changes which were being slowly introduced were Kena Upanishad story proves that the earlier gods even discredited at the time of this Upanishad, and it explains also that the worship paid to these deities in the Vedas was nominally so, but really to the Supreme and that these Gods and their triumphs merely represented the One true God and His Triumphs.

THE DAKSHA STORY.

Would even point to a time when the Aryans had fallen to a lower level, and the true spirit of sacrifices (Dakshayan-Kriya Sakti) was totally ignored, and they turned a deaf ear to true counsel, and more heroic measures were necessary, which was nothing else than the entire putting down of sacrifices. And the Gods from Vishnu downwards are smashed by Virabhadra, the creation of God's anger and the sacrifical place is turned to a crematorium. And when Daksha relents, we find actually in the Vayu Puran (See the account in Wilson's Volumes), God Siva, telling him that all sacrifices and worship which is not directed to the glory of the true Brahman is bound to end in such failure, and that all worship really belongs to God, and must be directed to Him solely and wholely to ensure salvation. And the proud and haughty Rishis of Darukavana.

THE SABDA BRAHMA VADIES.

Had also to be put down similarly, and the Deer which they created, and sent to destroy God (Siva), by its fearful noise, represents merely the Veda (நான்மறை), pronounced without meaning and and God Siva, took up this Deer at His fingers end, hel it up close to His Ear, without any evil effect, only to illustrate, that however loud we may shout out the name of God, it cannot reach His ears and have any effect, and unless and until we bring to bear our whole heart and whole soul, in His praise. And in this connection how full of meaning is the line from St. Manica Vachaka.

"வேதங்கள் ஐயாவெனவோங்கி ஆழ்ந்து அகன்ற நுண்ணியனே."

(The Vedas cried Oh Father, and Thou transcendest far far beyond.)

and each one of the five words following the word Vedas, shows the ever increasing distance between Vedas and God, though in other places, God is extolled as "வேதமிழுத்பொருள்"

This is the true meaning of these episodes, and Oriental Scholars have sought vainly to read into these, conflicts between a savage creed and the true ancient Gods, and nothing can be further from fact than to say that Siva was not the God of the Brahmans, Lassen truly observes after a careful reading of Mahabarat that Siva was the god of the upper classes, Brahmans and Kshattriyas, and Manu in mentioning the caste of the Gods, makes out that Siva is Brahman, Vishnu Kshattriya, and Brahma Vaisya and Indraa Sudra and their worship by the respective castes are recommended. And Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa speaks of Siva as the ideal of all contemplative and self-absorbed men, and as the God of the Yogis; and the description of the Muni, (Yogi) is almost the same as that of Rudra even in the Rigveda (R. V. X. 136) and the Muni and Rudra are declared to drink the Visha together. And in the Mahabharata, Siva is over and over again spoken of as the Yogi of Yogis. And the form ascribed to Siva, his braided hair, his naked body or body clothed in skins (அம்பரமாம் மான்ஸித்தோல்- Skin consisting of Ambara-Akas), with Upaveeda of snakes, with his Gangas and Dandu, are exactly the features and accompaniments of a Brahmin Ascetic (Yogi) and the remarkable resemblance will be strikingly noticed in the Poona Art Pictures of Shiva and Parvati, Vashista or Vishwamitra and their wives. And today 90 percent of the Hindu Population wear the emblems of Siva, Ashes and Rudraksha, and the temples of Shiva cannot be counted in numbers and one need only try to count the temples mentioned in Mr. R. Sewell's book on South Indian Antiquities.

52. When Uma out of playfulness shut the eyes of the Supreme Lord, the whole worlds became dark, which darkness was removed by His third eye. They know not that by this tradition that all the Lights of heaven are but reflections of His Supreme Joti Form.

"In this Indestructible (Brahman) the sun and moon were established." (Br. Up. 3.8.11)

53. They know not that the Devas felt dejcted and unhappy for want of sense-enjoyment when the Supreme Siva assumed Yoga. They know not that when the God Vishnu persuaded His son Kama Deva to face Siva, the latter burnt him to ashes by His Upper Eye; and when the Supreme however became united to the Gracious Mother, Uma Haimavati, all sentient creatures recovered their happiness.

54. Unless the Supreme can assume Forms, we cannot have manifestations of His Panchakritya, and of His Grace to His Bhaktas. We cannot get the sacred Revealations. We cannot eat the fruits of our Karma, and seek release by Yoga, and by sacred initiation.

55. Once we assert Form to the Supreme, it follows that It is Formless also. From this again, we derive a third Form which is neither Form nor Formless. All these three varieties of Forms are assumed only and solely for the purpose of destroying our own physical forms, (cause of birth and death).

NOTE:- The first is called teh Sakata or Apara, the second is called Nishkala or Para, and the third is or Sakala-Nishkala or Parapara.

56. If asked why God is spoken of as Adhwa Murti (having the Adhwas for His Body), it is because He is Eternal and omnipresent and inseparable from all these bodies, and He actuates and moves both Chit and Achit, that the Vedas call Him so.

NOTE:- These six Adhwas (1) Kala, whose subdivisions are Santhyathitha Kala (சாந்தியாதிதகலை), Santi Kala (சாந்திகலை), Viddhei (வித்தை), Prathishta (பிரதிஷ்டை), Nivirti (நிவிரத்தி), (2) Bhuvana, (3) Varna, (4) Mantra, (5) Pada, (6) Tatwa, and these respectively form (1) members of His body, (a) head, (b) face, (c) chest, (d) arms, (e) feet; (2) hairs, (3) skin, (4) blood (5) nerves, (6) flesh and bones. Vide mantra No. 991 in R.A. Sastrie's Lalita Sahasra Nama.

57. If asked, why it is the Vedas speak of Mantra more specially as His Body, it is because that, of the material causes of the Universe, namely, Vindhu (Kundali), Mohini (Asuddha Maya) and Mahat (Prakriti), the Vindu body is of the purest, and is in Union with Siva Sakti.

58. And because this Mantra originates from this Pure Vindhu, and is caused and permeated by Parasakti and is the cause of man's progress and salvation, all the Vedas speak specially of the Mantras as Hara's Body.

59. If asked why of these Mantras, the Tantras speak of the five mantras, Isana &c., more as His Body, Hear! These five mantras arose first and is the cause of all other Mantras, and are guided by the five First Saktis.

END OF 2ND ADHIKARANA.

Adhikarana 3.

60. If it be asked how the gods Brahma and the rest are also Forms of Hara, it is so, because it is by the Power of His Sakti that these gods perform their functions. The objections that if these gods perform these functions, no other God as Hara is necessary is met by the fact that these Gods can only perform one and only function each.

NOTE:- The power of these Gods is confined to and by the respective Material planes in which they exercise these function. Gods 'Brahma and Vishnu, cannot rise above the Asuddha maya plane and so on. So that, an All-seer and All-worker is essentially necessary.

61. The Sakti is not many but only one. It appears as Various by its manifestation in various functions. Just as the one Supreme Law and Power vested in the person of our August Sovereign appears as various when executed by Her Majesty's ministers of state, Hara actuates all Gods and grants boons and salvation according to His own Supreme Will.

NOTE:- One minister of State works for peace, another for war. One Educates another Punishes. One is engaged in collecting Revenue, another in spending. One attends to Home affairs and another to Foreign affairs. The commentators mention the incidents of the Daksha's Sacrifice, Markendeya's salvation, the churning of the Ocean etc., as illustrating that none of the Lower Gods can act independently of the sweet will of the Supreme Paramasiva.

62. சத்திதன் வடி வேதென்னிற் றடையிலா ஞானமாகும், முய்த்திடு மிச்சைசெய்தி யிவைஞானத்துளவோ வென்னில் லெத்திற ஞானமுள்ள தத்திறமிச்சைசெய்தி வைத்திடு மறைபின்ஞானான் மருவிடுங் கிரியையெல்லாம்.

The form of this Sakti is Pure Intelligence. If asked whether Supreme Will and Power are also found in this Supreme Intelligence, yes. Wherever there is intelligence there is will and power. As such the Power and Will be manifested also by the Supreme Chit Sakti.

NOTE:- The saying "Knowledge is Power" explains the statement above. The phrase தடையிலா, மறைப்பில் that cannot be obstructed or hidden applied to the Supreme Intelligence, have to be remembered particularly. The Siddhanta does not contemplate any power or Intelligence which can even temporarily undergo obscuration or change or become impure. In the presence of this Supreme Sat Chit, there can be no darkness, no ignorance and no sorrow at any time. Darkness, ignorance and sorrow cannot be postulated by attributing any veiling or obscuration to this Supreme light. The Supreme light unlike the Earthly suns, shines everywhere and at all times and in all splendour, undiminished and unobscured, though the poor mortals as we are cannot and will not perceive this light, owing to the veil or covering over our eyes (and not over God, mind), just as the blind man fails to perceive light on even a bright noon day. The little covering is over the blind man's little man's little eyes and not over the sun, (try to compare the dimensions of man's eye and that of the sun), though the poet sings that even a small umbrella can hide the sun. The poet forgets that it is not the great sun, the umbrella hides but his little head. There are many similar fallacies in popular speech, and this one particular fallacy is a fruitful source of error.

63. This one Parasakti becomes three as Ichcha, Gnana and Kriya Saktis. Ichcha Sakti may be defined as the Supreme Love, desiring the welfare of all living creatures. As Gnana Sakti, God knows all, and the wants of each and every one, and grants their deserts. By His Gracious Kriya Sakti, the Lord creates all these worlds.

NOTE:- At the sight of the jivas weltering in sin and suffering, God's Love is excited, and He wills to save the souls, and intelligently sets shout adjusting means to this end, and the special means adopted for their salvation is by creating these worlds for gaining experience and wisdom. At page 98 of this volume is quoted a verse from Mahabarat showing the worlds are created for the enjoyment of jiva, for his eating the fruits of Karma; and the following line from Emerson shows also what the best Christian opinion is. "Everything is prospective, and man is to live hereafter That the world is for his education is the only sane solution of the enigma."

64. Can the Jiva by possession of his will, intelligence and power can be said to be equal to God? No. These powers of the Jiva are veiled by the eternal mala or impurity. The soul knows by the Grace of God, according to karma performed by him. The soul is not self-dependent enough to secure the fruits of his works or salvation, himself.

65. When pure Gnana, He is called Sivam, When Pure Kriya, He is called Sakti. When Gnana and Kriya are equally balanced, He is called Sadasiva. If kriya predominates, He is called Maheshwara. If gnana predominates He is called Viddei. In these Forms or Bodies, He performs the various functions, constituting, Reabsorption (Laya), Enjoyment (Bhoga) and Creation (Adhikara).

NOTE:- The first two forms, Sivam and Sakti constitute the Layi or Nishkala Body. Sadasiva is the Bhogi-Form or Nishkala-Sakala body. Maheshwara and Viddhei are the creators and constitute the Sakala-Form.

66. These five Forms of Sivam, Sakti &c., form His Five-self-luminous Bodies. As these Siva-Tatwas are in existence before the generation of Time itself, these may be said to be eternal (Nitya). The order is not order in Time, therefore, but order in manifestation of Gnana and Kriya Saktis.

NOTE:- We will have to note that there are forms of Matter which lie beyond Time and Space too.

67. As one actor plays the part of many characters such as Ravana, Rama &c., so, the Supreme One works in all these Forms and yet remains one and unchanged. All these Forms are His Sakti. He and His Sakti are related as the tree and its inner solid core (வயிரம்).

68. Just as the crystal appears as the various colours reflected on it, yet remains unchanged, so God manifests Himself as variously as His Sakti Forms, and remains Pure and one. And He cannot be perceived except when He manifests Himself in His Arul Sakti.

69. All this Universe is of the Form of Sivam and His Sakti. Of their form, are all males and females possessing marks and qualities agreeing and differing from each other. By the Power of Sakti, are all our welfare secured. People do not understand the secret meaning of the Sivalinga and Pita.

NOTE:- Compare Mahabharat, page 74 (Anuca Parva). 'This universe of mobile and immobile creatures is pervaded by two kinds of forms (male and female). Every being with the mark of the masculine sex should be known to be of Isana; while every being with the mark of the feminine sex should be known to be of Uma."

70. சிவனுரு வருவுமல்லன் சித்தினோ டசித்துமல்லன் பவமுதற் றொழில்களொன்றும் பண்ணிடுவானுமல்லன் தவமுதல் யோகபோகம் தரிப்பவ னல்லனருளே யிவைபெற வியைந்துமொன்று மியைந்திடா வியல்பினானே.

Siva is neither Rupi nor an Arupi. He is neither chit nor Achit. He does not create nor sustain nor perform other functions. He was never a Yogi nor a Bhogi. Though present in and pervading all these inseparably, yet he is of a nature different from all these.

END OF FIRST SUTRA.

 

ADVAITA LAKSHANA - SECOND SUTRA.

Adhikarana 1.

GOD'S RELATION TO THE WORLD.

  (1) உலசெலா மாகி, வேறாய், உடலுமாய், ஒளியாய் ஓங்கி உலகிலா வுயிர்கள், கன்மத்து, ஆணையின் அமர்ந்து செல்லத், தலைவனாய், இவற்றின் தன்மை தனக்கெய்த லின்றித் தானே நிலவுசீர் மலனாகி, நின்றனன், நீங்கா தெங்கும். One with the world, and different, and both, The light transcendent, The Lord who guides souls innumerable, in obedience to His Will (Agnja) and each one's karma; The Nirmala Being, untouched by the defects of His Creatures; Supreme He stands, second less, pervading all.

NOTE:- The author expands this one verse into 95 stanzas and the division by commas shows the various parts of the same. The primary divisions is into 4 adikaranas, and the reader is asked to follow this with the Sivagnanabotha Sutra and churnika and adikaranas and illustrations. We give very few notes, as the subject is more or less fully treated in my edition of Sivagnanabodham.

We will also refer to the readers which appeared in the pages in this Magazine in Vol II on "Mind and Body" "The two Gems" "God and the World". pp 13, 67, 37. All knowledge is relative, and the true purpose of Philosophy and Religion is to seek the relation that subsists between man and the world and God; and from the relations deduced we proceed to govern our life and guide our actions. In discussing these relations, some people deny the existence of someone or other, some all, of these things; and some in doing so, assert the identity of the one with the other. Most people do not however keep the divisions and subdivisions separate, and they confound and confuse some and all of them. Now we shall state some of these questions distinctly.

1. Whether the existence of all or any one or any two is accepted or denied?

2. Whether between any two.
(1) Both are regarded as substances.
(2) Or both are regarded only as phenomena.
(3) One is substance and the other phenomena.
(4) One is substance, another is attribute.

3. What is the relation between these sets.
(a) Whether order in place. Coexistence.
(b) Order in time, Succession, or cause and effect.
(c) Or any other.

4. Whether (1) as between substance and attribute, substance and phenomena, cause and effect, substance and cause alone are real; attribute phenomena and effect are unreal, (2) whether the latter are real, and the former unreal.

All these are distinct questions and require distinct answers. And if one wishes to be exact, he must try and answer these questions.

The 2nd Sutra is the Sutra which discusses this Relativity. Our name for this relation is Advaita. This Advaita relation differs from that of every other school, though it shows the way to reconcile all these schools by accepting the element of truth contained in each.

MAYAVADI'S OBJECTION ANSWERED.

2. When all the Vedas proclaim the Oneness of God without a second why do you postulate a second by speaking of His Presence in Souls? No. You misread the Vedas. They only declare that there is only One God. His relation to the souls is that of the letter (A) to other letters.

GOD IS ALL AND NOT ALL.

3. As the soul is attached to its forms and organs (physical body) and is yet separate from the body, so also is Isa attached to the souls. However, the souls cannot become God, and God cannot become the souls. God is one and different from the souls.

Adhikarana 2.

HOW GOD ACTUATES SOULS AND KARMA.

4. This Soul, subject to good and bad Karma endures birth and death, and pleasure and pain. The soul enjoys the fruits of Karma through the Power of God, in the same way, as a King metes out reward and punishment in this mundane world. The fruits cannot attach to a future birth by the appropriate bodies etc, of their own force.

THE LOKAYATHA'S OBJECTIONS.

5. If you object to the existence of Karma, by saying that both pleasure and pain are only natural to us, then natural characteristics must be harmonious. Men should not be subject to pain and pleasure which differ. You again point to a natural fact such as water becoming fragrant when flowers are soaked in it and becoming warm when heated.

MAN IS DIFFERENT FROM HIS ATTACHMENTS.

AND MUST BE INTELLIGENT.

6. Just so; the water becomes fragrant or hot, not by its own nature but by its attachments. So also the two Kinds of Karma become attached to the soul. Pains and pleasures cannot attach themselves to a non-intelligent, non-conscious substance.

ANOTHER OBJECTION. THERE IS NO FUTURE STATE.

7. It is again objected that a man's effort is the cause of his earning wealth and enjoying pleasure. The indolent can never gain nor can they enjoy. If otherwise, persons must secure wealth, who do not possess industry and effort.

THE SAME ANSWERED.

8. To this we reply that a man's effort or indolence is the result of his previous Karma. Then again, when a man is most industrious in the pursuit of wealth, suddenly he becomes indolent. Then again wealth secured after great effort is suddenly lost by fire or theft etc. Besides, the most indolent are also rolling in luxury.

 

HOW KARMA ACTS.

9. Gain and loss and pleasure and pain, age and death all these six become attached in the womb. He must go through these of a necessity. They are the result of the Karma effected in a previous birth. Results of present Karma will be manifest in a future birth.

AN EXAMPLE.

10. Karma being acts of the body, how was the body caused you ask. The karma of the last body causes the new body. They are mutually connected as cause and effect, as the seed and tree mutually cause each other.

HOW OUR FUTURE IS FORMED.

11. If past Karma is eaten in this birth, how do you get seed for a future birth you ask. This Karma consists of acts producing pleasure or pain. These acts caused the present body and in performing them again, other acts are formed. It is impossible to act without giving rise to other acts. Hence the connection.

THE ABOVE POINT ILLUSTRATED.

12. As the fruit of husbandry yield us food for present enjoyment and seed for tomorrow, so also, our acts also account for our present enjoyment and form seed, the fruit of which will be enjoyed in a future birth. This is the eternal order of Karma.

NOTES:- The three kinds of Karma and their definition have to be borne in mind. Sanjita karma follows one from birth to birth. Prarapta karma is formed out of Sanjita and is the direct cause of the body and worlds and enjoyments one is born to in the present existence. Akamia Karma is the seed gathered for a future sowing while so enjoying. From the beginning of this adikarna to this, the Siddantis position is established as against the Lokayata.

GOOD AND BAD KARMA DEFINED.

13. Karma are either good or bad, performed without harmony by the mind, speech and body. By good karma you do good to all sentient creatures. By Bad karma, you injure all. The Supreme Lord understands your deserts and makes you suffer pleasure or pain accordingly.

NOTES:- The definition of Good and Evil, Right and Wrong, Punyam and Papam as herein given has to be noted carefully. It is the doing of acts which give pleasure or pain to all and every sentient creature within one's own sphere, and one's own pleasure and pain is also involved. Humanity is so tied that one cannot think of his own good or his own loss absolutely. It is only when a man judges of his act in their effect on the whole of humanity, that he can be judging rightly. In our view of Punyam and Papam, the doing of good is enjoined as a positive duty, as much as the refraining from evil or injury. The list of 32 Dharmas or charities contains every one of those active duties which a man think of to benefit his fellow creatures by removing their sufferings and adding to their pleasure. The sole trait of the Saintly consists in their over flowing Love towards humanity and their pain and sorrow at their fallen brethren. "கள்ளத்தலைவர் துயர் கருதி தன் கருணை வெள்ளத்தலைவ மிக." says Saint Umapathi. Read my further observations at pp 199, 200, in Vol. I. I was most pained to see the phrase "desiring the welfare of all" in Gita chap V. 25 most saliently explained to mean "injuring none" This sort of tendency marks the downward fall in Hindu Ethics and some of the reproaches levelled at Hindu Quietism are not altogether undeserved. Who could do a greater harm to society than by the perverted injunction to do good to all is construed into a mere negative injunction to injure none. And how can troubles of the sinning and sorrowing humanity ruffle the undisturbed calmness will not prevent a man from a rebirth but it only presages the storm that is to follow. Woe, Woe to those who would follow out such views of calmness and saintliness.!!!

THE PURVA MIMAMNSAKA'S OBJECTION ANSWERED.

14. How does God mete out the fruit of Karma you ask. He does so, as He pervades all and out of his Love to his creatures, so that they may attain freedom. He blesses those who do good and afflicts those who do wrong.

GOD'S WAYS ARE ALL LOVE.

15. It is out of His Love, He punishes the wicked. He punishes those who do wrong and makes them mend their ways and do right. All his acts therefore flow out of His Love.

AN ILLUSTRATION.

16. Parents chastise their refractory children. Is this not out of Love? God's anger is also similarly manifested.

FURTHER OBJECTIONS ANSWERED.

17&18. Acts themselves produce fruits; no God is necessary you say. But these acts themselves are lost to view even here. You further instance manure and medicine which die and produce results. But this rule does not hold good in every case; as when you give food and betel to a starving man.

FURTHER ANSWERS.

19. Further the example of manure and medicine is not a proper one. But if you still say there are instances where acts performed in one place produce fruit in another, such as gifts bestowed here at yajnas etc, yet these are found to perish even here. How can they produce effects in an another world?

The same argument continued.

20. You say that all these acts leave their impress on the doer's mind, and are reproduced from the mind in another birth. If so, sir, the heaven and hell and earth attained to by the virtuous and vicious resolve into your mind and they were born again from your mind. My dear sir, your words are wonderful.!

GOD IS THE SUPREME LAW.

21. The gift and giver the rites and receiver, all perish; as such an Eternal Knower who can mete out good and bad is necessary. All good actions are the ordinations of god. He who follows His Law, will also be freed from his disease.

HOW?

22. Souls enjoy alone in conjunction with body and organs, place and time and order, action and object; all these latter are non-intelligent and cannot attach themselves to the Soul of their own accord. The soul being bound cannot choose these of its own power. As such the Infinite Being brings about their union by the Supreme Power of His Law, (Agnja Sakti) and out of His Supreme Law.

LOVE IS LAW.

23. Good behaviour, Love, Grace, Achara, courteous reception, amity, good sense, blameless austerity, charity, respect and reverence and intelligent truthfulness, faultless Sannyasa, humility, if these constitute blameless Virtue, they are also the ordinances of the Loving Lord.

LOVE GOD.

24. When one worships the God he loves, with mind fixed intent, and words of praise, and hands showering forth flowers, after getting rid of anger, desire and other faults, and entering on the practice of the above named virtues, then the most ancient of the ancient gods will deign to accept his worship.

NOTE:- The words in the text "இச்சித்த்தெய்வம்," any God he loves" is general and refer to the worship of any deity, the sole requisite being that he leads a blameless life, and is filled with true devotion and perfect harmony of thought, speech, and deeds.

AND THE TRUE ONE WILL SHOW YOU GRACE.

 25. "யாதொரு தெய்வங் கண்டீரத் தெய்வமாகியங்கே மாதொரு பாகனார்தாம் வருவர்மற்றத் தெய்வங்கள் வேதனைப் படுமிறக்கும் பிறக்கும் மேல்வினையிம்செய்யும் ஆதலாலிவையிலா தானறிந்தருள் செய்வனன்றே" Whatever God you worship, even as Him, the Consort of Uma will appear. Other gods will die and be born, and sin and suffer by performing Karma. He, who is above all this, will understand your true worship and show you grace. cf - (a) The words of that most ancient poet Nar-kirar. "இவரேமுதற்றேவர் எல்லார்க்குமிக்கார் இவரல்லவென்றிருக்கவேண்டாம் - கவராதே காதலித்தொன்றேத்து திரேல்காளத்தியாளவார்நீர் ஆதரித்த்தெய்வமேயாம்."

THE REASON THEREOF.

26. When we worship some beings, such as parents, &c., it is not they who show us grace in the future state. Even where these gods show us grace, it is thus. All these gods are under the guidance of the Supreme power; and the Supreme grants us our prayers through them.

NOTE:- Just as the honours conferred by the Viceroy of India flows directly also from Her most gracious Majesty, so do also the gods show grace each in his own sphere of influence.

THEREFORE WORSHIP THE TRUE GOD.

27. If it is Siva who shows you Grace ultimately, the love of Him will be the supreme virtue. All other worship will be lower and vain. This highest Dharma is declared in the Sivagamas. He has no desires himself; (and so this worship is not for his pleasure). Whatever you desire most, He is gracious enough to grant. So persevere in his worship.

NOTE:- The author explains his true attitude with regard to his own religion and other religions in these verses. He does not condemn the worship of other gods, for the simple reason that all such worship is useful, in that, all such worship, if true, tends to raise him from his own low desires and selfish instincts, and towards a nearer approach to the Supreme God; and the All-Seer, and All-knower, and All-gracious cannot fail to take note of his sincerity and love, and to reward him as he deserves. But however useful, the worship of the lower god cannot be the highest object of our aspiration. We can bow before the Fountain of Grace itself direct, and drink of the supreme bliss. This is also the teaching of the Gita, and in reading it, one has only to remember, that whenever Lord Krishna speaks of Himself, he speaks as the supreme Guru and Acharya of Arjuna, and as such, represents, the supreme God Himself. Many a passage will be unmeaning otherwise; and the worship of Himself which he recommends is not to be taken to mean any Saguna worship or the worship of any God other than the Highest.

cf.- 'Become wise at the end of many births, one worships Me. That high-souled saint is very rare to whom Vasudeva (the Supreme God) is all." vii.19.

(20) "Whatever form a devotee wisheth, in faith, to worship, that faith in him do I render firm."

(22) "Possessed with that faith, who devotes himself to that worship, obtains thence his wishes, but they are merely granted by Myself."

(23) "But to those of small understanding (all) fruit had an ending. The votaries of the deities join the deities; my votaries join Myself."

(25) "This ignorant world knows me not as the birthless and deathless." (From Srimath Govind Charya's translation).

THE WAY OF WORSHIP.

  28. தாபரஞ்சங்கமங்களென்றிரண்டுருவினின்று மாபரன்பூசைகொண்டுமன்னுயிர்க்கருளைவைப்பன நீபரந்தன்னைநெஞ்சில்நினைவையேல்நிறைந்தபூசை யாய்பரம்பொருளைநாளுமர்ச்சிநீயன்புசெய்தே.

The Supreme accepts worship both in material Forms (Siva Linga) and in living Forms (God's devotees) and shows His Grace. If you can place Him in your heart and worship, this will be adequate worship. In any mode, fail not to love and laud him every day.

THE GREATNESS OF SUCH DEVOTION.

29. Even the sins of the Lord's devotees become virtue, the virtues of loveless men are sinful. The austere sacrifice of Daksha was in vain; while the sin committed by the human child was beneficial.

NOTE:- All sins flow from selfishness, and virtue from selflessness, and love of man and God. This is the true test of vice and virtue. Even man-made law looks to the intention in the first instance, in defining most crimes. As such, where we may be sure that any act was not prompted by any personal greed, for the avoidance of pain or the gaining of pleasure to the individual but had proceeded out of pure love of God and his fellow creatures that at once ceases to be a vice. In fact, all personal responsibility ceases with such persons, in the same way, as with children, idiots, and lunatics, and the world have called such great beings fools and idiots.

cf. பாலரொடுபேயர்பித்தர் பான்மையெனநிற்பதுவே

சீலமிகுஞானியர்தம் செய்கைபராபரமே.

 

"As children, lunatics and the possessed, so do holy Gnanis behave." (Tayumanavar).

The allusion in the last line of the text is to the history of Saint Dandisa Nayanar, one of the Saiva Saints, who, when interrupted in the divine pujah, by his own father, struck and severed the latter's foot with a stick - (Vide p.89, vol. I, Siddhanta Deepika).

We have already enlarged upon the story of the Daksha sacrifice and its import. Daksha was the first son of God Brahma, and so from the beginning of this world, the contrast between lip-service and heart worship has been manifest, between mere rituals and true devotion to God and love to man.

WHERE THE LAW IS CONTAINED.

30. The Veda is God's word. They who do not follow the Word reach hell; an those who follow reach the worlds of bliss. Men suffer pain or enjoy pleasure according to the ordinances of God.

AN ILLUSTRATION.

31. By the law, the king administers justice and punishes those who do not obey the law. Those, who follow the law, he loads with wealth and lands, and clothes them also with powers under the law. And all this by the power of the law.

THE KING'S LAW NOT AN EXCEPTION TO THE SUPREME LAW.

32. Even the act of the king is an act of God's mercy. Those who commit high crimes and misdemeanours are punished surely and suffer and thus work out their Karma. Then they learn to follow the law. Such purified beings will avoid hell. The sufferings of man in hell and in earth are really the same.

GOD IS JUST AND THE SUPREME PHYSICIAN.

33. He who commits wrong against the injunction contained in the sacred Shastras given out graciously by God, will suffer pain the dark regions of hell, and thus work out his sin. The virtuous man also works out his Karma by eating the fruits in heavenly regions. This kind of suffering and enjoyment are the two kinds of physic which the Supreme Physician administers for the removal of man's mala.

NOTE:- Both virtue and vice binds man to the earth and form the seed of birth and death. This is one of the central doctrines of Hinduism. Our Christian friends are hardly able to comprehend this truth. But this, by the way, forms also one of the chief points in the Christian doctrine. According to them, how was the fall of man brought about in this earth. How did sin arise and with it death and birth? Why by the first man disobeying God's law? And what was this law? Do not eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and evil. And what is the meaning of this sentence? To the ordinary Christian, we dare say this will be quite meaningless. At any rate, it will be a puzzle to him how the tasting of the knowledge of good will be sin. When, however, it is explained that the tree of knowledge of good and evil is merely man's consciousness of good and bad, and his eating the fruit of them is his following out in action such knowledge. With the feeling of Ahankara and Mamakara ('I' and 'mine') most predominant in his mind, i.e., with his will as the sole guiding principle and not the supreme will of the Lord, then indeed, he commits sin and lays the seed for a course of births and deaths. If avoiding both good and bad, as he felt it, he simply and calmly submitted to the Will of God (and dedicated all his acts and thoughts and speech to God's service and glorification இறைபணிநிற்கவும். all sin and suffering will vanish. ("மலமாயை தன்னொடும் வல்வினையிற்றே.")

But this ideal of the highest ethics and religion cannot and does not commend itself to the thoroughly materialised peoples of the West and hence their obtuseness.

As the Supreme Physician who cures our ignorance and sin, He is called Vaidyanatha; and under such name God is worshipped in the Vaidiswaran Koil in Tanjore District.

THE SAME EXPLAINED.

34. He who follows the rules given in books of hygiene will never suffer sickness. If such rules are neglected sickness will torment a man. The physician will administer medicine to the suffering man and remove his illness. He will cure ills even without medicine by an incantation or a mere touch.

So also, those who follow God's law, perform Karma and get freedom.

BOTH GOOD AND EVIL ARE FOR THE BENEFIT OF MAN.

35. Our earthly physicians cure certain ills by cutting and cauterising and are also rewarded. Other ills are cured by feeding with milk and sugar. So also the Lord cures the ills of Karma by subjecting mankind to pain and pleasure.

NOTE:- Nobody can accuse the physician of partially in causing pain to one and pleasure to another. The fact is these acts are not for his own benefit but to benefit his patients possessing different maladies.

LIFE AFTER DEATH.

36. When the gross body dies, the soul retains its sukshuma sarira of eight tatwas, for enjoyment or suffering, in heaven or hell, under the divine decrees, and passes into the womb as an atom before it is born again into the world.

NOTE:- The Puri-ashtaka is the sukshuma sarira or body composed of the 5 subtle elements, sabda, sparisa, rupa, rasa and ganda and manas, buddhi and ahankara. In this subtle body, they undergo no new experiences, but live over the life they have lived in this world, in a mere intensified form than on earth. If in this life their thoughts were good and pleasant, they feel thousand times more happy in the astral world, but if they led a vicious life, their bad thoughts haunt them ever, and their suffering is multiplied a thousand fold. After the appointed time is over, they are again reborn to work out their further Karma.

THE SAME.

37. When one gross body perishes, the soul may take on at once another gross body or it may be dormant like a stone for a time; and after the allotted time and according to its Karma, it will take on another gross body.

AN ILLUSTRATION.

38. The snake dropping its skin, the birds leaving its shell, and the yogi his body and entering another, and the passing from a waking state into dream condition illustrate the parting of the soul from his gross body after death and its entry into a different world of consciousness.

KARMA DEFINED.

39. Karma comprises virtuous and vicious acts and their results, becoming the cause of Loss and gain, pleasure and pain. It is one of the three eternal malas covering the soul and from its appearing in the form of acts of mind, body and speech is named kamya.

THE THEORY OF REBIRTH.

40. This karma of good and evil is eternal. yet it has a beginning as it starts with the acts performed by men in time. It has an end, after it is worked out by man fully. It becomes attached to maya mala at the great dissolution of the universe, and is reborn with the subtle body of each soul and is continuous (like a flood) in each successive rebirths and deaths, and is of different forms (as Sthula, sukshuma and Adisukshuma) and is yet formless and acts under the Law of Supreme Hara.

BHATTACHARYA'S OBJECTION.

41. You say that of living beings, both moveable and immoveable, each of them will only change its body at its rebirth, according to its respective karma, but not its form. But answer me first , whether when human beings enter Swarga and partake of the bliss therein, whether they do so there as human beings or as celestials?

NOTE:- The Battacharya's theory is that grass, herb or bird or animal or man will be reborn as grass, herb, &c., respectively and not one into another. According to Madawa Charya (Dwaita school) when mortals reach the Highest Heaven, they enjoy there as man or beast or bird according to its original form on earth.

42. If they enjoy in heaven as mere human beings, then this heaven ceases to be such. If as celestials they enjoy, your theory, that they do not change their forms, falls to the ground. After enjoying as celestials, when they are reborn on earth, they will be only reborn as human beings and not as celestials.

SOME ILLUSTRATIONS.

43. Some worms become beetles and some worms become wasps. Similarly beings change their forms according to their karma. Most of the schools are also agreed on this point and why should you alone have doubts about it.

THE SAME.

44. The accounts of Agalya becoming a stone, of Maha Vishnu incarnating in several forms, of the Sun having given rise to a Race of far famed kings, of a spider and a rat having become powerful kings, also demonstrate our point.

A FURTHER OBJECTION ANSWERED.

45. You say that these instances only show that these change of forms were due to certain causes and not to the effect of karma. But I have already stated that the Lord is the Witness of all kinds of karma. As it is, everything follows only the Divine Will.

KARMA INERT UNLESS ENERGISED BY GOD.

46. Karma cannot of itself discover the particular body or the particular world and attach itself to Jiva and the Jiva itself is equally incapable of choosing the particular body. The union and evolution of these bodies are brought about by God. God intelligently gives each a suitable body, according to his karma.

GROSS BODY IS DERIVED FROM THE SUBTLE;

NECESSITY OF A CREATOR.

47. If you ask whence the gross body is derived, it is derived from the subtle Maya. If you ask again, whether, if so, the forms should not all be similar, we answer No. Though gold is one, different kinds of ornaments like chairs &c., are made there from. The creation of all these forms and universe are brought about by the only one God, Siva.

NOTE:- The question has often puzzled people whether the higher forms of animals, and man can revert in a next birth to still lower and different forms. But the difficulty will vanish when as herein pointed out that the different kinds of gross bodies possessing form are all derived from the more subtle and formless matter. From this formless subtle matter, it will be as easy to form one body as another, the two chief powers bringing about this form being the Supreme power of God and the lesser power of the Karma of each individual. But we seem to feel doubt as to how the man's superior intelligence can vanish into the brute's intelligence. The intelligence does not suffer in any way but is simply covered over or hidden by the particular body for the time being, just letting in a little light or more, and just as we cage a wild animal, so that the brutal instincts of the man may not run riot and cause more damage to himself and others. And the difficulty of most people will vanish also when this fundamental tenet of Hinduism is grasped namely, that the soul of man is in itself perfect but is eternally covered over by Anava or Avidya and is further covered over by maya mala or matter, and the effect of the last covering is just to give just as much opening as is necessary for letting in the light of God, to shine on the individual soul and to make itself shine. The higher and the higher the body, the greater and greater will be the intelligence displayed. But as often happen, man misuses his intelligence and powers; these have to be curbed and limited again for a time, and so a less developed body is given, where he cannot be able to use all such superior powers he possessed for mischief. When these powers have been thoroughly subjugated, modulated in perfect harmony, the individual gains back a better body for his further cleansing.

HOW THE GROSS BODY IS CAUSED.

48. The gross body is not formed by the change and destruction of the subtle body, nor is the body formed separately in the subtle body itself. The subtle body itself possesses the power of creating the gross body, as a tree when cut off down to the foot is again produced from the root.

NOTE:- Various theories of formation of the gross from the subtle body are considered here, and each school have a favourite simile. According to one school, the change of body is like one piece of gold ornament changing into another ornament. According to another (Buddhist) it is like the seed giving rise to the tree. According to a third, it is like the child formed in the mother's womb. A fourth theory is that it is derived as the rays of the moon one after another. The difference are very subtle, though each of the similes is useful in expressing a phase of the meaning. The author's own simile a rare one is the root and the tree, in as much as even in our present gross body, the subtle body is present and is not destroyed; and the Sukshama body remains, even though the gross body may be cut off.

A FURTHER EXPLANATION.

49. Under the divine law, the gross body arises from the subtle body. Without such divine power, it cannot arise of itself, and from the power of Karma alone. The gross body can arise only again from its material cause, as a tree from a seed. The tree and seeds may be destroyed together, and so the subtle body can also be destroyed? No. These bodies arise and perish and arise again, as the moon and its Kala waxes and wanes and waxes again.

THE ULTIMATE CAUSES OF THE BODY.

50. The cause of the gross body is the Puriashtaka or subtle body. The cause of the latter is Mulaprakriti. Its cause is Asuddha Maya or Mohini. Its superior cause is Vindhu or Kundali. Above it, and energising them all is the power of the Lord (Sakti) and the Lord Himself (Sivam). When the soul reaches the Supreme God, all these distinctive bodies cease, as also the soul's bondage.

End of 2nd Adhikarana.

Adikarana 3.

[As this chapter is the most important portion of the whole treatise in as much as the tatvas treated of here are special to Saiva Siddhanta, the reader is requested to follow it with the elaborate and beautiful table of Tatvas prepared by Sri Senthinathier and the Catechism which is translated herein, which gives all the textual authorities bearing on the subject.]

1. God's acts are determined by love, we stated before. Making them eat the fruits of their karma in the different worlds, and giving each, suitable bodies, God removes the mala by means of these medicines, and gives the souls the highest bliss and crowns them with His own Lotus-Feet.

MAYA, A PURIFICATORY MEANS.

2. The body and senses are formed out of (Maya) mala, dirt. Why do you say that this dirt will remove another dirt (Anava Mala), you ask. Yes. Just as the washer man washes all clothes by mixing with them cow-dung, fuller's earth, &c., so the Most Ancient God removes our sins with Maya Mala.

DEFINITION OF MAYA.

3. Indestructible, formless, one, seed of all the worlds, non-intelligent, all pervasive, a Sakti of the Perfect One, cause of the soul's body senses and worlds, one of the three Malas, cause also of delusion, is Maya.

NOTE:- The definition has to be carefully noted. Each word in it is in answer to a particular school of philosophy. See Sivagnana Yogi's commentary for detailed explanation. Maya here means Asuddha Maya.

ITS PRODUCTS: TIME, &C.

4. From Maya arise Time and Order (Niyati), and then Kala. Of this, Time acting under the Lord's will rules all the worlds in its three forms of the past, present and future, by creating, developing and destroying everything and giving rise to divisions of time.

NIYATI, KALA AND VIDYA.

5. Niyati brings about order and harmony in the working of Karma: the energetic Kala arises next and lifting Anava little, brings into play the soul's active powers: the Vidya tatwa arises out of Kala and brings out the soul's intellectual powers.

RAGAM AND PURUSHA.

6. From Vidya tatva arises Ragam which according to each one's Karma induces Desire for Bhoga or sensory enjoyments. When the soul is thus clothed in these organs of action, intellection and volition, this combined tripartite body is called the Purusha tatva.

NOTE:- This body is also said to fivefold including Time and Niyati, and hence is called Pancha Kanchuka.

MULAPRAKRITI: ITS PRODUCTS.

7. From Kala rises Prakriti in Avyakta form. This gives rise to the three Guna; each of the Guna is of three kinds and these Guna pervade everything. And the soul becoming of the form of these Guna becomes bound for purposes of enjoyment.

NOTE:- The three Guna are Satva, Rajas, Tamas. When combining, with each other, and one of the qualities alone predominate, they form into groups of Satva, Satva-Rajas and Satva-Tamas, Rajas, Rajas-Satva, and Rajas-Tamas, &c.

CHITTAM AND BUDDHI.

8. From the Avyakta, Chittam arises, and thinks out everything. From the same, arises Buddhi, and becoming attached to Dharma and Adharma, discriminates between the mental perceptions, and becoming clouded by Moka, pain and pleasure, influence both Gnana and Kriya.

NOTE:- If everybody is not influenced that act on one's Buddhi are the three Guna, good and bad Karma, pain and pleasure, fear and Moha.

AHANKARA.

9. Buddhi gives rise to Ahankara which is the Seed of 'I'ness in man, and which says, 'who is there to compare with me, and which says 'I' and 'Mine', and is inseparably connected in man. This Ahankara is of three kinds, according to each of the three Guna, Satva, &c., namely Taijasa, Vaikari and Butha.

MANAS: GNANENDRIYA AND KARMENDRIYA.

10. From Taijasa arises Manas. It perceives objects, and remembers and distinguishes and doubts them. From Taijasa also arise the Gnanendriyas. From Vaikari, arise the Karmendriyas.

GNANENDRIYA AND THEIR OBJECTS.

11. The Gnanendriyas are ear, eye, nose, tongue, and body. Their objects of perception are sound, form, smell, taste and touch. Each of them is united to a particular material element such as Akas &c.

KARMENDRIYA AND THEIR ACTION.

12. The wise declare the Karmendryas to be mouth, feet, hands, alimentary canal, and organs of generation. Their actions are respectively speech, motion, manipulation, alimentation and excretion, and pleasure.

A CLASSIFICATION OF ALL THE ABOVE.

13. The Karmendriya and Gnanendriya form external organs. Manas and other faculties form the internal organs (Anta Karana). Those who enquire further will find that Ragam and four other faculties are even internal to these four. And the soul lives controlled by these forces generated by Maya.

BUTHA: TANMATRAS" PURIASHTAKA.

14. From Butha are generated the five Tanmatras, Sabda, Sparisa, Rupa, Rasa, and Gandha. They induce knowledge in the external organs. The subjective Tanmatras and Manas, Buddhi and Ahankara form the Puriashtaka.

NOTE:- The former class of Tanmatras are the objective and the latter subjective, and should not be confounded with each other. It is a distinction of very great psychological importance.

THE FIVE GROSS ELEMENTS AND THEIR RELATIONS TO THE ABOVE.

15. From the five Tanmatras arise respectively akas, air, fire, water and earth. These have qualities one more than the other. The relation of the original Butha to its visible products is that of the embodied to the body.

NOTE:- Butha, the product of Ahankara, is the invisible element out of which the gross material elements earth, &c., are finally evolved. This original Butha is mental and is subjective. The gross elements are objective, though all these are products of Maya.

Akas possesses only one quality sound, which is its special one.
Vayu possesses sound, and its own peculiar quality Sparisa.
Agni possesses sound and touch and its peculiar quality Rupa.
Water possesses sound, touch, form and in addition Rasa or taste.
Earth possesses all the above four and its own peculiar quality, Gandha or smell.

THE QUALITIES OF THE GROSS ELEMENTS.

16. Akas is space giving room to all other elements.
Air moves everywhere and brings together everything.
Fire burns and unites things.
Water is cool, and it softens things.
Earth is hard and it bears all things.

THEIR FORM, AND COLOUR AND SYMBOLS.

17. The earth, water, fire, air and akas are respectively of the form of a square, crescent, triangle, hexagon and circle. They are respectively of the colours of gold, white, red, black and blue. Their letters respectively are ல, வ, ர, ய, அ.

THEIR SYMBOLS AND DEITIES.

18. Their symbols respectively are: the sword of diamond, lotus, Swastika, the six points, and Amirta Bindhu. Their deities are Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra, Maheswara and Sadasiva. The deities of the five Kalas are also the same.

A SUMMING UP AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE TATVAS.

19. The first five named above as Suddha Tatvas, and the next mentioned 31 tatvas make up a total of 36. Of these, the first are classed as Chit, and one other is the atma, who distinguished these as Chit, and one other is the atma, who distinguishes these as Chit and Achit and hence called, Chitachit, and the next 30 are Achit.

NOTE:- The commentators add that the first five only are called chit, as they reflect the True Chit, Light of Truth, perfectly. Atma or Purusha is called chitachit because it becomes light in light and dark in darkness.

ANOTHER CLASSIFICATION.

20. The first five are classed Suddha. The next seven are classed Suddhasuddha. The next 24 from Maha &c., are classed as Asuddha. They respectively form for the Jiva, the regions of Preraka, (Lordship) Bhoga, (enjoyment) and Bhogya (things enjoyed).

ALL ARE TATVAS.

21. The whole Universe, constituting all that has form, the formless, and those that have form and no form, is the manifestation of the Tatvas. These Tatvas manifest themselves, each in three ways, Stula, Sukshma and Para. The Jivas that always stand connected with the Tatvas which are under the impelling influence of the Sadakyas, also bear their names. Thus all things are, in fact, Tatvas only.

NOTE:- 'எல்லாம்' in the original gives us 'those that have form and no form.' Para - Atisukshma. Jivas here stand for the three kinds of jivas, Vijnanakalar, Pralayakalar, and Sakalar.

INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF THE TATVAS.

22. The twenty-four Tatvas, from earth to Mula Prakriti complete their involution in the A'tma Tatva, and the six Tatvas beyond the Mula Prakriti, in the Vidya Tatva; the three, Suddha Tatva upwards, in the Siva Tatva. These three, viz., A'tma, Vidya and Siva Tatvas are eternal, say they. The other two Sakti Tatva and Siva Tatva involutes in the Suddha Siva. The evolution of the Tatvas also follows the same order.

NOTE:- Siva is eternal. The other three Tatvas are so, only in name. As the Tatvas involutes in and evolve from Sudda Siva, it follows that He is the cause of involution and evolution.

Adhikarana - 4.

CREEDS AND THEIR PLACE IN THE TATVAS.

1. All false creeds take their stand severally in the Tatvas from Bhutas (elements) to Mohini (Asuddha Maya). The six true creeds beginning from Saiva have their respective places in the Tatvas from Vidya upwards. Our Lord is beyond the Tatvas.

NOTE:- False creeds are 18 in number, of which six are eternal, six externo-internal and the remaining six are externo-external. The names of these creeds and their explanation can be gleaned from commentaries. 'Creeds' here stand for the deities worshipped by the people who profess them. The Tatvas, which form the sects of the deities, also form the Multi Sthana of the creeds. 'Our Lord' Suddha Siva, the deity of the Siddhanta Saiva Religion.

NINE KINDS OF MANIFESTATION OF SIVA.

2. The one Lord alone acts, pervading through the nine vargas - Siva, Sakti, Nada, and Bindu, the formless four; Sadasiva, of form and without form; Maheswara, Rudra, Vishnu, and Brahma, the four of form - who manifesting themselves in different Tatvas, perform their several functions.

NOTE:- Sakti and Bindu are included among the male energies of Siva in spite of their female character, because, unlike Manonmani and other saktis, they partake of the characteristics of both the male and the female energies in causing the manifestations.

SAKTIS OF SIVA.

3. The sakti-kinds appertaining to the manifestations of Siva are seven in number - Sakti, Bindu Sakti, Manonmani, Mahesa, Uma, Lakshmi and Sarasvati. Yet they are all one, Parasakti. Whatever aspect Her Lord manifests Himself in, in that she manifests Herself also.

NOTE:- The manifestations of Siva reckoned here are only seven; for, Sakti and Bindu have been left out, as they stand midway between the male and the female energies.

THE ONENESS OF SIVA AND SAKTI.

4. It is Sakti who manifests Herself as Nada and the six following vargas. It is Siva who forms all vargas from Sakti upwards. Whatever of shape there is, that proceeds from Sakti, is Sakti and Siva combined. The Sakti who manifests Herself in whatever forms the Sakta wills in His matchless consort.

THE CREATIVE POWER OF SIVA AND SAKTI.

5. Siva begets Sakti and Sakti begets Siva (Sadakya). Both in their happy union produce the worlds and the Jivas. Still Bhava (Siva) is a brahmachari (celibate) and the sweet-speeched Sakti remains a virgin. Sages only comprehend this secret.

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF A TATVAJNANI.

6. The Tatvas manifesting themselves as the body, senses, worlds and enjoyments, bondage (bandha) and freedom (moksha) arising from these, affect the Jivas. He who thus understands the nature of the Tatvas and eliminates them one by one, realises the Supreme beyond. Such is the true sage just described.

WHY TATVAS AFFECT THE JIVAS.

7. Why do all these Tatvas together affect the Jivas? It is for reaping the fruits of past Karma completely, for rooting out the very seed of Karma so that it may not arise again, and for getting rid of the evil A'nava Mala.

NOTE:- Since it is Jivas, not Siva, that are got rid of Mala and Karma by means of the Tatvas, it follows that the Tatva do not affect Siva.

Adhikarana - 5.

NATURE OF A'NAVA MALA.

1. A'nava Mala, with its many Saktis, is one. Pervading through the numberless Jivas as the dirt in copper, it binds them from Jnana and Kriya. It also affords them the capacity for experience, and is ever the source of ignorance.

NOTE:- The dirt that is inherent in copper can be removed once for all only by alchemical processes; and, when it is so removed, the copper remains no longer copper but is transformed into resplendent gold. In like manner, the Jiva that is affected by Mala can be freed from it only when Sivajnana is attained; and the Jiva that is so freed from Mala remains no longer a Jiva but attains Patitva merging into Siva. The illustration of dirt and copper is favourite with the Siddhanta and should, therefore, be carefully noted.

A'NAVA AND MAYA DIFFERENTIATED.

2. Do you say, 'There is no other entity as Mala (A'nava) it is only the effect of Maya.' Understand well that Maya causes Iccha, Jnana and Kriya to arise in the Jivas but A'nava causes the same to disappear, that A'nava is inherent in the Jivas but Maya is separate from them and, besides, manifesting itself as the universe, forms the body, senses, worlds and enjoyments.

NOTE:- This forms an answer to the false creeds that identify Maya with A'nava Mala.

PURVA PAKSHA VADA.

3. As a black cloud hides from view the brilliant sun, so Maya veils Jnana and Kriya of the Jivas. The sun begins to shine in his full glory when the cloud vanishes. So, Jnana and Kriya begin to shine in the Jivas with the dissolution of the body.

PURVA PAKSHA VADA (CONTINUED) AND SIDDHANTA.

4. As the expansive light disappears when the cloud veils the sun, so Jnana and Kriya disappear when the body screens the Jivas.

Siddhanta. Iccha, Jnana and Kriya are manifest in the Jivas when they are embodied. When they are not, nothing but darkness prevails.

NOTE:- 'Embodied' includes both the gross and subtle bodies.

SIDDHANTA (CONTINUED).

5. What veils Jnana and Kriya of the Jivas is the A'nava (whose existence you ignored). Since it is commingled with the Jivas, it may also be said to be one of their qualities. Maya graciously provides the Jivas with the Tatvas from Kala downwards, so that they may shake off the shackles of ignorance. These two, therefore, are as opposed to each other as darkness and light.

NOTE:- By commingled, it is to be understood that Mala is separable from the Jivas and by 'one of the qualities' that it is so very intimately connected with them. The word 'also' indicates that A'nava is not a quality of the Jivas. Vide following stanza.

JIVA AND MALA DIFFERENTIATED.

6. Do you mean that ignorance (avidya) is a quality of Purusha (Jiva)? Then, Purusha should be matter. Would you say that the defect in the eye of a blind man is a quality of the eye itself? Possessing ignorance as its attribute, Mala always remains matter. But Jiva is spirit (chit) which has Jnana for its quality.

NOTE:- It is clearly shown by the illustration that Mala is a defect, not a quality of the Jivas.

HOW THE THREE MALAS ACT.

7. The three Malas - A'nava, Maya and Karma - delusive in their character, veil the true nature of the Jivas, and produce, in them, illusory enjoyments, bondage and capacity for experience as the sprout, bran and chaff in paddy. There are also two other Malas which we will point out presently.

NOTE:- A'nava Mala, in conjunction with the efficient cause, provides the Jivas with the capacity for experience as the chaff is the efficient cause of sprouting. Maya, being the instrumental cause, makes, with its effects - bodies and senses, the bondage of the Jivas, as the bran favouring the growth coexists with the other ingredients. Karma being the material cause, affords enjoyments to the Jivas as the sprout becomes manifest by a power latent in it.

THE TWO OTHER MALAS.

8. One is Mayoya, which is the effect of Asuddha Maya; and the other is Trodayi, a Sakti of the Pure that commands the three Malas to perform their respective functions. So the learned say. These five Malas stand adhered to the Jivas.

NOTE:- Mayeya is the Mala that limits Iccha, Jnana and Kriya of the all-pervading soul.

REINCARNATION OF THE JIVA.

9. The soul, affected by the five Malas - A'nava, Maya, Karma, Mayaya, and Trodayi - passes in a moment at the good Lord's behest, through the wheels of birth and death, on earth, the higher and the lower worlds, like the whirling fire brand and the whirlwind which cease not in their motion.

NOTE:- 'At the good Lord's behest' shows the agent with whose grace the escape from the wheel of birth and death can be effected.

RARENESS OF THE JIVAS.

10. When we consider the case of a Jiva which, after passing through the eighty four hundred thousand kinds of yonis (embryo), of four fold nature as Andaja, Swetaja, Utbija and Sarayuja, becomes human born, we can but compare it with an individual who has with his own hands swum the wide ocean.

NOTE: - It is to be noted that the human frame only is fir for the attainment of eternal freedom by the Jivas.

RARENESS OF A HIGH CLASS HUMAN BIRTH.

11. It is a great blessing to be born in a land where savages do not inhabit but the study of the four Vedas reigns supreme. Escaping birth among the lower classes of the human race, rare is it that one should be fortunate to be born among the people privileged to perform religious austerities, and to profess the Saiva Siddhanta religion without falling into the ways of other creeds.

RARENESS OF BECOMING A SAIVA.

12. Very rare is it that one should be so fortunate as to enter with meekness the Saiva creed unaffected by the pride of riches on the one side and escaping the littleness of poverty on the other. Those who can worship the crescent-crested Being, with the high Sivajnana, have attained His Grace.

NOTE:- Riches are of various kinds as ranks, youth, learning, wealth and power. To be born poor is indeed miserable. It is desirable therefore that one should be rich in a moderate degree so that he may not go a begging; but, he must not, however, be proud of it. Such meekness cannot be obtained but by devotion to the Lord. Thus meekness and devotion are almost synonymous. Sivajnana - knowledge of Siva. Have attained expresses certainty.

THE USE OF HUMAN BIRTH.

13. Was it not the purpose, when the souls were endowed with human birth, that they should, with their mind, speech and body, serve Hara who is anointed with the fivefold products of the cow. The celestials themselves descend on the earth and worship Hara. Dumb men, alas! who roam hither and thither, in the fleshy frame, understand not anything (of this higher life).

NOTE: - BY 'dumb men' are meant the beast-like men whose aspirations go no farther than the satisfaction of the physical cravings.

THE TRANSITORINESS OF THE HUMAN BODY.

14. Perishable in the womb, perishable as soon as it is born, perishable after a little growth, perishable as an infant, perishable as a youth, perishable as a grey-haired old man, anywise, Death dogs the footsteps of the flesh. Therefore, look to your freedom (from bondage) while yet you are strong.

NOTE:- Body in all its aspects is evanescent as mist in the air. Where is room then for a man's being proud of his strength or youth, power or beauty?

THE TRANSITORINESS OF WORLDLY EXPERIENCES.

15. When one sense experiences, other senses are away. The experiences of a single sense are not exhausted at once. In a certain state, all experiences vanish. The annoying life-experiences are either instantly vanishing as illusions or vanishing sometime after as dreams. If (this truth is) understood, (freedom) is attained.

NOTE:- 'Sense-experience' signifies experience induced by external objects. As the experiences are so multifarious and varying, they cannot all be grasped at once by the intellect that resides in the body. The peculiar state referred to is sleep or swoon. 'Life-experiences' also include the objects that form the stage of experience.

MEN OF PROSPERITY WITH PRIDE ARE CORPSES.

16. With spices smeared and with garlands adorned, wearing cloths of gold and followed by attendants, men of prosperity, speechless and devoid of understanding, lounging proudly in the palanquin borne by carriers, on either side fans swinging, amidst the harmonious music of the instruments and the wild sound of the clarion, are but corpses.

NOTE:- With all the embellishments that riches can afford what better profit can men derive than corpses if they do not open their eyes of Understanding.

WORLDLY POVERTY VERSUS DIVINE RICHES.

17. Behind men who lead the life of a corpse, you move about like walking corpses, straining your body, soul and understanding together for nourishing your body which appears and vanishes in a moment. Knowing thus, you do not even once worship Hara. (If you do so) He will see that beings higher than you fall prostrate at your feet.

NOTE:- To support this body is not a great thing. For the matter of that, the creator Himself will take care of your body if you fail to feed it. Therefore worship Him always, aiming at liberation from ignorance and bondage. When higher beings themselves tender their homage to you, no mention need be made of beings of your kind.

 

SUTRA III - PASU LAKSHANA.

1. There is a soul separate from the body. It is existent; it is united to a body and possessed of faults (the feeling of 'I' and 'mine'); it wills, thinks and acts (Iccha, Gnana and Kriya); it becomes conscious after dreams; it experiences pleasures and pains, (the fruits of Karma); it undergoes the five avasthas; and it rests in Turyatita.

NOTES.

Each one of these statements is made in answer to a different theory as regards the soul. It is said to be 'existent' in answer to those who deny the reality of a soul-substance, as such a thing is implied in the very act of denial. The next statement is made in answer to those who would assert that the body itself is the soul, and that there is no soul other than the body. The fact is though the soul may be in conjunction and correlation with the body, yet it asserts its own independence when it calls, "my body,' 'my eye' &c. Another asserts that the five senses form the soul. To him the answer is made that the soul is possessed of more powers than those exercised by the gnanendriyas. Another states that the Sukshuma Sarira forms the soul. The answer is that after awaking, one becomes conscious of the experiences in sleep as separate, the one becoming so conscious must be different from the dream body. Prana is shown not to be the soul, as there is no consciousness in deep sleep, though Prana may be present. It is different again from God, as instead of its intelligence being self-luminous, it understands only in conjunction with the different states of the body. The combination of all the above powers of the body is shown not to be soul, in as much as it subsists even in the Turyatita condition when all the bodily functions cease.

This stanza is further important as it gives a clear and concise definition of the soul or jivatma, a definition which we fail to get in many other systems. It is shown to be different from the body composed of maya and its products, Buddhi, senses, &c., and also different from God. It is not to be identified with any one or with all or any combination and permutation of the bodily functions; nor is it a combination of the body (maya) and andakaranas and God or any abhasa of these. But how is it found? It is always found in union with a body, gross or subtle; and the mystery of this union is of more serious import than most other problems. It is possessed of certain powers, will, intellection, and power but distinguished from the Supreme Will and Power, in as much as this is faulty or imperfect and dependent. It is possessed of feeling and emotion, and suffers pain and pleasure as a result of its ignorance and union with the body; and this suffering is not illusory, which must distinguish it again from God, who is not tainted by any and who has neither likes nor dislikes, 'வேண்டுதல் வேண்டாமையிலான்,' 'பற்றற்றான்' 'மலமிலான்' ' சஞ்சலமிலான், &c.

The soul is also limited by its coats, and this limitation is not illusory either.

Even after saying all this, there is one characteristic definition of the soul, which is alone brought out in the Siddhanta and in no other school, and which serves to clear the whole path of psychology and metaphysics, of its greatest stumbling blocks. We mean its power "அது அது ஆதல்." சார்ந்ததன் வண்ணமாதல், யாதொன்று பற்றினதன் இயல்பாய் நிற்றல்," to become identical with the one it is attached to, and erasing thereby its own existence and individuality, the moment after its union with this other, and its defect or inability to exist independent of either the body or God as a foothold or rest (பற்றுக் கோடிண்றி நிற்றலாகம்மை). So that the closest physiological and biological experiment and analysis cannot discover the soul's existence in the body, landing, as such, a Buddha, and a Schopenhauer and a Tyndal in the direst despair and pessimism; and it is this same peculiarity which has foiled such an astute thinker as Sankara, in his search for a soul when in union with God. The materialist and idealist work from opposite extremes but they meet with the same difficulty, the difficulty of discovering a soul, other than matter or God. Hence it is that Buddha, and his modern day representatives the agnostics (it is remarkable how powerfully Buddha appeals today and is popular with these soul-less and God-less sect) declare the search for a psyche (soul) to be vain, for there is no psyche, in fact. And the absurdities and contradictions of the Indian idealistic school flows freely from this one defect of not clearly differentiating between God and soul. This power or characteristic of the soul is brought out in the analogy of crystal or mirror, (see last note in my edition of "Light of Grace' or Tiruvarutpayan") and the defect of soul is brought out by comparing it to the agni or fire which cannot become manifest except when it is attached to a piece of firewood or wick. When once we understand this particular nature of the soul, how easy it is for one to explain and illustrate the "Tatvamasi" and other mantras, which are to be taught to the disciple for practising soul elevation. And in my reading, I never came upon a more remarkable book than a small pamphlet of Prof. Henry Drummond called the "Changed life," in which the analogy of the mirror is fully brought out, together with a full explanation of the process by which the soul elevation is effected. The text chosen by the learned theologian is that of St. Paul which we quote also.

"We all, with unveiled face, reflecting, as a mirror, the glory of the Lord are transformed into the same image, from glory to glory, even as from the Lord the spirit."

He paraphrases the sentence as follows, 'We all reflecting as a mirror the character of Christ are transformed into the same image from character to character - from a poor character to a better one, from a better one to one a little better still, from that to one still more complete, until by slow degrees the perfect image is attained. Here the solution of the problem of sanctification is compressed into a sentence, reflect the character of Christ, and you will become like Christ," or as we will say, reflect the image of God in yourself, and you will become God like, or God."

But how is the poor character to be made better and better, or the reflecting image clearer and clearer? It is by cleansing the mirror (soul) freer and freer from dirt, and bringing it more and more in line with the effulgent light, that this can be effected, and when the mirror is absolutely perfect and nearest, the light shines brightest, and so overpowers the mirror, that the mirror is lost to view, and the glory and Light of the Lord is felt. For, observes the learned Professor truly, "What you are conscious of is the 'glory of the Lord.' And what the world is conscious of, if the result be a true one, is also the 'glory of the Lord. In looking at a mirror, one does not see the mirror or think of it, but only of what it reflects. For a mirror never calls attention to itself - except when there are laws in it." These flaws are the colours of the Siddhanti who compares them to the maya or body. In union with the body, it is the body alone that is cognized, and not the mirror-like soul. In union with God, the Glory and Light alone is perceived and not the mirror like soul either; and the Professor declares, "All men are mirrors - that is the first law on which this formula (of sanctification or corruption) is based. One of the aptest descriptions of a human being is that he is a mirror", and we must beg our readers to go through the whole pamphlet to note how beautifully he draws out this parallel.

He notes the second principle which governs this process, namely, the law of assimilation or identification. 'This law of assimilation is the second, and by far the most impressive truth which underlies the formula of sanctification - the truth that men are not only mirrors, but that these mirrors, so far from being mere reflectors of the fleeting things they see, transfer into their own inmost substance and hold in permanent preservation the things that they reflect. No one can know how the soul can hold these things. No one knows how the miracle is done. No phenomenon in nature, no process in chemistry, no chapter in Necromancy can even help us to begin to understand this amazing operation. For think of it, the past is not only focussed there in a man's soul, it is there. How could it be reflected from there if it were not there? All things he has ever seen, known, felt believed of the surrounding world, are now within him, have become part of him, in part are him - he has been changed into their image."

These two principles in fact underlie our mantra and tantra, our upasana, and Sadana, Bavana and Yoga, and our books instance the case of the snake charmer chanting the Garuda Mantra in illustration of this second principle of assimilation or identification. The doctrine of regarding God as other than the soul requires very elaborate treatment, and we hope to deal with it separately. It is the one point which distinguishes the true Vedanta as borne out by the text of the Vedanta Sutras themselves and which is accepted by all the Tamil philosophers like Tirumular and Tayumanavar and others, and the Vedanta so called, as interpreted and expounded by Sankara.

SOUL IS OTHER THAN BODY AND PRANA.

2. Why should you require a soul other than the body? Does the body itself feel and know? Then if so, why does not the body feel when it becomes a corpse? If it be replied that feeling is absent, as Prana is absent; then, there is no feeling either in sleep, though Prana is present in the body.

THE FIVE SENSES DO NOT CONSTITUTE THE SOUL.

3. If the senses constitute real soul, then why don't they perceive in sleep. Then the senses perceive one after another and each one a different sensation. You say this is their nature. But it is a defect that one sense does not perceive another sensation. What cognises each sense and sensation and all together must be different from all these and it is the soul. The five senses have no such cognition.

PRANA IS NOT THE SOUL.

4. Prana is the conscious Being as there is no consciousness when the breath is stopped temporarily or permanently. But it is not conscious in deep sleep. You say this is so, as it is not in conjunction with the senses. But if the Prana is the soul, the senses cannot drop when Prana is conscious. The soul really cognises everything, by controlling the Prana.

 

SUTRA IV - AVASTHA LAKSHANA.

Adhikarana I.

SOUL IS NOT THE ANDAKARANAM.

1. You say the conscious being is the Andakarana. But none of these senses cognises each other's operation. Each in fact performs a different function. The soul understands all, controls all, in union with them bringing them into manifestation or not, in the various Avasthas, and stands apart with the consciousness of 'I' and 'mine'.

THE THREE KINDS OF GNANA: PASA, PASU AND PATHI GNANA.

2. Manas, Buddhi, Chittam, and Ahankara are the instruments of the soul. The union with the soul is such that the andakaranas look as though they are the real soul. Regarding it merely as a light (which aids the eye in darkness), and clearly distinguishing it as such from the soul, one understands the soul, he understand his real self. Such knowledge is Pasugnanam. Then will be induced the highest knowledge, Pathignana or Sivagnana.

NOTE:- The identifying of soul with the Products of Maya is Pasagnana. The knowledge of one's own nature as distinct from matter and from God is Pasugnana or Atmagnana. Wherever this consciousness is merged and lost in the contemplation and enjoyment of The Highest Bliss, he attains to Pathignana.

The expression 'தன்னையறிதல்' 'தன்னையுணர்தல்' is very often misunderstood and misinterpreted. It simply means "understanding oneself", understanding his real nature, and does not mean "understanding oneself as God or as anything else". After attaining this self-knowledge, the Vedas postulate distinctly a higher knowledge, the knowledge of God and such passages are again misinterpreted to mean that "the soul sees God as himself". When in fact the last two words 'as himself' is no where found in the text.

THEIR AKSHARA.

3. The Akshara, A, U, M Vindhu and Nada respectively represent and influence Ahankara, Buddhi, Manas, Chittam, and Soul. All these together form the Pranava (sukshuma). The way the consciousness rises and falls is as the rise and fall of the waves in the sea. When considered deeply, the nature of their action will be manifest.

THEIR DEVATAS.

4. Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra, Maheshwara, and Sadasiva respectively guide the letters A, U, M, Vindhu and Nada. It is in this fivefold union the soul cognises, and as such is more like asat. If one controls in yoga his two breaths and examines them, their nature can be plainly seen.

THE COMBINATION OF ALL THE FOREGOING IS NOT THE SOUL.

5. If the atma is stated to be the combination of all the above senses, then the seer will only see them each separately and not a single whole (atma). If you say these various things themselves in fact constitute the soul, then the man who cognises them all together is different, as the object perceived is quite distinct from the perceiving subject.

NOTES.

The view of the soul (Jivatma) refuted here is credited to the Sautrantika Buddhists by some commentators and to Mayavadis by others. We have not been able to get from the followers of the latter school a proper definition of the Jivatma, nor a uniform one; and one Swami of Chidambaram when we pressed him for a definition stated that it was an ollapodrida of the abhasa of Brahman, and antakarana and other lower products of Maya. Our reply to him was:- which of these was in Bandham, (bondage) and which of these was to reach Mukti (freedom)? The Abhasa of Brahman is either Brahman or is not. If it is Brahman, it can suffer no bondage nor does it require to be freed. If it is not, then we reck not if it is in b bondage or not. It cannot matter to us either whether the antakarana and lower senses do or do not suffer. Be it here once more stated that our distinct position is that the Jivatama we postulate is one above the antakaranas and is in no sense an ollapodrida of any number of things. He it is that is constrained and dragged by sin and desire, and suffers pain. The following passages from the Upanishads clearly bring out the distinction.

"I'sa supports all this together, the perishable and the unperishable, the developed and the undeveloped. The Anisa,* atma, is bound, because he has to enjoy (the fruits of Karma); but when he has known God (Deva) he is freed from all fetters."

[* Anisa and I'sa, atma and Paramatma, Purusha and Parama Purusha, Jiva and Param or Brahman, Pasa and Pathi, Agna and Gna are parallel sets of terms meaning Soul and God. I'sa in these passages does not mean a personal God but the Highest Brahman.]

"There are two, one knowing (Iswara) the other not knowing (Jiva), both unborn (aja), one strong, the other weak; there is she* the unborn, through whom each man receives the recompense of his works; and there is the Infinite Atma (appearing) under all forms, but Himself inactive. When a man finds out these three, that is † Brahma.

[* She is Pradhana or Prahkriti and not Devatma Sakti.]

[† That here means man, i.e., man when he understands the distinction of the thripadartha becomes God. The three means Pasu, Pathi and Pasa. And Iswara and Brahma in this passage do not mean respectively Personal God and Impersonal God but mean the same Being. According to Sankhyas, the true knowledge of Pasa and Pasu, Prakriti and Purusha, alone gave liberation.]

"That which is perishable is the Pradhana; the immortal and imperishable is Hara.‡ The One God (Eko Deva) rules the perishable (Pradhana) and the atma. From meditating on Him, from joining Him, from becoming one with Him, there is further cessation of all illusion in the end."

[‡ Prof. Max-Muller observes on this word, "he would seem to be meant for I'swara, or Deva or the One God, though immediately afterwards he is taken for the true Brahman and not for its phenomenal divine personification only." i.e., in one and the same mantra, Hara means both the Personal God and the True Brahman! When it is further seen how in other passages, the same learned Professor and others of his ilk read Siva and Rudra for the True Brahman, wherein is the real distinction between I'swara and Brahman. The word I'swara or I'sa (the first word in the Isa Upanishad) originally meant in the Upanishads and Brahma Sutras only the Highest Brahman, not any Phenomenal something or nothing. The word 'I'swara' has however been used by Sankara and his followers as meaning the lower Brahman in a restricted sense. Misled by this later use of the word, our Professor and others would often take the Iswara and Isa of the Upanishads in the later restricted sense. And hence the inconsistency and confusion which arises in their interpretation of these passages. Forget for once this distinction when reading the Upanishads, then the whole meaning will be clear. The Upanishad writers had no prejudice in using the words Isa, Iswara, Hara, Rudra, Siva, Deva, Mahadeva, and Maheshwara, as the present day Vedantists would seem to have.]

"When that God (Deva) is known, all fetters fall off, sufferings are destroyed and birth and death cease." (Swetas 1.8 to 11).

"On the same tree, man (anisa) sits grieving immersed, bewildered by his own impotence; But when he sees the other, I'sa, contented and knows His glory, then his grief passes away." (Mundaka. III. 1.2).

"Fools dwelling in darkness, wise in their own conceit, and puffed up with vain knowledge, go round and round staggering to and fro like blind men led by the blind" (Katha. 1.2.5)

See further page 11 et seq. Part III Nityanu Sandhana Series, where a good resume of the whole subject is given. Only we could not find the text "Athrayam Purushassvayam Jyotir-Bavate" at Brihad VI. 3.9, and Soul cannot be called self-luminous though in union with God, it may be found to be self-luminous.

Adikarana - 2.

In this adikarana are reviewed the various theories which have been propounded in regard to the nature of the soul; and they require very close attention.

SOUL IS DERIVED FROM GOD BY PARINAMA? NO.

6. You state that the soul possessing the qualities of Intelligence, Will and Power of the Supreme, stands to the Supreme as heat to fire, as guna to guni in Betha Betha relation and appears variously. If so, then the Jiva need not be possessed of senses and organs to become intelligent.

NOTE.

God is self-luminous, and if soul is also God, it must be self-luminous also. But the soul in union with the body shines with the light of the body itself, as it will do so with the Light of the Lord when in union with the Lord.

THE SANKHYAN DOCTRINE REFUTED.

7. If it is stated that the atma is pure intelligence and not possessed of gunas like will and power, then it cannot develop will and power. If it is replied that these gunas are acquired from the body and in the Presence of the atma, then, these powers must be found also when the body is dead or dead asleep. But if it is again said, that this is due to the death or the sleep of the body itself, the statement that these are brought into activity by the Presence of the atma stands contradicted.

THE SAME.

8. It is again said that the guna is induced by the Presence of the atma just as the magnet attracts the iron. If so, it can only induce its own power of attracting objects and not that of repelling objects. On the other hand, the atma induces such varying actions such as thinking, and forgetting, running, sitting, reclining, standing &c.

THE PAURANIKA'S DOCTRINE. THE SOUL HAS FORM? NO.

9. If the soul is said to possess a form, then this form must be apparent in the body. Then also it will become indistinguishable from matter which undergoes transformation and distinction. It must again be perceived when this atma enters the womb. You reply that it is sukshuma and imperceptible to the eye. Just so, your own words belie your theory that it has a form (perceptible).

THE SOUL HAS NEITHER SUKSHUMA FORM.

10. If you say it has sukshuma (subtle) form, then you are evidently mistaking the atma for the subtle cause of the gross body namely manas, Buddhi, ahankara and the five tanmatras (the Puriashtaka). If you say no, and would make it even more subtle than the Puriashtaka, then according to us, there are even tatvas higher than Puriashtaka, like Kalai, Ragam, Viddhei & c., and all these are material and achit, and perishable.

THE SOUL IS RUPARUPA. NO.

11. If the soul is said to be Rupa Rupa, then know that Rupa cannot become Arupa, and Arupa cannot become Rupa. One thing cannot have two contradictory natures. If you say, it is like the fire latent in the wood, then as the fire shows out in visible form when it burns, the soul must become visible. If it does, it will cease to be sat.

NOTE.

The commentators ascribe this doctrine to கவுளர் or கவுளகம் (pronounced kaula, kaulaka, or gaula or gaulaka?) and we are not able to identify who these School men are. Perhaps they are Saktas.

THE SAME.

12. If you say again that the atma is Rupa Rupa (form and formless) like the moon, then it must become visible body itself is the product and manifestation of atma, then the atma can never become freed of Bhanda, it becomes achit and material.

NOTE.

One commentator ascribe the purvapaksha views stated in the last four stanzas to a section of the Pancharatris.

PATANJALA'S DOCTRINE. SOUL IS ARUPI AND INACTIVE.

13. If you state that the soul is Arupi (formless) and inactive or (unchangeable) like Akas, then explain why does the soul, becoming bound in bodies, make it undergo all sorts of motions such as walking, &c.

THE VIEWS OF VAISHESHIKA, PURVA MIMAMSAKA AND OTHERS. IS SOUL ACHIT, CHITACHIT OR CHIT?

14. If soul is Achit (non-intelligent) then it can have no cognition at all. If it is chitachit, then, also what is chit cannot become achit, and vice versa. It cannot be achit in one part, and chit in another part. If again, another asserts that it is not achit, but chit, then why is it, that it has no cognition except in union with the body.

NOTE.

Matter is intelligent, soul is intelligent, God is intelligent. But all these are of different planes, and the lower one pales and is considered non-intelligent in the presence of the superior one. And the soul in particular receives light from both sides from matter and from God. Soul is luminous but not self-luminous. It cannot illuminate but can be illuminated.

PANCHARATRI'S DOCTRINE. THE SOUL IS ANU, OR ATOMIC?

15. If the soul is said to be Anu or atomic, then it can pass away easily from the body by any of its outer passages. It cannot be kept up in the body. It cannot bear burdens and sufferings. It will be reducing it to the level of material atoms which are Achit. Even as an atom, it will have an organism and accordingly it will be perishable.

THE SAME. THE SOUL OCCUPIES PLACE IN THE BODY?

16. If you say that the soul is located in some portion of the body, then it becomes limited like a form, and hence becomes perishable; and its intelligence cannot be felt all over the body. If you instance lamp and its spreading light, even then the soul will only cognize the things near it. Else as light, its intelligence must be felt through every sense at the same time.

NOTES.

Sivagnanayogi also points out that the analogy is wrong, in as much the soul and its intelligence are related as Guni and Guna, where as there is no such relation between the flame and its light. He points out that light is but particles of the flame and is one with it; and the flame as such can be dissipated.

Of course, it is an old and well-rooted fallacy that mind can fill matter or space. The two are utterly contrasted; mind is the unextended and matter the extended. How can the unextended fill the extended? It can only do so, if it was also the extended, i.e., matter. But mind is present in all and every part of the body, and the nature of this connection is what is really mysterious. The analogy of vowel and consonant is what gives us the barest idea of the nature of this connection.

THE JAINA'S DOCTRINE. THE SOUL IS ALL OVER THE BODY.

17. If you state that the soul is spread over the whole body and thus cognises, then it must not undergo sleep and other Avastas. Besides, it must understand through all the senses all at once. Then the intelligence must be more or less in proportion to the largeness or smallness of the body. Then, again, it must decrease as someone or other organ is cut off and, it must vanish when the whole body vanishes also.

THE PURVA MIMANSAKA'S DOCTRINE. THE SOUL IS VIBHU.

18. If you say the soul is all pervading then you must explain how it is that the soul undergoes the five avastas and enters hell and heaven and how it cannot perceive all things all at once; and how it can know other things when it knows only through some one sense or other.

THE SAME. MAYA CONCEALS THE SOUL?

19. If you say the soul's intelligence is covered by the dirt of maya, then it must derive no knowledge through the senses and antakarana. Then even the freedom from Bandha will not induce mukti. If he was the ever free and the self-luminous, he can undergo no bondage.

NOTE.

If the ever free entered into bondage, the same causes will operate to bring it into bondage even after it attained to moksha once. If it was all pervasive, it cannot get limited. If it did this of its own sweet will and pleasure, then the bondage and limitation is only a name and not a reality. And it can restore itself to its pristine purity at any moment. Then again the distinctions between purity and impurity, right and wrong, sin and virtue, good and evil, truth and falsehood, must also be nominal. No one need be advised to follow the true and avoid evil, no one need be advised to practice self-abnegation and sadana chatustayam, follow a guru and perform tapas and worship God. The monstrous results of this doctrine will be patent to everybody except to those whose vision is completely obscured by blind prejudice. The schools reviewed above postulate soul and maya or prakriti merely and they omit all consideration of another factor namely anava or avidya which covers and limits the soul. Hence the defect in their doctrines. It is this anava which limits or covers, and the maya it that tries to lift the veil little and little as the lamp lights us in darkness, but is of one use in the broad day. Having stated and met the theories of other schools, the author now proceeds to state his own position.

SOUL'S REAL NATURE. IT IS ARUPI, VIYAPI AND PASU.

20. It is formless (Arupa) and all pervasive (Vibhu) but unlike that of achit or matter. Its Vyapaka consists in becoming one with the thing it dwells in for the time being (body or God). Its eternal intelligence and time being (body or God). Its eternal intelligence and power is eternally concealed by the Pasa, (bondage) Anava Mala and hence called Pasu.

ITS DIFFERENT MAY COATS AND THEIR EFFECT.

21. Entering the womb of maya (Asuddha) it regains dimly its intelligence, will, and power. Putting on the further coats of Kala, Raga, and Viddei, it shines in particular bodies. Further donning the cloak of the three gunas and their products such as antakarana &c., it perceives in advaita union with the same.

NOTE.

These constitute its guna sarira, kanchuka sarira, and karana sarira according to one classification.

ITS PILGRIMAGE.

22. The soul quits a sukshuma sarira and lives in a sthula body, and continues in the five Avastas, and becomes born and born again, and performing good and bad works, it enjoys the fruits thereof.

THE FIVE KOSAS.

23. The five kosas are Anandamaya, Vignanamaya, Manomaya, Pranamaya, Annamaya. Of these one is more subtle (Sukshuma) than the one that follows it. And these all are evolved from their first cause Maya. The formless atma found in these five kosas lives in and out of it.

NOTES.

Each one of these kosas is mistaken for the atma. The materialist mistakes the annamaya kosa for the soul. The Jain mistakes the Pranamaya for the soul. The Ahankara vadi mistakes the Manomaya as the soul. The Buddha mistakes the Vignanamaya as the soul. And the Vedanti (idealist) mistakes the Anandamaya as the soul. Commentators identify the Anna and Pranamaya kosas with the Sthula Sarira, Manomaya kosa with the Sukshuma body, and Vignana and Anandamaya kosas with the Karana Sarira Sivagnana Yogi identifies these five kosas respectively with the Sthula, Sukshuma, Guna, Kanchuka and Karana Sarira as defined in stanzas 21 and 22.

When the soul identifies itself with Annamaya kosa it is within it. When it ascends to the Pranamaya kosa and cognises the Annamaya as different from itself, it gets out of it and so on. Be it noted particularly here that the highest condition postulated by Vedantis as Anandamaya, where the atma is in its own place, is but an experience derived by the soul at its first contact and coordinate evolution with matter or maya. What rises even above this is the Siddhanti's soul or Jiva or Pasu or atma and above this and on a higher plane dwells the Supreme Brahman, Siva.

HOW THESE KOSAS ARE MOVED?

24. The soul lives and moves and has its being in these respective bodies, as the car and charioteer, as the playing dolls and the showman, as the masked man, as the Yogi in another body, as the actor and his different parts.

NOTE.

It will be seen the identification and subjection of the man to his part is less and less as you ascend up; and in the charioteer be has full control over the car he guides and for his own benefit.

THE ATMA OR SOUL IS DIFFERENT FROM THE BODY.

25. Your body is different from yourself as you say, 'my body', 'my senses,' 'my karana', 'my buddhi' &c., in as much as you also say 'my house', 'my cattle' &c., what you considered as inseparable from you, you find to be severed as your hairs and nails.

A FURTHER ARGUMENT.

26. When you clothe yourself in silks and adorn yourself with jewels and flowers, you are not conscious that these are different from you. But when they are removed from you, you become conscious of the difference. Just so, know thyself to be different from your body.

SOUL IS DIFFERENT FROM VIGNANA AND ANANDAMAYA KOSA.

27. I understand that the body (first three kosas) is not myself; but how can you say that my understanding (Vignana, physical consciousness) is different from myself? In as much as you say (my understanding) But we say also 'my soul.' He who has really perceived the soul will not say 'my soul.' It is the ignorant who say so.

THE MEANING OF "MY SOUL."

28. By lakshana also we speak of the Buddhi as manas, and manas as Buddhi; we speak of chitta as jiva, and jiva as chitta; we speak of atma as God, and God as atma (soul). So also the phrase 'my soul' denotes another namely the supreme soul dwelling in your soul.

SAME LANGUAGE FALLACIES IN COMMON USAGE.

29. The understanding, body, chittam, &c., are one and all called atma (in the Upanishads) as we speak of the burner (விளக்குத்தண்டு) as the light itself (விளக்கு). All these senses &c., are different in their action; and inseparably united to them the soul cognises them as object. The object அறிபொருள் is separate from the object (அறிவு).

THE FIVE AVASTHAS.

30. The soul who cognises through the external senses dreams in sleep and sleeps soundly with but bare breath and without action or enjoyment; and waking again, recalls its dreams, and feels its sound sleep and then enters into eating and exercises. This is the way the soul cognises through the five avasthas, with the aid of the physical vestures.

SOUL IS NOT SELF-LUMINOUS.

31. If the soul was self-luminous then why does it require the aid of senses and organs. As the soul is concealed eternally by Anava, its intelligence is restored by the physical senses &c. Its relation to its senses and organs is like that of the king to his ministers.

End of 2nd Adikarana.

Adhikarana 3.

RELATION OF SOUL TO THE LOWER ORGANS AND

ITS CONDITION IN THE VARIOUS AVASTHAS.

 

SOUL IS THE KING.

1. Just as the king, on his return from a procession with his troops, re-enters his palace, leaving guards at the gates of the different courts he passes through, and finally enters alone the inner most harem, so also the soul passes through the five avasthas in the body, leaving Prana as the guard of the innermost portal.

 

NOTES.

This is an old sankhya analogy (vide Sankhya sutras V. 115) and this has found its way through the ancient Greeks into the thought of Europe, and Lytton also uses the simile of the king and his ministers in one of his novels.

Sivaghra Yogi thus expands the simile: Soul us king; Manas is chariot; Prana and other vayus, the horses; Buddhi is the chief minister; Ahankara is the driver; and Jnanendriyas and Karmendriyas are the footmen; the midbrows, throat, heart, belly and anus, are the different courts of the Palace.

The nature of this passage of the soul form one condition to another has to be clearly noted and realized; otherwise, there will be endless confusion. Vide pp. 51 to 53 Sivajnanabodham for fuller exposition.

THE NAMES OF THE FIVE AVASTHAS ETC.

2. When the soul is in jagra avasta, it and its organs number 35, and the place is midbrows. In svapna avasta, they number 25, and the place is the throat; in the sushupti avasta, they number 3, and the place is the heart; in the Turya avasta, they number two, and the place is the nabhi; and in the Turyatita avasta, the soul dwells alone.

NOTES.

The 35 are the ten Indriyas, and their ten subtle elements, the tanmatras, the ten Pranas, and the four antahkaranas, and soul. The 25 are arrived at by omitting the first, the Indriyas. The three are the chitta, the Prana and the soul. The two are the Prana and the soul. In turyatita the soul alone exists.

Sivajnana Yogi adds that even in Turyatta the soul is united to the subtle causal matter; but what is meant is it had not developed into a separate and differentiated organic body.

HOW THESE ARE ENERGISED BY THE VIDYA TATVAS.

3. In Jagra, all the five Vidya Tatvas (from Siva and Sakti &c.,) are active; in the Svapna, the first four; and in the next, the first three; and in the Turya, the first two; and in the last condition, Siva Tatva alone guides it. They are so active, as the soul develops through the Asuddha Maya and Prakriti Tatvas: Understand this well.

NOTES.

Some commentators interpret this to mean that the 35 and 25 &c., are further grouped into groups of five, &c.

THE LOWER AND HIGHER AVASTAS.

4. All the five Avastas are found united in the Jiva when it is in the frontal region. You can perceive their play when these organs are each active. The ever-wise Jnani's also, for getting freed from birth, and for entering Moksha, unite themselves to the five Higher Avastas, with the grace of God.

NOTE.

The lower Avastas is called Samala Avastas and the higher the Nirmala Avasthas. Even in the latter, there are stages as Jagra, Svapna &c., and the condition of the Jivan-Mukta in these stages is fully described in the A'gamas. In the next verse, these two conditions are also distinguished from the five Avastas undergone by the Yogi.

THE FRUITS OF THESE CONDITIONS.

5. Of these two kinds of Avastas, the one, lower, will drag down man into births. The other will lift him up freeing him from birth. The Yogi attaining to Samadhi will attain salvation in the very next birth.

KARANA AVASTAS.

6. The casual or subtle Avastas are three, called Kevala, Sakala and Suddha. The soul is in Kevala when the soul is by itself (without Volition &c.) It is in Sakala, when God unites it to all its senses and organs. It is in Suddha, when leaving birth, it is freed from all mala (impurities).

NOTE.

In the Kevala, the soul is hidden in Anava and has no activities of any kind and it is lost or sunk like a bright diamond in a dirty pool, or like the same diamond coated with dirt all round. In the Sakala condition, its intelligence &c., receive play now and then through the aid of the physical faculties, just as the different facets of the diamond reflect the light, now blue, now red &c., as each side is ground and rubbed of its dirt and ruggedness. When all its angles, and ruggednes and dirt is removed it reflects fully and steadily the Supreme Light and is merged in the same Glory. These conditions are fully described in the next three stanzas.

KEVALA AVASTA.

7. In the Kevala Avasta, the soul is non-intelligent, it is formless, imperishable, it is not united to Ragam and other Gunas, nor to Kala and other Tatvas; it is action-less, mark less; it is not a self-agent; it cannot enjoy fruits; it is united to Anava; and it is Vyapi or Vibhu, omnipresent.

NOTE.

This definition is important. There is a verse in almost the same terms in the Tirumantra. Evidently both are translating from the same verse in the Agama. Vibhu is explained to mean as 'not localised in' any one place or particular body.

 

THE SAKALA AVASTA.

8. In the Sakala, the soul gets a body, and becomes clothed with the various organs and senses, internal and extenal, and the desire to enjoy the objects of the senses, and reincarnates in different births.

SUDDHA AVASTA.

9. He becomes balanced in good and evil. The grace of the Lord descends on him. He gets his Guru's blessing. He attains to Jnana Yoga Samadhi and is freed from the three mala. He ceases to be finite in intelligence, and becoming omniscient, he is united to the feet of the Lord. This is the Suddha condition.

The truth of this verse is often shortly expressed in the phrase.

"இருவினையொப்பு, மலபரிபாகம்,"

"சற்குருதரிசனம், சத்திநிபாதம்."

and they sum up the highest teachings.

இருவினைச் செயல்கள் ஒப்பி ஈசன்றன் சத்திடோய்ந்து, குருவருள் பெற்று ஞான யோகத்தைக் குறுகிமுன்னைத், திருமல மறுத்து பண்டைச் சிற்றறி வொழிந்த ஞானம், பெருகிநாயகன்றன் பாதம் பெறுவது சுத்தமாமே.

End of The Fourth Sutra.

 

SUTRA V.

ON THE RELATION OF GOD, SOUL AND BODY.

GOD, THE SUPREME KNOWER AND INSTRUCTOR.

1. As the senses can only understand with the aid of the soul, and yet cannot know the soul, so also the soul can only understand with the grace of the Lord and yet cannot know Him. The all-knowing Siva alone knows all and imparts knowledge to all.

NOTE.

This Power of the Lord is called His Dropava sakti.

Adhikarana - 1.

WHY DON'T SOULS ALL EQUALLY UNDERSTAND WELL?

2. If God imparts knowledge, then every one's knowledge must be equal. If the difference in wisdom is due to Karma then no God is necessary. No. The First Cause gives to each according to his Karma, in the same way as the earth yields according to the labour spent on it, or as the sun brings into bloom the lotus buds.

NOTES.

Though the soil may be equally good one man reaps a good crop and another not, as he labours well in it or not. Though the Sun is absolutely necessary for the maturity and blooming of flowers, yet the Sun cannot make the bud blossom before its time. This view does not destroy the omni-penetrativeness of God, while at the same time, it preserves to the individual his responsibility. It is this view which saves Hinduism from degenerating into blind Fatalism or bare Pantheism.

The following verse from Ulahudaiya Nayanar expands the simile of the lotus beautifully.

  மலமெனும்தடத்திற் கருமசேதகத்தின் மாயையாம் கிழங்கில்அங்குரித்து மன்னுமூவெட்டாம் தத்துவநாளம் மலரிதழ் வித்தையேழ்வித்தை நலமிகுமீசன் சதாசிவமிரண்டும் நண்ணுகே சரங்களாம்சத்தி நற்பொகுட்டாகும் நாதமேவிந்து நயந்தகண்ணா மெனவிரல் இலகுமென்னுடல் பதுமபீடிகைநீ இருந்தருளாசன மெனாமல் எனதுபுக்கிலதா யெண்ணினேந்தெளிய, வியலருட்பார்வை தந்தனையே அலகிலாஉயிர்கள் மலநடைக்கிலையாய், அருள்நடைக் குண்மையாய்நின்ற ஆவடுதுறைசை யம்பலவாணா அடியவர்க்கருளு மாநிதியே.

c.f. illustration C to 3rd Adhikarana of the 9th Sutra, Sivagnana botha.

CAN THE SOUL UNDERSTAND HIMSELF.

3. The soul understands only with the aid of the Supreme intelligence, and cannot understand of himself, in as much, as this knowing soul knows only through some sense or other, forgets what it has learnt, learns from others; and does not know himself the knower.

NOTE.

The soul is not self-luminous or Svaprakasa or Svayamjyoti, and God is defined as Svaparaprakasa, self luminous and illumining all others.

Adhikarana 2.

HOW GOD IMPARTS KNOWLEDGE.

4. The One, Only God imparts knowledge to the soul, by means of the various organs of sense, and sensations, by means of the luminaries, and time, Karma, and bodies, by means of books on logic and philosophy, and by the word of the Guru, in as much as the soul in the Kevala condition is formless and non-intelligent.

GOD REQUIRES NOT THESE AIDS FOR HIMSELF.

5. The one God knows all and imparts knowledge to all and is the soul of all souls, and is different from them, and is in all, creating and developing all, without any form, and without the aid of any organs or objects or luminaries or time or Karma or body or books &c.

DOES GOD RECEIVE TAINT BY HIS PRESENCE IN THE WORLD?

6. You have forgotten the Vedic text that the worlds undergo change in the mere presence of God. God cannot be enshrouded in Maya, and no Achit can exist in the presence of Siva, (the pure Chit). In His Presence, the embodied souls undergo evolution and are given wisdom.

ALL ARE BUT PARTS OF HIM.

7. The worlds form His body; the Jivas, His senses; the Iccha and Jnana and Kriya Saktis, His Antahkarana. Inducing all the countless Jivas to reap good or evil, according to their deserts, the Supreme Lord dances the Dance of Creation, Development, Destruction, Rest and Grace.

NOTE.

His acts are compared to a dance, as they are solely intended for the benefits of the souls (spectators) and not for any pleasure or profit of God Himself.

GOD'S GRACE HOW BESTOWED.

8. The Supreme One after inducing the Jivas to unite in bodies with five senses, and to undergo pleasures and pains, and thus make it gather experience by suffering many births, pities their fallen condition, and graciously grants the Higher Knowledge as Guru and grants the Supreme Seat.

GOD'S RELATION TO HIS SAKTI.

 9. அருளது சத்தி யாகும் அரன்தனக் கருளையின்றி தெருள்சிவ மில்லை யந்தச் சிவமின்றிச் சத்தியில்லை மருளினை யருளால் வாட்டி மன்னுயிர்க் களிப்பன் கண்கட் கிருளினை யொளியா லோட்டும் இரவியைப் போலவீசன்.

Hara has Grace for His Sakti. Except as this Supreme Love and Grace, there is no Siva. Without Siva, there is no Sakti. I'sa removes the hate of the Souls with his love, and grants them bliss, just as the Sun dispels the darkness, shrouding the eyes, with his light.

End of the fifth Sutra.

 

SUTRA VI.

NATURE OF THE SUPREME.

1. If you ask whether God is an object of knowledge or not, then know, if He is an object of knowledge He will become Achit and Asat. If He cannot be known, He must be a nonentity. The all-pervading Sivam is neither, and is pure Chit and Sat. In the presence of the Sat, cognized by following the True Path, Asat will not appear.

Adhikarana - 1.

WHAT IS ACHIT?

2. All objects of cognition are Achit. All objects of cognition come into being and are destroyed (being bound by time); they divide themselves into the worlds, bodies and organs (being bound by space) and enjoyments; they are identified at one time by the intelligence as itself (in bandha) and at another time (in moksha) are seen as separate; and they are all products of Maya. Hence all such are Achit or non-intelligent or Asat (other than Sat).

THE SAME.

3. The enjoyments of this life, and the bliss of the King of gods, Vishnu and Brahma, the lives of the countless millions of sentient beings, all these, may be compared to the tricks of the magician, or the dreams, or the mirage. They seem only to exist, and then perish instantly. Hence the world is spoken of as Asat.

Adhikarana 2.

GOD IS NOT UNKNOWABLE.

4. If God is unknowable, then there can be no benefit from Him, He can never pervade us; neither can we unite with him in Moksha. He cannot perform the Pancha Krityas for our benefit. His existence will be like that of the flowers of the sky and of the rope formed of the hairs of the tortoise.

NOTE.

The truth is He cannot be known with our Pasu Bodha. We can only perceive Him with His Grace or Sivagnana.

  "அவனருளே கண்ணாகக் காணின் அல்லால், இப்படியன் இந்நிறத்தின் இவ்வண்ணத்தன் இவனிறைவன் என்றெழுதிக் காட்டொணாதே."

Adhikarana - 3.

GOD IS NOT ANIRVACHANA.

5. Why should not God be described as (Anirvachana) being neither Sat nor Asat nor Satasat? Well, if the answer to the query whether God is existent or not should be that He is existent, then it only establishes that He is Sat. Hence He is Chit which is past our human thought and speech. It is Achit that can be perceived by our human mind.

HOW GOD CAN BE KNOWN.

6. The known objects are Achit and perishable; and the unknown is called Sat; and what is the use, as it virtually is non-existent? The knower, becoming one with God, will perceive Him with His Grace as the knower and the known are one and different and one-and-different.

NOTE.

This relation is the Advaita. Till the soul, by God's Grace becomes one with God, it is impossible to know Him. In that condition too, as the soul is one with God, it cannot know Him as other than itself, and the soul itself is Sivam. But if the Jivanmukta should for a time regain his individual consciousness, then he may feel his experience of God, just as a man waking from sleep speaks of his experience is sleep. In the next Adhikarana, even the knowledge of the Yogi is said to be unreal.

Adhikarana - 4.

THE YOGI'S CONCEPTION OF GOD NOT REAL.

7. If it can be meditated, then as an object of our senses, it becomes Asat. If you regard it as not conceivable by our organs, even then it is of no use. If you contemplate It as beyond contemplation, even then it gives you no benefit, as it is a mere fiction. If you contemplate it as yourself, this is also a fiction. Giving up these fictitious ideas of God, the only way to know Him is by understanding with His Arul or Grace.

NOTE.

The various conceptions of the Yogi are pronounced to be merely fictitious and symbolic. Vide, notes on the 6th Sutra in my edition of Sivagnana Botham for a fuller treatment of the subject.

GOD CANNOT BE PERCEIVED AS DIFFERENT.

8. As God is not different from the soul, as He is in the Soul, and as He is the thinker of all the soul's thoughts, as in Him there is no distinction of 'I' and 'mine', God cannot be perceived by the soul's intelligence.

NOTE.

The first three statements explain the Advaita relationship. The next argument shows that in God there is no distinction of Gnathuru, Gnana, and Gneya. The next verse gives a caution not to mistake the soul for God.

SOUL IS AND IS NOT GOD.

9. When One only without a second is postulated, the very postulating implies that the thing postulated is different. God is not different either, as He is inseparably associated with you, and transcends all discriminating intelligence. As He is ever the inside of the soul, the soul can be said to be Sivam.

End of the 6th Sutra.

SUTRA VII - ATMA DARSANA

Adhikarana 1 and 2.

SAT CANNOT KNOW, AND ASAT CANNOT EXIST.

1. If everything is Sat, then no conscious knowledge of anything can arise. If Sat becomes the knower by union with Asat (its products - the organs), No; Asat cannot appear in the presence of Sat, as no darkness can subsist in the presence of light. If you say that Asat itself is the knower, no, it cannot be, as it cannot subsist in the presence of the Sat, and as it is merely the instrument of knowledge of another.

Adhikarana 3.

THE KNOWER OF BOTH IS THE SOUL.

2. The knower who knows both Sat and Asat is the atma (soul). It is neither Sat nor Asat. It is eternal and Satasat. It is not produced from either (as cause and effect). Yet it is produced from them as the fragrance comes out of the flower.

NOTE:- As Satasat, it is united to both and in union with each, it identifies itself with each so thoroughly that it becomes each. This is a peculiar characteristic of the Soul which Proof-Drummond calls the law of assimilation.

IMPURITIES ATTACH TO SOUL AND NOT TO GOD.

3. Asat and Agnana cannot attach themselves to the Sat and Gnana Svarupi and Jyoti (God). All impurities become attached to the soul. The Vedas declare that the souls and Asat exist even eternally with God; as in the instance of the sea and water and salt.

 

HENCE GOD IS SVATANTARAM AND SOUL IS ASVATANTARAM.

4. The soul is called qualified Chit and Sat, as it knows when taught and is eternal. God is eternally Pure and Free and Intelligent and by His grace, He frees the souls of their impurities.

NOTE:- The analogy of the sea is particularly noteworthy. There is a world of difference between the way this analogy is used by Vedantis and the way it is explained by Siddhanta. The purvapaksha view is thus set forth by a learned Swami.

"There is but one Atman, One Self, eternally pure, unchangeable, unchanged, and all these various changes are but appearances in that one Self. Upon it name and form have painted all these streams; it is the form that made the wave different from the Sea. Suppose the wave subsides, will the form remain? No; it will vanish; the existence of the wave was entirely dependent upon the Sea, but the existence of the Sea was not at all dependent upon the wave. The form remains so long as the wave remains, but as soon as the wave leaves it, it vanishes, it cannot remain. This name and form is what is called Maya. It is this Maya that is making individuals making one appear different from the other. Yet it has no existence. Maya cannot be said to exist. Form cannot exist because it depends upon another's existence. It cannot be said to non-exist, seeing that it makes all this difference. According to the Advaita Philosophy, then, this Maya or Ignorance, name and form or as it has been called in Europe, 'time, space and causality,' is out of this One Infinite existence, showing us the manifoldness of the Universe; in substance this universe is one."

So according to this Swami, the One Infinite existence is God, and its Form is Maya and its name Ignorance! God is the Sea, and the multiformed waves are Maya. The one is unchanged and unchangeable and yet these changes into multiform waves are but appearances. But it is on account of these changes and appearances dualistic knowledge, and ignorance, and sorrow and Samsara results, and the One Infinite Existence which is eternally pure becomes finite and impure! It is on account of these appearances, God becomes a man, a dog, a worm; and but for these appearances God would remain a God. What converts indeed a Divinity into a brute cannot be unreal and non-existent, and of no moment as denoted by the use of the word 'but' in the sentences quoted above. If these changes and appearances are vital how can the One Infinite Existence be called and unchangeable too? And what constitutes the real difference between changeable and unchangebale? The very first definitions which the new beginner in Physical Science, meets with are about 'stable' and 'unstable equilibriums,' in nature. The 'Stable' is that which remains unaffected and without change of form by the surrounding forces of nature. 'Unstable' is easily affected by those very same forces and their forms are easily changed. And as examples are given, 'solids,' for the 'stable,' and 'liquids' and 'gases' for the 'unstable.' And what is here called the unchanged and unchangeable. It is the sea-water, which physicists expressly call unstable and changeable. And yet there is no incongruity in the comparison, and no contradiction in terms!!! It is the sea water which is called here unchangeable and unchanged, which is ever the sport of the elements and the sea and the moon, which changes with each gust of the wind and with each phase of the sun and the moon! This ever-changing and tempest-tossed and discoloured waters of the deep, are they to be compared with the unchangeable Infinite One? The horrors of an howling sea who has not read of, if one has not actually witnessed? And that tree poet of nature makes his Miranda truly wish.

  "Poor souls, they perished! Had I been any God of power, I would have sunk the sea within the earth."

So we would have wished too there was no sea, and no God, if all our sufferings and sorrows, poverty and misery, hatred and all the evils of our Samsara-sagara and ignorance, were but appearances of this One God!

And then again, on the analogy as explained above, what little of power and self-dependence (Swatantram) is left to this One Infinite Existence? Is it self-luminous and self-dependent or is it the sport of every chance? The sea that is played on by every wind and tide, cannot be called to have any power and independence. Much less this God who is played on by Maya and ignorance? Our Swami eloquently asks, "suppose the wave subsides, will the form remain?" But suppose we ask "when will the wave subside?" What answer will our Swami return to this question? The waves will subside when the winds subsided. When will the winds subside? Echo answers when? When will Maya and Avidya leave us? When our Karma ceases. When will our Karma cease? Echo answers when?

The inherent fallacy in the use of this analogy as above stated is in taking the large body of sea-water as representing God. Though popular use justifies us in taking the sea space and everything contained in it as the sea, yet the true sense of the sea is the sea space, containing water and everything else, the all container, the formless, changeless and unchanging and infinite space. In this view how beautiful is St. Meikandan's simile as explained by Kannudaya Vallalar and how full of meaning.

  "கடல் சிவம் நீரான்மா உப்பு மலம் கன்மம், துடர்வாயுப் போதம் அலைகாண் - இடைவிடா தவ்வாதியுட்கரணம் ஐம்பொறியிற் பம்பரம்போல் இவ்வாறுனைச் சுழற்றுமெண்."

"The Sea is Sivam, Water is the Soul, Salt is Anava Mala, Avidya or Ignorance, Karma is the Wind; the feelings of 'I' and 'Mine' (Pasu Botham or Pasu Gnanam) are the waves. The First cause of all, in accordance with your Karma ever makes you revolve as does a top, in various births in conjunction with your external and internal senses."

In this view, God's Supreme Omnipresence and Immanence in nature is positively brought out and his Supreme Self-dependence and Svatantratvam is not destroyed; while the Soul is not left without freedom of Will and without means and hopes of salvation. By effort and practice, he can put down his Pasu Botha or gnana, and become balanced in good and bad acts (Karma), submitting himself to the Will of the Lord, then he can reach that condition of Perfect Calm (Nirvana lit. non flowing on water or air). What for? To reflect the Glory and Light of the Supreme Lord and to lost himself in that Glory and Light. Look at the incomparable words of St. Tirumular.

  "உரையற்ற தொன்றை உரைசெய்யு மூமாகாள் கரையற்ற தொன்றைக் கரைகாணலாகுமோ? திரையற்ற நீர்போற் சிந்தை தெளிவார்க்கு புரையற் றிருந்தான் புரிசடையோனே." "O Ye Fools, who attempt to speak of the unspeakable, Can you reach the limits of the limitless Sea? As the waveless stilled water of the deep, If you reach peace of mind, Then Surely will the Lord of the braided hair Appear to you in faultless Glory.

 

SUTRA VIII

Adhikarana 1.

1. Just as the King's son taken and brought up among savages does not know himself to be different from the others till his true father came, and separating him from his wild associates, acknowledged him as his own son, and had him respected even as himself. So also, does our Lord appearing as the Gracious Guru separate the sorrowing soul, which is caught among the savages of the five senses and is unable to know his own greatness or that of this friend from its sensory environments, and purifying it of its dross and transforming it even into His own Glory, places it under His Flowery Foot.

2. The souls are divided into three classes namely Vignanakalar, Pralayakalar and Sakalar. They have respectively attached to them, Anava, Mala, Anavamala and Karma Mala, Anava Mala and Maya Mala. To the first two classes of souls, the Supreme with limitless grace shows Himself in His Nirathara condition and removes their mala by the two kinds of His Saktinipada (called Divara and Divaratara). To the Sakalars, He shows Himself in the form of the Guru when their mala had become balanced, and removes their sins by means of the four kinds of saktinipada.

NOTES.

Both Vignanakalars and Prayakalars have burnt up their Guna body, formed of Prakriti matter, by the strength of their tapas and yoga. The Vignanakala had also burnt his Karma, and his Anava or individuality alone exists and which separates him from Sivam. And when this individuality also ceases, the supreme union is established. The Vignanakalars are of various grades called Anusadasiva and Ashta Vidyeshwarars and Mahamantrars, and they dwell in the regions of Sadasiva, Iswara and Vidya tatvas &c., respectively. The Anusadasivas and Vidyeshwaras become lords of creation &c., also.

The Sakalars dwell in the regions below Mulaprakriti and comprise men, Asuras and Devas up to Vishnu.

Saktinipada is the "descending of God's grace. His Chitsakti or divine light." As this light enters more and more into the soul, by the rubbing off of the dirt and uneven edges (mala) which surround the pure crystal, (soul), the more and more does it shine, when finally it is indistinguishably covered up and clothed by the divine light and become one with It.

DIFFERENT KINDS OF DIKSHA.

3. The different ways by which the Acharya removes sin are Nayana Diksha (by the eye), Sparisa Diksha (by the touch), Vachaka Diksha (by teaching Mantras), Manasa Diksha (by identifying himself with the Chela) Sastra Diksha (by imparting instruction), Yoga-Diksha (by entering the Chela's soul by Yoga). The forms of Hotri Diksha (sacrificial Diksha) are also various, but they are divided into Gnana and Kriya Diksha. Gnana Diksha are mental acts; Kriya Diksha is given with the aid of Homa and sacrifices. Kriya Diksha again subdivides itself into Bijam and Nirbijam.

NOTES.

Diksha is from a root 'Di' meaning to shine. The original use of the word is in connection with the soma sacrifice and meant the initiatory rite of consecration. In the days of the Mahabharat, the word had undergone a change consequent on the change of religious polity itself. It meant the initiatory rite of purification before the Chela is given his Upadesam. And we quote the following passage from Mahabharat (Anuca p. 8) wherein Lord Krishna himself describes how he got his Diksha, from Upamanya Maharishi who recounts to him the glories of Him, who is the Lord of Sacrifices and Vows and who gives him certain mantras and asks him to recite them continuously. "Eight days, O Bharata, passed there like an hour, all of us thus being occupied with talk on Mahadeva. On the eighth day I underwent the Diksha, according to due rites, at the hands of that Brahmana (Upamanya). I received the staff from his hands. I underwent the prescribed shave. I took up a quantity of Kuca blades in my hand. I wore rags for my vestments. I rubbed my person with ghee. I encircled a cord of munja grass round my loins. For one month I lived on fruits. The second month I subsisted upon water. The third, the fourth and the fifth months, I passed living up on air alone. I stood all the while supporting myself on one foot, and with my arms also raised upwards and foregoing sleep the while. I then beheld, O Bharata, in the firmament an effulgence, that seemed to me as dazzling as that of a thousand suns combined together. Towards the centre of that effulgence, O son of Pandu, I saw a cloud looking like a mass of blue hills, adorned with rows of cranes, embellished with many a grand rainbow, with flashes of lightning, and the thunder-fire looking like eyes set on it. Within that cloud was the puissant Mahadeva Himself of dazzling splendour, accompanied by his spouse Uma.'

And it is our contention that in the Mahabharata days, the Agama rites had replaced or were replacing the old sacrificial rites of the Vedas, and modern India differs very little from the days of this period but for the rise of the new sects. And the Saivites all over India forming nearly 90 p.c. of the population retain the same tradition; and the initiatory rites of Saivas of today are also called Diksha, accompanied formally by Homa and Yagna, the various forms of which are discussed in the next stanzas.

NIRBIJA DIKSHA DEFINED.

4. Nirbija Diksha is what can be given to children, to the very young and very old people, and to women and worldly men, and the sick. The Acharya's son and the novices (Samayi) are purified by the initiatory religious rites (Samayachara) and are taught to perform the daily rites as far as possible. These belong to the class of Niradikara initiates. Those who go up higher are Adikara initiates. Nirvana Diksha is also of two kinds. Sathyo Nirvana which lead one at once into the Moksha and Asatyo Nirvana which leads him only after the parting with the body.

NOTE.

The division here is into what is called Samaya. Vishesa and Nirvana Diksha. Those who are entitled to Samaya Diksha are those in the Dasa and Satputra Marga. The Sahamargis are entitled to Vishesa Diksha; and Gnanamargis to Nirvana Diksha.

THE VARIOUS FORMS OF SABIJA DIKSHA.

5. To the highly advanced in learning and character is granted the excellent Sabija Diksha. They are taught the Nitya, Naimittika, and Kamya duties, and become clothed with authority becoming Sathakas (Chelas) and Acharyas, attain freedom. They are also called Lokadharminis, and Sivadharminis. The division into Samaya, Vishesha and Nirvana with others comprise the above.

NOTE.

Nitya duties consist in bathing and ablutions, worship of God, and keeping up of the sacred fires &c. Naimittika consist in consecrating images of God, in performing Diksha, and imparting knowledge to disciples. Kamya consist in Japam and Pujah with intent to acquire powers. Sathakas are only entitled to perform Nitya and Kamya; the Acharya can perform all the three. Lokadharmini Diksha is what can given to a Grahasta. Sivadharmini can only be granted to a Naishtika Brahmachari by a Naishtika Brahmachari. For further details, the reader is referred to the commentary of Gnanaprakasar.

THE PURPOSE OF DIKSHA IS THE PURIFICATION OF THE ADHWAS.

6. Hara destroys the births of the three classes of people mentioned above, by removing their mala, by purifying their Adhwas by means of the Kriya or Gnana Diksha. The pure Adhwas (paths) are six in number, namely, Mantra, Pada, Varna, Bhuvana, Tatva, and Kala. Of these the lower one is pervaded by the one above in the above mentioned order. The last Kala is pervaded by Sakti, and Sakti's place is in Sivam.

 

THE ADHWAS AS MANIFESTED BY THE NIVIRTI

AND PRATHISHTA KALAS.

7. The first five Adhwas are evolved from Kala. From the Nivirti Kala are evolved Mantras two, Pada 28, Varna one, Bhuvana 100, Tatva one, namely earth, and its deity is Brahma. From Prathishta Kala are evolved Mantras two, Pada 21, Varna 24, Bhuvana 56, Tatvas 23, and its deity is Vishnu.

NOTE.

The details of all these should be learnt from commentaries.

THE ADHWAS AS MANIFESTED BY VIDYA AND SANTI KALAS.

8. From the Vidya Kala are evolved Mantras two, Pada 20, Varna seven, Bhuvana 27, Tatvas 7, and its deity is the imperishable Rudra. From Santi Kala are evolved, Mantra two, Pada 11, Varna three, Bhuvana 18, and Tatvas three, and its deity is Maheshwara.

THE ADHWAS AS MANIFESTED BY SANTIATITA KALA.

9. From the Santiatita Kala are evolved Mantras three, Pada one, Varna sixteen, Bhuvana fifteen, Tatvas two, and its deity is Sadasiva. Hence the total number of Mantras is 11, Pada 18, Varna 51, Bhuvana 224, Tatva 36, and Kala five.

HOW THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF KARMA ARE DESTROYED BY THE DIVINE GURU.

10. The Karma performed by the souls by mind, speech and body are destroyed by these being made to eat the fruits through their cause, the six Adhwas. After the eating thereof, the Anava Mala is matured and the souls reach a stage of sufficient development when God appears as the Guru, and destroys the Agamya Karma, so that it may not lead to future births, and also the Anava Mala. The Prarapta Karma is destroyed by the purification of the Adhwas, and by the birth experience.

NOTE.

So that it follows that both Sanjitha and Prarapta Karma can only be destroyed by man's own individual efforts by purifying his faculties (Adhwas) and by tasting the fruits of both good and evil. It is then the Gnanacharya appears and perfects him with his bare touch, by sundering the Karma root, and mala root. Hence the importance of the purification of the Adhwas.

End of First Adhikarana.

 

Adikarana II.

THE VARIOUS STAGES AT ONE'S RELIGIOUS EVOLUTION.

11. If one leaving the alien religions, enters the orthodox fold and plods through the paths of Smritis and various Ashramas and their duties, practices rare Tapas, and learns rare Vidyas and masters the Vedas and understands the excellent Puranas, and reaching a clear knowledge of the truths of the Vedas (Vedanta) steps beyond, he will then reach the heights of Saiva Siddhanta. And after practising Chariya, Kriya, Yoga he will reach the foot of Siva by means of Gnana.

NOTES.

Every one must at one time or other either in the present life or in the past pass and have passed through these various phases of thought and action. At all times and in all ages, and in all countries, there have been people who have had no thought except for themselves and their pleasures, who have denied any other existence but this, who have denied the existence of any soul or God, who have cared more for the letter of the law and the forms of religion than for the spirit, who have lost their head and heart in endless learning and vain disputations, and who mistake symbols for truth. The path of reaching truth is indeed difficult but as men's capacities and developments are varied they cannot but remain in these conditions till their mind is opened out and liberated. And the really true and universal religion must recognize the necessity for all these stages and beliefs and provide for them. The paths of Chariya, Kriya, Yoga, &c., open out only after reaching a truly developed religious and spiritual sentiment, and then most religious emotion is really distinct in kind from mere intellection or perception of certain bare truths, Nityanityavivekam &c., and hence the latter should not be confounded with the above, and its place is very low in the scale of one's spiritual development.

THE DIFFERENT ENDS OF DIFFERENT PEOPLE.

12. People believe that the pleasures derived in the company of young and beautiful damsels is the highest Multi. Others believe a residence in the different heavens as the highest Mukti; others postulate the annihilation of the five Skandas as the end; and others again the becoming possessed of the eight attributes; others postulate a condition analogous to stone, and others. Viveka, (knowledge of oneself as God); and others say that the becoming of the true form of God is the end. What we postulate is the reaching of the foot of God is the true Mukti.

NOTES.

Each belief and action is consequent on the particular ends in life, which each one gradually places before himself; and each one thinks his ideal is the best and would not be convinced that it is not the best. As you stay in a mango grove, you will find different persons entering it with certain definite objects. Some come in to carry away the dropped fuel, and twigs and dead leaves. Others come in for the bunches of the leaves, others come in to gather the fallen young raw fruit, வடு, and others again for the fully grown unripe fruits, and others go in for the fruits. Some have greater relish for the unripe fruits than for the ripe fruits: (especially the taste gets peculiarly developed pregnant women who will not be satisfied by the offer of the most tasty fruits); and some have a liking for fruits with a dash of sourness in it. And when people eat fruits, some think it sweet to bite and eat the fruit whole. Some are particular how they clean it; and cut it and some would press the juice carefully and then alone taste it. There is no accounting for tastes as we say; and each derives some pleasure and profit no doubt and yet any honest thinker cannot fail to see that there are various degrees of pleasure and profit, differing in quality and quantity.

The eight attributes (எண்குணம்) of Jainisn is Ananta-gnanam, Ananta-darisanam, Ananta-viryam, Ananta-sukam, Nir-namam, Nir-gotram, Nir-ayushyam, Sakala-samyata-bhavam. In Kural, chapter 1, verse 9, where the word எண்குணத்தான் occurs, Parimelagar, that prince among commentators, interprets the word according to the Saiva Agamas rejecting other interpretations: தன்வயத்தனாதல் self-dependent; தூயவுடம்பினனாதல் the immaculate in body; இயற்கையுணர்வினனாதல் self-luminous; முற்றுமுணர்தல் all-knowing; இயல்பாகவே பாசங்களின் நீங்குதல் eternally free; பேரருள் உடைமை all-gracious; வரம்பிலின்பமுடைமை limitless bliss. It requires indeed very little trouble to refute the fallacious belief that Saint Tiruvalluvar was a Jaina or a Buddhist.

THE DEFINITON OF AN UNIVERSAL RELIGION.

ஒதுசமயங்கள்பொருளுணருநூல்கள் ஒன்றோடொன் றொவ்வாமல் உளபலவுமிவற்றுள் யாதுசமயம்பொருள் நூலியாதிங்கென்னில் இதுவாகுமதுவல்ல வெனும்பிணக்கதின்றி நீதியினாலிவையெல்லா மோரிட்த்தேகாண நிற்பதியாதொருசமயம் அதுசமயம்பொருள்நூல் ஆதலினாலிவையெல்லா மருமறையாகமத்தே யடங்கியிடுமவையிரண்டு மானடிக்கீழடங்கும்.

13. Religions and postulates and text books are various, and conflict one with the other. It is asked which is the true religion, which the true postulate, and which the true book. That is the true Religion, Postulate and Book, which not conflicting with this or that, comprises reasonably everything within its own folds. Hence all these are comprised by the Vedas and Saiva Agamas. And these two latter are imbedded under the sacred foot of Hara.

NOTES.

No one can cavil at the definition herein given, though they may not agree with the position that Saiva Siddhanta is the supreme religion. And we confess to not having received a better definition. Elsewhere we have written on the historical and universal aspects of Saivaism; and we need only ask today why books like Sivagnanabotham and Tayumanavar's poems are accepted by all the different schools as expressing their own truths. A distinguished Madhva friend of mine told me after he read through Sivagnanbotham that he was mistaken in supposing that I was an Advaiti. A learned and zealous Srivaishnava scholar has written a key or microscope to two slokas of the same book. And all followers of Sankara treat it only as one of their own books.

THE IMPORTANCE OF VEDAS AND AGAMAS.

14. As they expound all the truths, the Vedas and Agamas are called "Muthal Nul," 'Revealed Books." Their immeasurable meanings are given out duly by those who possess the grace of God. Others try to interpret them according to their own sense and found various schools. Smirtis and Puranas and Kala Sastras &c., form "Vali Nul" (வழிநூல்). 'Guide Books." The Vedantas and Upangas form "Sarbhu Nul." (சார்புநூல்) "aid books." Nothing can compare however with the Vedas and Agamas. We cannot find anything to say to those who would assert otherwise.

NOTE.

'Muthal Nul' is defined as the Books revealed by the Supreme Being devoid of all imperfections. 'Vali Nul' as Books agreeing with the Muthal Nul in their conclusions but varying if necessary in other details. "Sarbhu Nul" though following both the above, yet may contain variations and difference.

WHAT ARE PURVA PAKSHA & SIDDHANTA WORKS?

15. The only real books are the Vedas and Saiva Agamas. All other books are derived from these. These two books were eternally revealed by the Perfect God. Of them the Vedas are general, and given out for all; the Agamas are special and revealed for the benefit of the blessed, and they contain the essential truths of the Vedas and Vedanta. Hence all other books are Purvapaksha books and the Saivagamas alone are Siddhanta Works?

THE GOAL OF SIDDHANTA.

16. In the Siddhanta, the Supreme Siva has graciously revealed that He will, even in one birth, make His devotees Jivanmuktas, after removing their Mala, by bathing them in the Ocean of Jnana and making them drink of Bliss, and freeing them of all future births, will place them under His Feet of Final Mukti. Yet how mad is the world in not believing these Holy words and falling into sin and perdition by saying all sorts of things.

THE CHARACTERSTICS OF THE SUPREME GOD.

17. He is the Supreme Lord, in whom all Intelligence, all Power, and all Beneficence is inherent. His Omniscience is manifest by His Revealed Works, the Vedas and Agamas. His Omnipotence is manifest by His granting the deserts of those who follow and don't follow His commands. As He removes their Karma by making them eat their twin fruits, He is beneficent. We behold all these glories in Our Lord Siva.

NOTE.

The very symbols of God Siva show forth His glorious Powers, as the author of creation, development and Regeneration, Droupavam and Bliss.

THE FOUR MARGAS OF REACHING GOD.

18. The four ways of reaching God are Sanmarga, Sahamarga, Satputramarga and Dasamarga. These four Margas are also called Gnana and Yoga, Kriya, and Chariya Padas. They will respectively lead one to Sayujya, Sarupya, Samipya, and Salika Mukti. The first kind of Mukti attained by Gnana Marga is the final Bliss, (Para Mukti) the rest are called Pada Mukti.

DASA MARGA EXPLAINED.

19. Washing and cleaning God's Temples, culling flowers and making various garlands for the adornment of God, founding flower-gardens, and lighting temples, and praising God, and obeying the commands of God's devotees, after bowing and humbly receiving their orders, all these are the duties of the Dasa Marga, and those who work in this path will surely reach Sivaloka.

SATPUTRA MARGA EXPLAINED.

20. Taking the fresh and fragrant flowers, Dupa and Deepa, Tirumanjana, and food, and purifying in all the five different ways and establishing God's symbol (ஆசனமூர்த்தி) and invoking God's Presence therein as All Intelligence and Light, and worshipping the same in all love, and praying to God and praising Him, and performing also Agnihotra &c., all these comprise the duties of Kriya Marga. They who observe these duties daily will reach God's Presence.

SAHAMARGA EXPLAINED.

21. In Sahamarga, one has to control his senses stops his breaths, and fix his mind, and explore the secrets of the six Adaras and know their Gods, and passing beyond into the regions of the bright Chandra mandala, one has to drink deep of the Amrita filling his every pore, and dwell fixedly on the supreme Lights. If one performs this Yoga of eight kinds, his sins will fall off and he will get the form of God Himself.

NOTES.

The eight form of Yoga are Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyakara, Darana, Dyana and Samadhi. Of these, the last five are only set forth in the text, and the first three are assumed.

Yama consists in Ahimsa, Satyam, Refraining from theft, celibacy or chastity, mercifulness, devoid of deceitfulness, contentedness, courage, taking little food, and purity.

Niyama consists in performing Tapas, and Japam and Vratam, believing in God, and worshipping Him, and reading and meditating on the Shastras, being cheerful, fearful of evil, and intelligent.

The Asanas are Swastikasana, Gomukasana, Padmasana, Virasana, Simhasana, Bhadrasana, Muktiasana and Mayurasana.

SANMARGA EXPLAINED.

22. In Sanmarga, one studies all the Various arts and sciences and Vedas and Puranas and the different religions, and after rating all other knowledge as low, he holds on to the truth of Tripadartha and finding the Path of reaching God Siva, and realising the non-distinction of gnathuru, gnana and gneya, He becomes one with God. Such great men reach Sivam.

DIFFERENCE OF GNANA AND KARMA MARGAS.

23. Reading the Gnana Shastras, and teaching and explaining them to others, learning them from others, and pondering over their purport, these constitute Gnana worship or Yajna, and will lead one to the feet of the Lord. Pure Karma Yajna, Tapas Yajna, Japa Yajna, and Dyana Yajna are each one superior to the one below, and will only induce Bhoga. Hence Gnana worship is alone pursued by all those who know the Moksha Marga.

DIFFERENCE IN THE ENDS OF THOSE WHO ENTER SAMADHI AND THOSE WHO DO NOT.

24. Listening to words of wisdom, meditating on them, clearly perceiving the truth and Samadhi are the four forms of Gnana. Those who attain to Samadhi at once attain Moksha. Those who do not come up to this condition become Lords of the Heavenly worlds and enjoy great bliss, and by the grace of God, are reborn in good families and by the grace of the Gnanacharya attain to Samadhi, and the Feet of the Lord.

DIFFERENCE OF VEDIC AND AGAMA MARGAS.

25. Those who perform deeds of charity, karma Yajnas, Pilgrimages to Holy-waters, observe Asrama duties, and perform Tapas, Santi Vratas, and Karma Yoga will attain to the Higher worlds and will be reborn in no time. Those who perform Gnanayoga and Kriya and Chariya will attain to Pada Mukti, and at the end of time, if they do not yet deserve God's grace, they will be reborn and will attain to Siva by Gnana Marga. If they deserve God's grace, they will at once attain God's feet.

THE MERIT OF GIFTS TO SIVAGNANIS.

26. Even if very slight gifts are made to Sivagnanais, these will increase like the earth into mountains, and the donors will be prevented from falling into the ocean of births, and will enjoy supreme happiness in the higher worlds, and losing their sin, they will get one more holy birth, and will even without going through Chariya, Kriya, and Yoga attain supreme knowledge and the Lotus Feet of the Lord.

SUPREME MOKSHA IS ALONE ATTAINABLE BY GNANA.

27. The Vedas, Agamas and Puranas proclaim that by Gnana alone is attainable Moksha and yet what can we say to those fools who assert otherwise. By Agama (Karma) is begotten Bhandam (attachment). By true Gnana is attained freedom. As the darkness flies away before light so Agnana vanishes, and with it Bhandam, and freedom is attained. By Gnana, we do not mean the Gnana proclaimed by all kinds of low dogmatists but the Knowledge and Love of the One True God.

NOTES.

The language of this stanza is plain. The Highest bliss is alone attainable by the attainment of the Highest Gnana. The other Margas, Chariya, Kriya and Yoga are only steps leading up to Gnana. The first two Margas are usually called Bhakti Margas by other schools but the word Bhakti is so vague in its acceptation that it is not taken here to mean a particular Marga. The word is as loosely applied as the word Gnana, and what is real Bhakti and what is real Gnana has to be determined. But as a matter of fact, Bhakti or love of God in any sense is essential in all the four Margas we have indicated above. It is love that guides the Chariyavan, Kriyavan and Yogi and Gnani. Without this essential love, all their acts would only be bare hypocrisy. And Gnana or knowledge too, is implied in our bavanas in the lower margas. But this knowledge is more and more symbolic in the lower stages, and as we ascend in spiritual power and genuine love it will become more and more real. The greatest fallacy underlies in containing Bhakti and Gnana. There is no contrast at all but each one involves and implies the other. In social relations whether as master and servant, parents and children, friends, lovers and the loved, the relation will be unintelligible and a sham, if mutual knowledge and love does not exist. And the more one knows the other, his or her goodness and love, the more he comes to love the other. Love is in fact the fruitions of knowledge. And the Highest Gnana is when we do know and recognize how loving God is, how great His Love is, passing the love of master and parent and friend and lover* yea passing the love one self,* how

[* St. Manichavachaka frequently addresses God as sweeter than his own mother. And what is more, St. Appar says

  "என்னிலாரு மெனக் கினியா ரில்லை என்னிலு மினியா னொருவன் னுளன்," There is nobody who is more loving than myself Yet there is one more loving than myself.] "Though man sits still and takes his ease God is at work on man; No means, no moment unemployed To Bless him, if he can." (Young) or as St. Tayumanavar puts it. "தண்ணருள் தந்தெமைக் காக்கும் சாக்ஷிப்பேறே யிமையளவு முபகார மல்லால் வேறொன் றியக்கா நிர்க்குணக் கடலா யிருந்தவொன்றே." The fact is we can know only and truly when we can fully realize God's inmost nature, that God is Sivam, 'God is Love." அன்பும் சிவமும் இரண்டென்பர் அறிவிலார் அன்பே சிவமாவதாரு மறிந்திலர் அன்பே சிவமாவதாரு மறிந்தபின் அன்பே சிவமா யமர்ந்திருந்தாரே. The ignorant think God and Love are different None knows that God and Love are the same When they know God and Love are the same Then will they enter God as Love.

As it is, it is the proud boast of Saiva Siddhanta that it is a universal religion and philosophy at once, comprising all schools of philosophy and all kinds of Bhakti and Gnana Margas and yet differing from them all. "All and not all," "எல்லாமாய் அல்லவுமாய்" is at once a characteristic of the Divine Ideal of the Siddhantis as of their Religion.

"ஒன்றுநீயல்லை யன்றியொன்றில்லை யாருன்னை யறியகிற்பாரே."

THE MANIFESTATION OF THE GURU.

 28. சூரியகாந்தக் கல்லினிடத்தே செய்ய, சுடர்தோன்றியிடச் சோதிதோன்றுமாபோல் ஆரியனா மாசான் வந்தருளாற் றோன்ற, அடிஞான மான்மாவிற் றோஎறுந்தோன்றத் தூரியனாஞ்சிவம் தோன்றுந் தானுந்தோன்றும் தொல்லுலகமெல்லாம் தன்னுள்ளே தோன்றும் நேரியனாய்ப் பரியனுமா யுயிர்க்குயிரா யெங்கும் நின்றநிலை யெல்லாமுந் திகழ்ந்து தோன்றும்.

Just as the crystal emits fire when brought before the sun, so when the Divine Guru, out of the fullness of His grace, appears before one, there will arise Sivagnana in him. Then will he see Sivam, and his own real self and the whole world in himself. Then will he perceive God as the smallest of the small and the greatest of the great, and the soul of all souls.

NOTE.

c.f. மாயப்படலங்கீறித் தூயஞான நாட்டம்பெற்றேன் பெற்றபின் மெய்மைய, நின்பெருந்தன்மையும் கண்டேன் காண்டலும், என்னையும் கண்டேன் பிறரையும் கண்டேன் அன்னிலைய வனைத்தும் கண்டேன். என்னே நின்னைக் காணாமாந்தர்ம்மையுங்காணாத் தன்மையோரே.

THE RESULT OF THE GURU'S MANIFESTATION.

29. When they are sufficiently developed and receive the grace of God, (Sattinipada) and wisdom, they are graciously taught by the Guru; and by practice of such teaching, they will attain to the condition of Perfect Samadhi. Then will they become Jivanmuktas in this world. They will have neither likes nor dislikes. They will treat a potsherd and gold at the same value. They will so unite with God that they will never leave God and God will never leave them; and dwelling in Him, they will perceive only God in everything.

THE PROCESS OF UNION WITH GOD.

  30. அறியாமை யறிவகற்றி யறிவினுள்ளே யறிவுதனை யருளினாலறியாதே யறிந்து, குறியாதே குறித்தந்தக் கரணங்களோடும் கூடாதே வாடாதே குழைந்திருப்பையாகிற், பிறியாதசிவன்றானே பிறிந்துதோன்றிப் பிரபஞ்சபேத மெல்லாம் தானாய்த்தோன்றி, நெறியாலே யிவையெல்லாமல்லவாகி நின்றென்றும் தோன்றிடுவன் நிராதாரனாயே.

Removing your ignorance born of understanding (with the bodily senses), and perceiving, without perception (by the lower manas), by the Grace of God, the Supreme Intelligence in his higher self, and seeing it without seeing, and without the conjunction of the andakaranas and avastas, if you melt yourself in God, then will the Supreme Siva, who is inseparable from everything, appear to you separately, and as one and different from all the world and as far transcending all.

NOTES.

This is the famous stanza which both St. Tayumanavar and the author of Siva-Bhogasaram had made the subject of Supreme Praise.

"பார்விரிந்தநூலெல்லாம் பாதிவிருத்தத்தால் சாதித்தார் பொன்னடியைச் சாருநாளென்னாளோ" The whole world's knowledge in half a stanza He revealed, Oh when shall I reach his golden feet. St. Tayumanavar. "பார்விரித்தநூலெல்லாம் பார்த்தறியச்சித்தியிலே ஓர்விருத்தப்பாதி போதும்." God's Niradara transcendency is thus defined in Tirukalitruppadiar திருக்களிற்றுப்படியார். "ஆக்கப்படாதபொருளாய் யனைத்தினிலும், தாக்கித்தானொன் றேடும் தாக்காதே - நீக்கியுடன் நிற்கும் பொருளுடனே நிற்கும் பொருளுடனாய் நிற்கை நிராதாரமாம்" "Uncreate, immanent in everything and yet remaining separate from everything, and yet becoming one with that which becomes one with it, this is the Niradara."

THE NATURE OF THE UNION.

31. Good Karma will lift one into Higher births and worlds; Bad karma into lower ones. As such, sundering both, by the wisdom obtained by the virtue of worshipping the Sacred Being, and without entering into future birth in this world and lower and Higher worlds, the person, who becomes, a Jivanmukta in this world, does not care where the sun shines and feels no want, and leaving his body, enters the fullness of Supreme God, and becomes one with that fullness and all in all.

NOTE.

Gnanaprakasar deals fully in his commentary on the different views regarding the nature of the union in Moksha postulated by various schools.

THE NATURE OF JIVANMUKTAS.

32. They who attain to gnana-samadhi, have neither likes nor dislikes; they desire nothing; they care not for social etiquette, and Tapas and Asrama rules, and Dyana. They have no impurity in their hearts. They care not for religious marks. They do not follow the lead of their bodily and mental senses. They have no bad qualities and no creed and no caste. They become like children and mad men and possessed persons, and they may delight in singing and dancing also.

THE SAME.

33. They require not the aids of place, time and postures. They perform actions without any thought of the results; their minds do not move like a swing. They never leave the Feet of the Lord, in all their daily actions, in walking and sitting, in sleeping or waking in eating or starving, in purity or impurity, in wealth or poverty, in pain or pleasure, in enjoyment or separation, in like or dislike, though these actions may or may not be performed like any other person.

A PARTICULAR UPASANA TO REACH SAMADHI.

34. If you have not yet reached this condition, then perceive the truth of everything being in God and God being in everything, and control your internal senses, and practise what your gnanaguru has graciously taught you and reach the God who is immanent in yourself. Reaching Him, your human faculties will all be converted into Divine faculties. Try to realize the transcendent Being even in your waking condition. Then also your Sivanubhuti will become your Svanubhuti.

NOTE.

This is the famous Dahara Upasana set forth in most Upanishads. See p. 208. Vol. II. of this journal.

THE GREATNESS OF THE JIVANMUKTAS.

35. Those who can realize the Supreme Being even in their waking condition, they are the saints who have attained to Sarva Nivarti, or absolute renunciatiation. And how are we to describe their greatness? They even in this life have freed themselves from all bonds, and obtaining Sivam, have become God themselves. Even if they rule and enjoy as crowned kings they will have no attachment to this world. If one does not reach this Samadhi, even if they get rid of all external bonds, he will enter birth and his mala will not be destroyed.

Adhikarana 3.

IS THERE ANUBHUTI IN MOKSHA.

36. If you say that nothing can be perceived when we lose our senses; no, nothing can be perceived by those who have not seen the true. The immature virgin cannot understand what love is. When two lovers unite in joyful embrace, their pleasure cannot be expressed in words. They alone can know. Those without the aid of God's grace cannot know themselves. If any such say they have perceived God with their ordinary senses, it is all a delusion. If they are possessed of God's Grace, they can perceive themselves and God without perception. If they don't their births will not cease, and the anava cannot be sundered.

NOTES.

As nature avoids vacuum, so the soul cannot exist unless it be filled in by the world or God. So to get freed from the world, the only means is to get into eternal Bliss of God. If not so filled, the soul will again revert back and fall into the world. Such is the logical results which flow from the views of Buddhists and Mayavadis, and honest people like Mrs. Besant do not shirk from stating plainly such a consequence. To them, the concluding words of every Upanishad "There is no return, there is no return," are mere comforting words. There is no end to births, and "there is an ever-recurring necessity of Samsara." But the true Advaita-Siddhantis' position is different. He prefers to believe that the words of the Upanishad are true and not empty words. He strengthens his position both by logic and experience. St. Tiruvalluvar not content with stating the position here taken by St. Arul Nanthi once, states it twice.

"பற்றுகபற் றற்றான் பற்றினை யப்பற்றைப் பற்றுக பற்று விடற்கு." "சார்புணர்ந்து சார்புகெடவொழுகின் மற்றழிந்த்துச் சார்தரா சார்தரு நோய்." c.f. The Vedic Texts: "By Meditating, the Muni goes to the source of all beings, the witness of all, beyond all darkness" (Kaivalya Upanishad). "By churning with Jnana alone does the wise man burn up the bond (Pasa) ibid). "Knowing the Deva, the shining one, he is released from all bonds (pasas). Svet. 1-8. "Knowing Him, Isa, they become immortal." Ibid iii.7. "When men should roll up the ether like a hide, then only, without first knowing Siva, there could be an end of pain." (Svet. vi. 20.) "The knower of Brahman reaches the Supreme." (Tait. Up. II. ii.1). "Knowing Siva, he passes into peace forever." (Svet. Up. iv. 14.) "A man who has left all grief behind, sees the Majesty the Lord the Passionless, by the Grace of the Creator." (Ibid.iii.20)

For further treatment of the subject see the "Note on Nirvana" in Vol. 1. pp. 177 to 180 of this Magazine.

Adhikarana 4.

37. Knowing the nature of the soul to be like the mirror reflecting various colours, and that it reflects in itself all the actions of the internal and external senses, and knowing that such reflections of the senses are no part of himself, and distinguishing his own real beautiful self by the Grace of God from the false colours of the senses, the seer of such truth will unite with the Lord and will never after leave Him, like the rushing waters of the river breaking its banks and reaching the ocean, become one with it and can never more return.

 

NOTES.

The author merely echoes the concluding words of the Upanishads when he says that there is no return for the freed soul; a subject discussed by Badarayana in his concluding sutras. Note the use which our Saint has made of the analogy of the Rivers and the Ocean and the absurd use of it made by Prof. Duessen. (Vide pp. 85 to 87. Vol. II)

The rough and discoloured diamond or crystal or muddy and discoloured water stands for the soul; and the roughness and discoloured and rust stand for the malas eternally attached to them. But it is possible to get freed from this dirt and discolouration. By polishing and rubbing and filtering (process of births and deaths) the rough diamond can be made smooth and clear, and the muddy water can be made crystalline. What is the result? The light that was not seen before is seen now and enjoyed and it is for this light alone that we prize the diamond, so; much so that we call them "Brilliant." But is this light and brilliance its own? Where was it when it was covered by dust. Where is it when the brightest diamond is kept in darkness? The fact is, the light is not its own, it comes from another source, it enters it and permeates it and covers it so fully that the crystal is indistinguishable from it. When the diamond is covered by dirt & c the dirt & c prevented the light from entering it. When it was in darkness, no light was in union. So in bandha, our maya and mala prevent us from seeing the Light; the light will enter us more and more, the more and more we get freed from this dirt; till at last the Jivanmukta becomes all Light and all God. The fatal fallacy committed by Mayavadis is in taking the reflected Light as Jiva or Jivatma. It is not Jiva. The Jiva is the crystal or water. They say the reflection or light is God and this is quite correct ("வெண்பளிங்கின் உட்பதித்தசோதியானே" - Appar). The identifying of Jiva with God will be like identifying water or crystal with Light. But in Moksha, we still reach a process of identification as when we name a diamond, a brilliant. So indeed the advaita siddantis always declare that the freed Jiva is Siva. What occurs is, the individuality of the crystal or water or the river is lost and what is actually perceived is the Light or God. In Moksha, there is feeling and there is perception of God but there is no consciousness of such feeling or perception. When consciousness enters, there will be duality. When there is no consciousness, there is absolute evenness or advaitam. The following is pure language of science and is equally applicable to the case before us.

"When a river enters the sea, it soon loses its individuality, it becomes merged in the body of the ocean, where it loses its current, and where therefore it has no power to keep in suspension the sediment which it had brought down from the higher lands." (The story of a piece of coal p. 42, Newnes). When the individuality, the feeling of 'I' and "mine" Ahankara or Anava is lost, the soul merges in God, and becomes indistinguishable, the Karmic force is lost, and it cannot revert back ("கலந்தபின்பிரிவுமில்லை" - Devaram) and become incapable of sinning, and cannot leave the Feet of the Lord. See further note to chapter vi "Light of Grace."

THE NATURE OF GOD'S OMNIPRESENCE.

38. If God is everywhere, (and everything) then there is no necessity for our reaching Him. If He is not everywhere, then He is not God. His connection is like that of the soul in the body. The eye can see all other organs but they cannot see the eye; the soul can only understand the various tatvas in union with them. By the grace of the Lord alone will he attain to the Pathignana. Then will he be like the blind man who get his eye sight restored to him, and perceive God as the Light of Light.

TO GET FREED FROM VASANA MALA.

39. Just as when you drop a stone into a pond covered with moss, the waters get cleared for a while and covered again, the Mala, Maya and Karma will become detached from the man when he is attached to God; they become attached to him, again otherwise. Those who dwell on the Feet of the Lord with love and steadiness will never lose their Samadhi. To those who cannot always fix their minds to God, we will give another means whereby they can cut their bonds asunder.

End of the VIIIth Sutra.

 

SUTRA IX.

Adhikarana 1.

MEDITATE ON SRI PANCHAKSHARA.

1. Him, who cannot be understood by the Pasu and Pasugnana if you cannot reach, not possessing sufficient Pathignana and love in your heart, and are separated from his Divine foot, you can reach Him, if you regard the alluring world as a mirage and get free from its clutches. If you again meditate constantly according to law on the Sri-Panchakshara, The Supreme will graciously enter your heart, driving away your darkness.

PASA AND PASUGNANA DEFINED.

2. Pasugnana consists of the knowledge of the Vedas, Sastras, Smritis, Puranas and Arts, and of the Mantras from Asabhai Vaikari to Nada; these have the effect of inducing future births. The Ahabrahasami Knowledge is Pasugnana as the Pasu becomes bound in a body, has to learn and know from others, and one by one. The Supreme Siva knows alone without extraneous aid.

EXTINCTION OF SENSES IS NO MOKSHA.

3. If you hold that the extinction of the senses is alone Mukti, then we may as well hold that the eggs of fishes and fowls, and seeds, and persons dead and in a swoon in sleep and in yoga, and while bitten by a serpent are all in Mukti condition! If you would compare this Samadhi condition to the condition of light, when one's shadow gradually lessens and disappears under one at noon, even then the darkness will not vanish and this gnana is also Pasugnana. Know then, without knowing the feet of Him who burnt the Tripura and then you will burn your faults away.

THE NECESSITY FOR DIVINE GRACE.

4. Why we say that God can be reached only by the aid of His Wisdom Foot, is because, He can never be reached by our human speech, thought, or action, because His Foot represents The Light of His Wisdom, and because it is by the aid of His Foot Grace, the soul is freed from the doubt whether he is one with his bodily organs or senses, and is shown his real self.

HOW GOD MANIFESTS HIMSELF.

கண்டிடுங் கண்தனைக்காணா கரணங்காணா கரணங்கள் தமைக்காணா வுயிருங்காணா உண்டியம ருயிர்தானுந் தன்னைக்காணா துயிர்க்குயிரா மொருவனையுங் காணாதாரும் கண்டசிவன் தனைக்காட்டி யுயிருங்காட்டிக் கண்ணாகக்கரணங்கள் காணாமல் நிற்பன், கொண்டானை யுளத்திற்கண்ட்டி கூடிற்பாகங் கூடாது கூடிடினும் குறிப்படியினிறுத்தே.

5. The eye that sees all cannot see itself nor the internal sense that guides it. These internal senses cannot know themselves nor the soul. The soul itself which enjoys cannot know itself nor the One who is the soul of his soul. Hence, Siva, the All-seer, manifests Himself to the soul, and shows him his own self, and though unseen by the senses stands as the eye of all. If you know Him thus, and see Him in your heart and join His Foot, the Pasa will drop off. Even if the Pasa joins you, stand fast in His Foot.

Adhikarana 2.

HOW BLISS IS CONFERRED.

6. If one stands steadfast in the path, leaving the acquisition of the eight attributes and eight powers, (siddhis) &c. the worlds of Brahma and other Gods; and passing the bounds of the six adhwas and rejects all these as the veriest lie, then will He who has neither ups nor downs, who has no limiting qualities and is not conceivable by any person, who has no desire of his own, enter your heart Himself, filling it with boundless love, and bless you with the rarest joy.

Adhikarana 3.

THE TRUE EXPLANATION OF 'TATVAMSI'.

 7. கண்டவிவை யல்லேனானென்ற சண்றுகாணாக் கழிபரமுநானல்லே னெனக்கரு திக்கசிந்த, கொண்டினொடு முளத்தவன்றா னின்றகலப்பாலே சோகமெனப்பாவிக்கத் தோன்றுவன்வேறன்றி விண்டகலுமலங்களெலாம் கருடதியானத்தின் விடமொழியுமதுபோல விமலதையுமடையும், பண்டைமறைகளு மதுநானானேனென்று பாவிக்கச்சொல்லுவதிப் பாவத்தைக்காணே.

Seeing ourselves different from the seen world, and from the unseen God, and loving Him in all humility, and from His intimate connection with us, if we meditate that 'I am He', then will He appear to us, as one with us. As the poison leaves one by the snake-charmer's meditation of Garuda, so will our sins fall off and purity be attained. This is the reason why the old Vedas teach us to practice the Mantra 'I am He.'

NOTE.

Soham = Sa + Aham, meaning 'I am That' or 'I am He'. Hamsa is another form of it (Aham + Sa); This Soham is regarded as a mantra, based on the Mahavakyas for practice or Bhavana or Sadhana & not for proof. The principle is based on that formulated by western psychologists to the effect that, by practice and some mental disorders, the idea itself becomes an actuality. The principle enunciated by St. Meikandan is 'அதுஅதுஆதல்'; the soul or mind becomes that which identifies with itself. It becomes pure matter, body, when it identifies itself as body and when it identifies itself as Param, it becomes the Param.

Oh! for the day, when I shall become one (advaita) with the everlasting Truth and Wisdom as I am one (advaita) with Anava.

ஆணவத்தோடத்துவித மானபடிமெய்ஞ்ஞானத்
தாணுவினோடத்துவித மாகுநா ளென்னாளோ.

THE PANCHAKSHARA.

8. Knowing in the Light of Sri Panchakshara, his subordination to God, and seeing His Form also in the Panchakshara, and doing the Anga kara Nyasa (touching the parts of the body with the hand) with the Panchakshara, and worshipping God in the heart of the soul with Panchakshara, and raising the fire in the Kundalini with the Panchakshara, and reaching the Frontal Brow which is difficult of reach, and pronouncing the Panchakshara according to law, the Lord will appear to the soul, even as the invisible planets Ragu and Ketu appear in the sun and the moon.

NOTE.

The mysteries and details of this have to be learnt through the Guru.

 

ANOTHER SADANA.

9. As regards the lotus of the heart, its root is the navel, its stalk are the tatvas from the earth, its calyx is the Mohinior lower maya, the eight petals are the Suddha Vidya, the markings in these petals are the eight Aksharas, the stamens are the Iswara Sadasiva and their Saktis. The pistil and ovary is the Saktitatva. And above this Sakti is seated the Supreme Siva. And worship Him knowing this Supreme condition.

THE EFFECT OF THIS INTERNAL WORSHIP.

10. This internal worship or yagna is regarded as Mukti sadana, because it purifies the soul, using sandal, flowers, Dupa and Deepa, and Manjana and food with esoteric meaning, and worshipping Him in the heart. And as one thinks and thinks of Him with gnana, he will gradually enter your heart, as does the light when the mirror is cleared and cleaned. Then the impurities will all disappear.

NOTES.

The sandal symbolises Vairagya; flowers, the eight external virtues such as abstaining from killing &c., being the control of the external senses; - Dupa, incense is pride, which has to be offered up; Deepa, light is one's intelligence the Tirumanjana, water is contentedness, food is one's egoism.

ANOTHER MEANS: EXTERNAL WORSHIP.

11. If one desires to worship God externally, let him take the flowers fallen under the tree and worship and praise the Supreme Siva in some visible symbol in the same manner as in internal worship. Let him be resigned, thinking that he himself is not responsible for good and evil, and let him see God in everything without making distinction of internal or external worship, and remain steadfast in such worship. This will constitute the great merit of superior Bhaktas.

THE EFFECT OF SUCH WORSHIP.

12. God will show His grace removing one's mala, if one worships and sees God present everywhere as fire in wood, ghee in milk, juice in fruit and oil in seeds; such worship will dispose God to enter his heart and remove his mala and convert him into His own Form and dwell in him in all His glory, just as the iron is converted into the form of the fire itself.

 

SUTRA X.

PARATCHAYA.

Adhikarana 1.

WHY AKAMIA KARMA CANNOT AFFECT THE JIVAN MUKTA..

1. The good or evil which he performs will redound only on those who, do good or evil to him. His faults will vanish when, by soham-relation, he becomes one with God, and dedicates all acts to Hara, and stands fixed in this posture. And God also will hold all his acts as His own and everything done to him as done to Himself and will remain united to him driving away his faults. The greatest sins when committed in this condition of all love will only be good service and not otherwise.

BECAUSE THE JIVAN MUKTA IS DEVOID OF THE FEELING OF 'I' AND 'MINE'.

2. As he burns away by the fire of his wisdom the feeling of 'I' and 'Mine', that 'I did this,' 'others did that,' and stands steadfast in the path, the Subtle One manifests Himself to him, and drives away hi karma. To him who retains this feeling of self, God is non-apparent, and he eats the fruit of his karma and the karma will induce other births. Unless again, he possesses the Sivagnana, he cannot drive away the feeling of 'I' and 'Mine.'

Adhikarana 2.

A WAY WHEN HE IS AGAIN CONSTRAINED BY HIS SENSES.

3. Know well that though these senses are united to you, yet they are not controlled by you, and that they do so by the command of the Supreme Controller; worship the Feet of Him Who owns you and the senses; burn these passions by the Grace of God; and be still. And even then if you are led astray, be resigned that you have nothing to do and that it is the result of previous karma. Then the Akamia karma will not be generated and you will not be born again.

GREATNESS OF GOD'S BENEFICENCE.

4. God is not partial. He makes each one reap his own deserts according as he performs good or evil out of his feeling of self. When one loses his self, then God guards him from the contact of all karma. Such people say "O Lord, all our acts are after Thy Will. Thou dwellest in us and doth actuate our acts and dost actually perform them too! I have no will of my own. Thy Will alone shall prevail!" From such people, all karma will flee away of itself.

THE GREATNESS OF SIVAGNANA.

5. Pilgrimages to distant lands, dwelling in forests and caves; starving oneself, prolonging one's life indefinitely, all these will be of no use if they don't possess this Pure Wisdom, and they will be born again. When they possess this Sivagnana, then even though seen sporting with damsels, very fair, decked in fragrant flowers, their heart will be imbedded in the Feet of the Blessed Lord and will rest in Bliss.

NOTES.

This idea is beautifully explained by St, Thayumanavar in the following Stanza:-

  கொந்தவிழ் மலர்ச்சோலை நன்னீழல் வைகினும் குளிர்தீப் புனற்கையள்ளிக் கொள்ளுகினு மந்நீ ரிடைத்திளைத் தாடினும் குளிர்சந்த வாடை மடவார், வந்துலவு கின்றதென முன்றிவிடை யுலவவே வசதிபெறு போதும் வெள்ளை வட்டமதி பட்டப் பகற்போல நிலவுதர மகிழ்போதும் வேலை யமுதம், விந்தைபெற வறுசுவையில் வந்ததென வமுதணணும் வேளையிலு மாலைகந்தம், வெள்ளிலை யடைக்காய் விரும்பிவேண்டியவண்ணம் விளையாடி விழிதுயிலினும், சந்ததமு நின்னருளை மறவா வரந்தந்து தமியேனை ரக்ஷைபுரிவாய் சர்வபரி பூரண அகண்டதத் துவமான சச்சிதா னந்த சிவமே. We add the translation from the pen of the Hon'ble P. Ramanadhan, C.M.G of Ceylon* [* From his "Mystery of Godliness," which forms in fact a beautiful exposition of this Sutra and the next, and which every one of our readers must read.] While I live in shady groves, fragrant with fresh blown flowers; While I drink cool and limpid water, and disport myself therein; While I find enjoyment in sandal-scented breezes, which move through the court like gentle maids; While I revel in the day-like light of the glorious full-moon; While I feast on dishes of various flavours seeming tempered with ambrosia; While I am passing off into sleep after much merriment, bedecked with garlands and perfumed with Scent; - Grant to me, O Siva, Who art true, spiritual, and blessed, all filling, impartite, and substrate of all, - Grant to me the boon of never forgetting Thy Grace (so as to avoid the perils of worldly enjoyment).

THE PRINCIPLE ILLUSTRATED.

6. The fire will not burn him who is versed in Agnistambha. The poison will not hurt him who is skilled in medicines and Mantras. The good and evil will not attach to the gnanis even though they may perform all kinds of acts. Even the effects of former acts will cease with this life. The pot smells for a time after ever after the asafoetida is removed, and the wheel turns round for a time after the potter removes his hands. Similarly the effects of past karma (the Vasanamala) may affect the Jivan Mukta for a time but all will vanish with his body.

NOTES.

"சும்மா விருசொல்லற வென்றலுமே அம்மா பொருளொன்று மறிந்திலனே." "Be still, loosing speech, said He, Oh mother, I know not its meaning." St. Arunagirinathar. "Be silent to the Lord and wait patiently for Him." P.S. XXXVII.7. "Truly my soul is silent to the Lord." P.S. LX.1 The original Sutra in Sivagnana-Botham is as follows. அவனே தானே யாகிய அந்நெறி யேகனாகி யிறைபணி நிற்க மலமாயை தன்னொடும் வல்வினையின்றே.

The Highest injunction is to stand still and do God's will, and become One with him. Unless this stage is reached, his sin cannot leave him. Unless the soul merges its individuality or Egoism or Will in the person of the Universal Will, karma cannot cease, and births will result. So long as there is the play of his own Egoism, the superior Light cannot act on it. The pure glass is darkened by the dross of individual will and unless this is removed, the full blaze of the Shining One cannot illuminate it and convert it into itself. All actions are not prohibited, but even the most virtuous acts unless dedicated to God and done as following His Will, will only produce more karma; and any act that he may do even the most heinous one, if done out of obedience to God's will ceases to be such; and even the human law exempts lunatics and children as the acts are not done by their will but by some will outside themselves. This Highest doctrine of Hinduism is what is stigmatized as the doctrine of Quietism and grossly misunderstood by our own people and by the Westerns. The doctrine is so high and subtle that it is plain it cannot be understood by the ordinary lokayita, rolling in purely mundane efforts and enjoyments. Neither can it be understood by people who cannot understand Christ's precious teaching to show the enemy your other cheek; though they repeat in their daily prayers "Thy Will be done."

This Highest advaita doctrine is also the Highest teaching of Christ can be easily shown. Christ leads his believers to regard him and God as their master and their Lord in the beginning; and slowly is preached the doctrine that God is our Father, and we are all his children. But when he is nearing his end, he draws his disciples closer to him and tells them that they shall henceforth not be called his servants but that they are his friends; and the greatness of this relation is expressed by the statement "greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends (St. John XV. 13 and 14). And yet a closer union us taught, a union quite indistinguishable from the advaita union postulated by St. Meikandan, a union which is complete in itself yet in which the soul is strictly subordinate.

"Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the Vine, no more can Ye, except Ye abide in me. I am the Vine and ye are the branches. He that abideth in me and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit; for without Me ye can do nothing. If a man abideth not in me he is cast forth as a branch, and is withered; and men gather them, and cast them into the fire and they are burned." (St John XV 4 to 6). And after giving his disciples a final injunction to love one another, (அன்பரொடுமரிஇ of XII sutra) Christ prays to God. "That they all may be one; as thou Father art in me; and I in thee, that they also may be one in us. I in them and Thou in me that they may be made perfect in me." (St. John XVII. 22 23). "At that day ye shall know that I am in my father and ye in me, and I in you" (St. John XIV. 20) which recalls the famous lines in the Sacred Utterances of St. Manicka Vachaka.

உடையாள் உன்றனடுவிருக்கும்; உடையாள் நடுவுணீ யிருத்தி அடியேனடுவுள் இருவீரும் இருப்பதானால் அடியேன் உன் அடியார் நடுவுள் இருக்கும் அருளைப் புரியாய், பொன்னம்பலத்தெம் முடியாமுதலே! என்கருத்து முடியும் வண்ணம் முன்னின்றே. "The Mistress dwells in midmost of Thyself; Within the Mistress centred dwellest Thou; Midst of thy servant if ye Both do dwell, To one thy servant ever give the Grace Amidst thy lowliest servants to abide; Our Primal Lord, Whose Being knows no end; Who dwellest in the sacred golden porch, Still present to fulfil my heart's content." (From the translation of Dr. G. U. Pope)

The word உடையாள் is very expressive. It means complete possession and ownership of the other, so that the other is indistinguishable from owner. And Christ stands for this உடையாள் who is all Love, whose Love to us is all-absorbing and more than a father's and mother's, and which permeates us through and through, if only we will allow ourselves to be influenced by this Love, without interposing our own will and egoism. And this highest and inner teaching of Jesus Christ is hardly realised by the ordinary Christian Church goer; and the Revd. Andrew Murray fears that there are many earnest followers of Jesus from whom the meaning of this teaching with the blessed experience it promises is very much hidden. "While trusting in their Saviour for pardon and for help, and reaching to some extent to obey him, they have hardly realised to what Closeness of Union, to what intimacy of fellowship, to what wondrous Oneness of life and interest, He invited them when He said, 'Abide in me.' This is not only an unspeakable loss to themselves, but the Church and the World suffer in what they lose." He attributes this to ignorance, and ignorance in the orthodox church and failure on their part to preach this higher doctrine and he is confident that if the orthodox church preached this with the same distinctness and insistency as the doctrine of atonement and pardon through his blood is preached, that many would be found to accept with gladness the invitation to such a life, and that its influence would be manifest in their experience of the purity and the power, this love and the joy, the fruit bearing and all the blessedness which the Saviour connected with abiding in him. These references are from his preface to his beautiful work entitled "Abide in me" and the whole book is a commentary and exposition of the text "Abide in me" from St. John. The whole book should be read to know how much meaning is in these simple words, but the table of contents will give an idea of the same.

  Abide in Christ: 1. All ye who have come to Him. 2. And ye shall find Rest to your souls. 3. Trusting Him to keep you. 4. As the Branch in the vine. 5. As you come to Him by faith. 6. God himself has United you to Him. 7. As your Wisdom. 8. As your Righteousness. 9. As your Sanctification. 10. As your Redemption. 11. The crucified one. 12. God Himself will establish you in Him. 13. Every moment. 14. Day by day. 15. At this moment. 16. Forsaking all for Him. 17. Through the Holy Spirit. 18. In stillness of soul. 19. In affliction and trial. 20. That you may bear much fruit. 21. So will you have Power in Prayer. 22. And in His Love. 23. As Christ in the Father. 24. Obeying His commandments. 25. That your joy may be full. 26. And in Love to the Brethren. 27. That you may not give. 28. As your strength. 29. And not in self. 30. As the Surety of the Covenant. 31. The Glorified One.

And it is seen how far these approximate to the thoughts and their order as given out by our Acharyas.

The way to peace and rest does not lie in our seeking and desiring for it. The secret of perfect rest is in entire surrender to God. 'Giving up one's whole life to him, for him alone to rule and order it; taking up His yoke, and submitting to be led and taught, to learn of Him; abiding in Him to be and do only what he Wills; - these are the conditions of discipleship" (p.19) "Union with Himself "and so with the father is His Highest object." (p.20) "O yield yourself this very day to the Blessed Saviour in the surrender of the one thing he asks of you. Give up yourself to abide in Him. He Himself will work it in you. You can trust Him to keep you trusting and abiding" (p.29);

"நாமிழந்து சிவமானவா"

யானாகிய என்னை விழுங்கி வெறும்

தானாகி நின்றது தற்பரமே."

"Only abide in me: Thou are weak; but I am strong; thou art poor, but I am rich. Only abide in me; yield thy self wholly to my teaching and rule; simply trust my love, my grace, thy promises. Only believe. I am wholly thine; I am the vine; thou art branch. Abide in me." p.34.

In the lesson for the 11th day, the text from Galatiaus is quoted. "I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me" brings out the force of the texts "நாமிழந்து சிவமானவா, & c." quoted above. The 'I' dies and yet not the soul; and yet the soul is not seen, is not consciousness of its existence. What alone subsists and is felt and is enjoyed is the One God.

  "சென்று சென்றணுவாய்த் தேய்ந்து தேய்ந்து ஒன்றாம் திருப்பெருந் துறை யறை சிவனே ஒன்றுநீயல்லை யன்றி யொன்றில்லை, யாருன்னை யறியகிற்பாரே."

"The entire surrender of all self-will (the feeling of 'I' and 'Mine'), the complete denial to the flesh of its every desire and pleasure, the perfect separation from the world* [* Such people are called by the people who are in the centre of the world instead of being 'centred' in God, mad or eccentric (i.e., out of the world's centre] in all its ways of thinking and acting, the losing and hating of one's life, the giving up of self and its interests for the sake of others, this is the disposition which marks him who has taken up Christ's cross who seeks to say, I am crucified with Christ; I abide in Christ, the Crucified One." p. 83.

  கயன்மாண்ட கண்ணிதன் பங்கன் எனைக்கலந்தாண்டலுமே யயன் மாண்டருவினைச்சற்றமு மாண்டவனியின் மேல் மயல்மாண்டு மற்றுள்ள வாசகமாண் டென்னுடைய செயல்மாண்ட வாபாடித்தெள்ளெணம் கொட்டாமோ. When He, His spouse whose eyes shine bright, mixt with my soul, And made me His, deeds and environments died out; Upon this earth confusion died; all other mem'ries ceased; How all any doings died, sing we, and beat Tellanam. வான்கெட்டு மாருதமாய்ந்தழனீர் மண்கெடினும், தான்கெட்ட லின்றிச்சலிப்பறியாத்தன்மையனுக், கூன்கெட் டுயிர்கெட் டுணர்வுகெட் டென்னுள்ளமும்போங் நான்கெட்ட வாபாடித் தெள்ளெணம் கொட்டாமோ. Though Ether, Wind, Fire, Water, Earth should fail, His constant Being fails not, knows no weariness, In Him, my body, life, and thought and mind were merged How all my self was lost, sing we, and beat Tellanam. (Tiruvachaka: சிவனோடடைவு, Refuge in God). தானுமழிந்து தனமுமழிந்து நீ டூனுமழிந்து வுயிருமழிந்துடன், வானுமழிந்து மனமுமழிந்து, நானுமழிந்தமை நானறியேனே. "ஒழிந்தேன் பிறவி யுறவென்னும் பாசம், கழிந்தேன், கடவுளுநானு மொன்றானேன், அழிந்தாங்கினி மார்க்கமும் வேண்டேன், செழிஞ்சார்புடைய சிவனைக்கண்டேனே." "And the secret of a life of close abiding will be seen to be simply this: As I give myself wholly to Christ, I find the power to take Him wholly for myself; and as I lose myself and all I have for Him, He takes me wholly Himself and gives Himself wholly to me." (p.119). தந்ததுன் றன்னைக் கொண்ட்தென் றன்னைச் சங்கராவார் கொலோ சதுரர் அந்தமொன்றில்லா ஆநந்தம் பெற்றேன் இயாதுநீ பெற்ற தொன்றென்பால் சிந்தையே கோயில் கொண்டவெம் பெருமான் திருப்பெருந் துறை யுறை சிவனே எந்தையே, ஈசா, உடலிடங்கொண்டாய் யானிதற்கிலனோர் கைம்மாறே. "What thou hast given is thee; and what hast gained is Me: O Sankara, who is the knowing one? I have obtained the rapturous Bliss that knows no end; Yet now, what one thing hast thou gained form me? Our Peruman, Who for Thy shrine hast taken my heart Sivan, Who dwellest in Perunturrai's Courts! My Father, and my Master! Thous hast made this frame Thine Home; for this I know no meet return.'

And we are tempted to quote the whole of the lesson for the 18th day "Abide in Christ, In stillness of Soul," as it is the chapter most pertinent to the subject in hand. However we quote the following paras.

"There is a view of Christian life in which it is regarded as a sort of partnership, in which God and man have each to do their part. It admits that it is but little that man can do, and that little defiled with sin; still he must do his utmost, - then only can he expect God to do His part. To those who think thus, it is extremely difficult to understand what scripture means when it speaks of our being still and doing nothing, of our resting and waiting to see the salvation of God. It appears to them a perfect contradiction, when we speak of this quietness and ceasing from all effort as the secret of the highest activity of man and all his powers. And yet this is what scripture does teach. The explanation of the apparent mystery is to be found in this, that when God and man are spoken of as working together, there is nothing of the idea of a partnership between two partners who each contribute their share to a work. The relation is a very different one. The true idea is that of Co-operation founded on subordination. As Jesus was entirely dependent on the father for all His words and all His works, so the believer can do nothing of himself. What he can do of himself is altogether sinful. He must therefore cease entirely from his own doing, and wait for the working of God in him. As he ceases from self-effort, faith assures him that God does what He has undertaken, and works in him. And what God does is to renew, to sanctify and waken all his energies to their Highest power. So that just in proportion as he yields himself a truly passive instrument of His Almighty Power. The soul in which the wondrous combination of perfect passivity with the Highest activity is most completely realized, has the deepest experience of what the Christian life is." (pp. 127 and 128).

"It is a soul silent unto God that is the best preparation for knowing Jesus, and for holding fast the blessings He bestows. It is when the soul is hushed in silent awe and worship, before the Holy Presence that reveals itself within, that the still small voice of the blessed spirit will be heard." "Dost thou in every deed hops to realise the wondrous union with the Heavenly Vine? know that flesh and blood cannot reveal it unto thee, but only the Father in heaven 'Cease from thine wisdom.' Thou hast but to bow in the confession of thine own ignorance and impotence; the Father will delight to give thee the teaching of the Holy Spirit. If but thine ear be open, and thy thoughts brought into subjection and thine heart prepared in silence to wait upon God, and to hear what He speaks. He will reveal to thee His Secrets. And one of the first secrets will be the insight into the truth, that as thou sinkest low before Him, in nothingness and helplessness, in a silence and a stillness of soul that seeks to catch the faintest whisper of His Love, teachings will come to thee which thou never hadst heard, before the rush and noise of thine own thoughts and efforts. Thou shalt learn how thy great work is to listen, and hear and believe what he promises; to watch and wait and see what He does; and then, in faith and worship and obedience to yield thyself to His work, who worketh in thee mightily."

'Then there is the restlessness and worry that come of care and anxiety about earthly things; these eat away the life of trust and keep the soul like a troubled sea. There the gentle whispers of the Holy comforter cannot be heard." "Above all there is the unrest that come of seeking in our own way and in our own strength the spiritual blessing which comes alone from above. The heart occupied with its own plans and efforts for doing God's Will and securing the blessings of abiding in Jesus must fail continually. He can do His work perfectly only when the soul ceases from its work. He will do His work mightily in the soul that honors Him by expecting Him to work both to will and to do."

"ஆசையறுமின்கள் ஆசையிறுமின்கள், ஈசணோடாயிறு மாசையறுமின்கள், ஆசைபடபடவாய் வருந்துன்பங்கள், ஆசைவிடவிட ஆநந்தமாமே" Cease ye from desire! cease ye from Desire! Even such desire as the desire to know God. With each desire there follows a sorrow! As each desire is given up, there is Bliss. உரையற்று தொன்றை யுரை செய்யுமூமர்கள்காள், கரையற்ற கொம்றைக்கரை காணலாகுமோ, திரையற்ற நீர்போற் சிந்தை தெளிவார்க்குப், புரையற்றிருந்தான் புரிசடையோனே. Oh ye fools! who attempt to speak of the unspeakable. Can ye find the limits of the limitless deep? To him, who attains rest as the waveless sea. Will the Lord of the Braided Hair manifest Himself."  (Tirumantra).

Such is the peculiar teaching held out in the scriptures of the East and the West. But such teaching is naturally reserved for the most enlightened and highly developed soul in its highest stage of ascent. These occupying the lowest flat cannot understand and grasp the wondrous vision which will break on him at the top. He will naturally take shelter in the shady nooks and corners on the path, not knowing what dangers will lurk in those corners, and not knowing that ere long he will be assailed by the most cruel storms and tempests. The Sainted Pilgrim, on the other hand, even though such storms beset him for part of the way, will never be daunted and will never lose his trust in God but will even consider them as God's own blessings; and ere long, passing the region of clouds and winds, and storms and tempests, will pass into the everlasting Glory of Sivam from which there will be no return.

 

SUTRA XI.

PATIGNANA BHAKTHI LAKSHANA.

Adhikarana 1.

HOW GOD INSTRUCTS THE FREED SOUL.

1. As the soul enables the eye which by itself cannot see; to see and itself sees; 'Just so,' when the soul becomes freed from the body and purified; Isa enables the soul to know and himself knows. With this knowledge if one loves God, he will become freed, purified even in this body; and becoming freed of all Pasa, will dwell under the Lotus-Foot of Hara enjoying endless Sivanubhava.

THE JIVAN MUKTAS PERCEIVE GOD ALONE AND NO SECOND.

2. They who see the Param by Paragnana will alone see Param and nothing else. The knowledge of anything else than God is various and differing Ignorance. The knowledge derived by hearing and reading is also confused knowledge as its source is the higher Maya. The knowledge of Gnathru Gnana and Gneya is Sankalpa or Bhavana Gnana and not real. The true Gnana is what transcends all these, Sivagnana. Hence, the Jivanmukta perceives Sivam alone.

THE BODY CANNOT PERSIST IN MUKTI.

3. If it is asserted that as the body is eternally renewed from birth to birth, from the karmic sukshma body even in Mukti the blessed souls will remain clothed in an eternal form; our reply is, that this Mukti can only be a Pada Mukti and is an insufferable condition. If there is a body, then will arise Karma and Maya and other Malas. The body proceeding from the Manas has a beginning in reference to its cause, it is eternal. It is useful as a medicine to destroy our Mala. When the malady is removed the body dies with it.

HOW THE JIVAN MUKTA FEELS FREE FROM MALA.

4. When the soul unites itself to the unknowable Wisdom true, then Sivam lights it up and the soul becomes a Jivan Mukta. Just like the poison counteracted by medicine, and darkness subdued by light, and dirt in the muddy water is removed by the clearing nut, the Mala present in the Jivan Mukta becomes innocuous without being destroyed; and persisting till the body lasts, it vanishes with the body itself without attaching itself to any other body.

SOME OBJECTIONS MET.

5. If it is stated that the Anavala Mala being Anadi could not be destroyed, or if it can be destroyed, the soul also must go with it, it is not so. We see the copper stand as copper even after its original verdigris is fully removed by the contact of the Parisavedi (the Alchemist's stone). And so, the soul gets rid of its mala by union with the Sthanu (the ever-enduring or the self-content). But if it is stated that soul's attaining purity after getting rid of mala is alone mukti, and that it is not necessary for it to unite itself with God, then we say no. The darkness veiling the earth vanish (from our vision) when the sun enters, and not before. Hence, the Mala will only disappear only whom united to the Sacred Foot.

THE ANAVA MALA DOES VANISH COMPLETELY FOR MUKTAS.

6. Even though the paddy is united to the bran and husk from the very beginning, yet you can understand the condition when they become separated. In fact, they are not present in the pure rice. From the separated husk, &c., no new paddy can be generated; they separate off completely gradually. Hence, when united to the Beneficent Sivan, the Mala and Karma and body disappear from the soul. It, however, is united to the bound soul, and hence may be called eternal.

THE INSEPARABLENESS OF THE SUPREME.

7. The souls cannot think or act without the aid of the Lord's grace at any time. The Lord entering the soul's heart, actuating its thought and action is present in all. These souls cannot reappear unless willed by Him. He stands to them as the letter 'A' stands to the rest of the letters. Therefore how can the Freed Soul be separated from Hara's Foot.

NOTE.

See for full explanation of the analogy of vowel and consonant, vol.2, p. 13 of this journal.

Adhikarana 2.

GOD'S OMNIPRESENCE AND TRANSCENDENCY.

8. If God is omnipresent, He should be seen by everybody. No. To the blind, even the Sun is dark. To them who do not possess the eye of God's grace, even Light will be dark. As the sun brings to bloom the well-matured lotus, so does the Lord grant the eye of wisdom to the well-developed souls and appear to them in the Light of Lights.

NOTE.

It is not that God cannot be perceived everywhere, but we wilfully shut our own eyes by the pride of ourself or egoism.

SOME CONCEPTIONS OF MUKTI-UNION REFUTED.

9. If it is stated that God is like the tree's shade which is sought by the tired way-farer, we say No. Then the seeker will become the Master (the First Cause) and (not God). If yet it is stated that the Soul becomes one with God, by the soul becoming destroyed, then no union is possible of that which is destroyed to another. If it was not destroyed in Mukti, then too; there is no Multi. If it was destroyed after union, then what is it which experiences Mukti. If the destruction of Self is regarded as Mukti, it conflicts with the principle that the Soul is eternal. If it is likened to the union of water with water, then too they become equal which they are not.

SOME FURTHER CONCEPTIONS.

10. When the copper is touched by the Alchemist's stone, it becomes one with Gold. So does the soul become one with our God, when it loses its mala, so you say. No, God is not like Gold. He, like the stone removes the dirt, and places the soul under His Golden foot. The stone which receives the dirt from the copper is not itself Gold. The Lord of the Gods do alone possess the powers of Creation, &c. And the Freed Soul is alone capable of enjoying Bliss.

NOTE.

The famous American Professor who has succeeded in making artificial, chemical gold is said to have stated that all that he could assure the public was that it was like gold and possessed all its properties and did not possess the characteristics of the base metals. So too, all that we can say is that the freed soul is like God, and does not possess the weakness of humanity. We do not care as to what it is really, so long as we are freed from our evils, and eternal bliss is vouchsafed to us. The last statement about the freed soul is to avert the possibility of their existing too many first causes. If it was so able, its individuality should be different from that of Gods which is fatal to its Advaita union. Lower beings attaining Apara Mukti can have much power but not those attaining Para-Mukti. Such a freed soul can never return to the earth, can never return.

THE TWO INTELLIGENCES.

11. If it be stated that the God and the Soul being both intelligences (chit), they are one, we say No God is Gracious Intelligence (Arulchit) and the soul is that one which partakes of this Grace. God is the Intelligence who in order to remove the soul's mala, evolves things through various births and leads it into Moksha. The soul is the one which is subjected to the processes of evolution, &c. God is the Intelligence which is self-luminous and illumines others; and the soul is the one which receives such light and knowledge. Hence, though God and Soul are in union inseparably, they are not one and the same. For instance, can the Soul and its Buddhi, though both intelligent, be equal? To the soul, as chit, the buddhi is achit. So also to the God as chit, the Soul is achit.

THE TRUE NATURE OF THE UNION ILLUSTRATED.

12. As magnet attracts a piece of iron, so God draws unto himself the Soul, and converts it into His Own Form, as iron in fire, and destroys its Mala, as the wood is destroyed by the fire (rising from and enveloping it), and unites with it, as the salt with water, and subjects and transcends it as stone curbs gold, God transcends all and is in the Final Bliss. He remains united and undistinguished as mixed syrup of cane-sugar, honey, milk and sweet fruit, and sugar candy.

 

SUTRA XII.

NATURE OF THE SANCTIFIED.

Adhikarana 1.

HOW THE SANCTIFIED PERCEIVE THE IMPERCEPTIBLE AND DELIGHT IN HIM

1. The Sivagnanis getting rid of the three pasas which prevent them from uniting themselves to the Lotus Feet of the Supreme and joining the company of God's devotees, and worshipping them and the forms in temples as His Form, and singing their praises, and dancing in delight, and becoming fully conscious of the superiority of Sivagnanais and the inferiority of others, and bowing low only to the devotees of the crescent-crested God, they roam about the world.

Adhikarana 2.

LOVE GOD'S DEVOTEES AND OBEY THEM.

2. They love not God, who love not His devotees. They love not others, neither do they themselves. What is the good of talking about such senseless corpses? Leave off their company as their union will lead you again into births and deaths. Seek in love God's true devotees, taking their wishes as commands, speak humbly, and stand steadfast according to their gracious directions, and worship and bow to them and delight and dance.

NOTE.

The full force of the last two stanzas are brought out in the following Mantra:

He who sees, perceives and understands this, loves God, delights in God, revels in God, rejoices in God, he becomes a Svaraj, (an Autocrat or Self-Ruler) he is lord and master in all the worlds. But those who think differently from this, live in perishable worlds, and have other beings for their rulers. (Chandog. VII. 25-2).

நாமார்க்கும் குடியல்லோம் நமனையஞ்சோம் நரகத்திலிடர்ப்படோம் நடலையல்லோம்.

Adhikarana 3.

GOD'S DEVOTEES ARE GOD HIMSELF.

3. As God dwells as the soul of soul in each human body designed for the purpose of reaching the Imperceptible One, and infuses His own Intelligence into them therefore, the form of His devotee is His form. As he dwells in Sivoham Samadhi, he is even God Himself. As he reaches Him in his heart following the directions of the Guru, he is God Himself. When he and his vision fail altogether, he is without doubt God. If such is the greatness of God's devotees, worship them with love to get rid of the bonds of sin.

ஏமாப்போம் பிணியறியோம் பணிவோமல்லோம் இன்பமே என்னாளுந் துன்பமில்லை, தாமார்க்கும் குடியல்லாத் தன்மையான சங்கரன்நற் சங்கமென்குழை யோர்காதில், கோமாற்கே நாமென்று மிரளாவாழாக் கொய்மலர்ச் சேவடியே குறுகினோமே.

என்று நாமி யாவர்க்கு மிடைவோ மல்லோ மிருநிலத்திலெமக் கெதிராவாரு மில்லைச், சென்றுநாம் சிறுதெய்வம் சேர்வோ மல்லோம் சிவபெருமான் றிருவடியே சேரப் பெற்றோம், ஒன்றினாற் குறையுடையோ மல்லோ மன்றே யுறுபிணியார் செறலொழிந் திட்டோடிப் போனார்.

C.f. St. Manickavachaka

தேவர்கோ வறியாத தேவதேவன் செழும்பொழில்கள் பந்ந்து காத்தழிக்கு மற்றை, மூவர்கோனாய் நின்ற முதல்வன் மூர்த்தி மூகாதை மாதாலும் பாகத்தெந்தை, யாவர்கோ னென்னையும்வந் தாண்டு கொண்டான் யாமார்க்கும் குடியல்லோம் யாதுமஞ்சோம், மேவினோம் சிவனடியா ரடி யாரோடும் மென்மேலும் குடைந்தாடி யாடுவோமே.

WORSHIP THE FORM IN TEMPLES AS GOD HIMSELF.

4. They perceive God who perceive His form placed in temples as Himself. They perceive Him also who meditate on Him in the Mantric form. They who worship Him who is omnipresent in their own heart, perceive God also. To these Bhaktas, He appears as does the fire when churned or as the milk which cannot be perceived before it flows from the teats when milked.

NOTE.

This gives the Sadana and Phalam of the three classes of Margis. The first class, the Chariyavans require the grosser form of symbolic worship; the Kriyavans can take to the mantric worship or prayer form; the Yogis practise heart-worship. But as the next verse shows, the followers of the higher are not required to give up the lower forms and they do generally practise the lower forms just to keep their bodily and mental organs engaged till the body is worn out.

  C.f. The famous verse of St. Appar- விறகிற் றீயினன் பாலிற்படு நெய்போல் மறைய நின்றுளன் மாமணிச் சோதியான் உறவுகோல் நட்டுணர்வு கயிற்றினான் முறுக வாங்கிக் கடையமுன் னிற்குமே. which of course follows the famous verses in the Svetasvatara Upanishad. "One's body taking for the lower, stick and for the upper, Om by meditation's friction well sustained, let one behold God, there lurking as it were. "As oil in seeds, butter in cream, water in springs, and in the fire-sticks fire, so is God found in the soul, by him who seeks for Him with truth and meditation."

The point is though fire or milk is present in the whole body of the wood or cow, yet when we want to realize it, we realize it only at certain points. Nay, the Immensity of the Being is so great that it is impossible to perceive is as it is. And, after all, till the final stage is reached our knowledge cannot but be symbolic either.

THE ORDER OF WORSHIP AND WORSHIPPERS.

5. The practices of the four paths Gnana, Yoga, Kriya and Chariya are all God's Will. The Gnani is entitled to practise in all the four paths; the Yogi, from Yoga downwards; the Kriyavan can practise Kriya and Chariya the Chariyavan is alone entitled to practise Chariya. So that the faultless Gnana Guru is the Guru of all the Margis. He is God Himself. Worship Him accordingly.

Adhikarana 4.

THE NECESSITY OF A GURU.

6. By means of Mantras, medicines, Yoga practices, and herbs and medicinal stones, and other such means as are set forth in the Tantras, one can secure the knowledge of the Vedas and the Shastras, knowledge of past, present and future, and the endless occult powers. But the knowledge of God can only be secured by the grace of the Guru, and not by any other means. Even the above mentioned powers can be secured by the Guru's grace.

THE DIFFERENT WAYS OF GRACE BY THE GURU.

7. பரப்பிரம மிவனென்றும் பரமசிவன்றா னென்றும் பரஞான மிவனென்றும் பராபரன் றானென்றும், அரன்றருசீர்நிலை யெல்லா மிவனே யென்று மருட்குருவை வழிபடலே யவனி வன்றானாயே, யிரங்கிய வாரண மாமை மீனண்டஞ் சினையை யியல்பினொடும் பரிசித்து நினைந்தும் பார்த்தும், பரிந்தவைதானாக்கு மாபோற் சிவமேயாக்கும் பரிசித்தும் சிந்தித்தும் பார்த்துந்தானே.

 

If one does worship his gracious Guru, as the Para-Brahmam, as Para-Sivam, and Para-Gnana, and as all the manifestations of Hara, then Guru becoming God Himself will convert the disciple into His Form by means of touch, thought and sight, in the same way as the fowl and tortoise and fish hatch their eggs by touch and thought and sight respectively.

 

- THE END -

See Also: 
1. Sivagyana siththiyar Original text

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