1. How many tatvas are enumerated in Saiva Siddhanta?
They are 36.
2. How are they classified?
They are divided into three kinds, Atma-tatva, Vidya-tatva and Siva-tatva.
3. What is the textual authority for this division?
The following is the text of Brihad Jabala:
"Atma-tatvamathobhage, Vidyatatvamchamadhyame, Tadagresivatatvantu, Kramatatvani santihi."
The Atma-tatva are in the lower part. The Vidya-tatva in the middle. And the Siva-tatva are in the upper part.
4. What Puranic text supports this authority?
"Siva vidyatmatatvakhyam tatvatryamudahrutam." says Vayu Samhita.
5. What are the Atma-tatva?
The five elements, the five tanmatras, the five Karmendriyas, the five Gnanendriyas, and the four antahkarana form the 24 tatvas. Some exclude Chittam, and include Prakriti or Guna and make up 24.
6. What is the Vedic authority for this enumeration?
The following is the text of Prasnopanishad.
Pruthivicha pruthivimatrachapaschapomatracha tetejascha tejomatracha vayuscha vayumatrachakasascha kasamatracna chakshuscha drashdavyancha srotrancha strotavyancha ghranancha ghratavyancha rasacha rasitavyancha tvakcha sparsayitavyancha vakcha vaktavyancha hastancha adadavyanchopasthaschanandayidavyancha payuscha visarjayidavyancha padaucha gantavyancha manascha mantavyancha buddhischa boddhavyanchahankaraschaham kartavyancha chittancha chetayitavyancha....
7. What Puranic texts support this?
a. Brhmanda Purana:
Bhumiraponalovayurakasa gandha evacha. Rasorupam sparsa sabdopastha payurpadani cha. Panivagagharana gihva tvak chakshus srottrameva cha. Aghankarascha buddhischa manah prakrithi....
b. Vayu Samhita and Devi Bhagavata:
Pancha bhutani tanmattrah pancha karmendrayancha. Gnakarma vibhedenapancha pancha vibhakasah. Dwagat dhatava sapta pancha pranati vayavah. Manobhuddhirankhyatin gunah....
c. Kailasa Samhita:
Pruthiviyadicha sabdadi vagadyam panchakam punah Srotradyancha (Sirhparsva prushthodara chatushdayam. Mano (retascha) buddhischa agham kritih khyatirevacha. (Sankalpancha) gunah...
8. What are the Vidyatatva?
Time, Kala, Niyati, Ragam, Vidya, Maya, and Purusha, are the seven Vidyatatva.
9. What is the Vedic Authority?
Svetasvatara, 1 and 2.
"Kalasvabhavo niyadier yadirichcha bhuutani yonih purushaiti chintyam."
Of these svabhavo is the same as Kala, Ichcha, and Ragam are synonymous, Butha is Vidya, Yoni is Maya.
10. Which is the Puranic Upa Brahmanan?
The following text from Kailasa Samhita, which refers distinctly to the Upanishad text.
............purushasyatu, Bhoktrutvam pratipannasya bhojanecha prayatnatah. Antarangatayatatwapanchakam prakirtitam. Niyatih kalaragascha vidya cha tadanandaram. Kalachapanchakamidam mayotpannammunisvara. Mayantu prakrutimvidyan maya srutihetirita. Taijanyetani tatvani srutiyuktani na samsavah. Kalasvabhavoniyatiriti cha srutirabravit. Etatphanchakamevasyspancha kanchukamuchyate. Ajanan pancha tatvani vidvanapi vimudhadhih. Niyatyadhastatprakrute ruparisthah pumanayam. Vidyatatvamidam proktam.....
(b) Brahmanda Purana:
............. (prakruti) purushou. Niyatih kalara-ascha kalavidyecha mayaya.
(c) Vayu Samhita:
Maya kalamavasrujat niyatincha kalam vidyam kalatho ragapurushou.
11. What are the Siva-tatva?
The five, Sivam, (Nadam) Sakti (Brudhu) Sadakkhyam, Iswaram, and Suddha-Vidya.
12. What is the Vedic authority?
"Sivam saktinj sadakkyam isam vidyakhya Mevacha."
13. What is the Puranic Upa Brahmana?
a. Vayu Samhita:
Nadatvinisruto bindurbindor devassadasivah. Tasmanmahesvarojatassudhavidyamahesvarat.
b&c. Kailasa Samhita:
....... Suddhavidyamahesvarou. Sadasivascha saktischa Sivachetantu panchakam. Sivatavamidam brumman praganabrummava kyatah.
d. Brahmanda Purana:
Suddhavidyesvarasadasiva sakti siva iti.
14. Give all the above in order?
Sivam, Sakti, Sadakhyam, Iswaram, Suddha Vidya, Asuddha-Maya, Kala, Time, Niyati, Vidya, ragam, Purusha, (Prakriti) Buddhi, Ahankara, Manas, Chittam, ear, eye, nose and tongue, skin, mouth, feet, hand, anus, and genitals, sound, touch, form, taste and smell, Akas, air, fire, water and earth.
15. What are the tatvas enumerated according to Sankhya?
Satvarajastamasam samyavastha prakruter mahan mahato ahankaro ahankarat pancha tanmatrani ubhayamindiryam tanmatrebhya sthula bhutani purusha iti pancha vimsatir ganah.
Mula Prakriti made up of Satva, Rajas and Tamas, and Mahat, arising from the same, Ahankara arising from the last, Manas, Gnanendriya and Karmendriya and Tanmatras arising from the above, and what arises from above, namely the five gross elements, together with Purusha constitute the 25 tatvas according to Sankhya.
16. What do these 25 tatvas correspond to among Saiva categories?
They are comprised in the 24 Atma-tatvas.
17. Are the tatvas above these 24 set forth in Sankhya?
18. What is the authority for this?
The following verse from Siva Purana.
Sankhyayogaprasiddhani tatvaniyapicha kani chit. Sivasastra prasiddhani tatonyanyapi krutsnasah.
States that only some of the tatvas are explained in books of Sankhya and yoga. These and all other tatvas are set forth fully in the Siva-Agamas.
19. What are the tatvas enumerated in Pancharatra?
The five gross elements, the five Karmendriyas and the five Gnanendriyas, the five Tanmatras, Manas Ahankara, Mahat and Prakriti. (above these is five, and above him, Vasudeva)
20. How are they comprised in the Saiva categories?
They are composed among the 24 Atmatatvas.
21. What are the tatvas enumerated by the School of Mayavada?
a. Says Varahopanishad:
Gnanendriyani panchaiva srottratvag lochanadayuh. Karmendriyani panchaiva vagpanyanghriyadayah. Pranadayastu panchaiva panch subdadayas tatha. Manobhuddhirankaras chittam cheti chatushdayam, chaturvimsati tatvani tani brahmana vido viduh.
The five Gnanendriyas, the five Karmendriyas, the five Vayus Prana, 7c., the five tanmatras, Manas, Buddhi, Chittam, and Ahankara, forming in all 24 tatvas.
b. Says Suta-Samhita.
Akasadini bhudani panchatesham prakirtitah. Gunas sabdadayuh pancha pancha karmendriyani cha. Gnanendriyani panchaiva pranadya dasa vayavah. Manobhuddhirankaras chittam cheti chatushddayam. Tesham karanabhudaikavidya shaddrimsakah pasuh. Visvasya jagatah karta pasorannyah parassivah.
"The five gross elements, the five Karmendriyas, the five Gnanendriyas, the five Karmendriyas, the ten Vayus Prana, &c., the four Andakaranas, their cause. Mulaprakriti or Avidya, and Jiva from the 86 tatvas."
22. Are these 36 tatvas the same as the 36 tatvas of Siva Siddhanta?
No. 10 of these, the Dasa Vayu are included under Vayu of the Siddhanta categories. Avidya is the same as Mulaprakriti and Jiva is indistinguishable from Rajas, and these 36 are comprised under the 24 Atma-tatva; and do not comprise all the 36 of the Siva-Siddhanta.
23. Can the Vidya and Siva-tatvas, set forth in the Upanishads be comprised under Mulaprakriti in any way?
From Buddhi to earth are contained in and arise from Mulaprakriti; and Mulaprakriti itself is contained in and arise from Vidya tatvas, &c. How can the container arise from the contained?
24. What is the highest ideal of Pancharatris and Mayavadis?
Their ideal is only Jiva, in his Saguna or Nirguna aspect, and which is mixed up in the lower tatvas from Prakriti downwards.
25. Whom does "Vishnu" in the following Rig verse denote?
'Tatvishnohparamam padam. sadapasyantisurayah."
"The Supreme Abode of this Vishnu, the Sages always see."
As "Vishnu" is one of the names of Siva enumerated as below this "Vishnu" means 'Siva alone'?
Sivomahesaras chaiva rudrovishnuh pitamah. Samharavaidyas sarvajnah paramatmeti mukhyatah.
26. What is the meaning of the word "Vishnu"?
"As the text says"
Sivatatvadi bhumyantam sarirati ghatadi cha Vyapyadhi tishthati sivas tato vishnurudahrutah.
"Siva is called 'Vishnu' as He pervades the 36 tatvas from Siva tatva to earth."
27. Why should not this "Vishnu" mean "Vasudeva"?
As Vasudeva does not pervade the Vidya and Siva tatvas, He cannot be called "Vishnu," 'All Pervader."
28. What Upanishad text supports the above mentioned interpretation?
Compare the following text of Katha Upanishad.
Soddhvanah paramapnoti tadvishnoh paramam padam.
29. What are the Adharas of the above text?
Mantraddhva cha padaddhva cha varnaddhveti sabdidah. Bhuvanaddhva cha tatvaddhva kaladdhva chartthatah kramat.
Mantram, Padam, Varnam, Bhuvanam, tatva, Kala, form the 6 minds of Adhwa.
Kalatatvanchabhuvanam varnam padamatahparam Mantrascheti samasena shadadhva paripathyate.
30. What is Kala?
Nivrutyadayah kalah pancha kaladdhva kathyate budaih.
Nivirti Prathishta, Vidya, Santi, Santyatiti are the five Kalas.
31. What are Tatva Adhwa?
Sivatatvadi bhumyantam tatvaddhva samudahrutah.
They are the 36 tatvas from Siva tatva to earth.
32. What is Brahama Adhwa?
Adharadyunmanandascha bhuvanaddhva prakirtitah.
They are the Buvanas from Kalagri. Rudra Bhuvana to Unmanantham.
33. What is Varnam?
Panchasadrudra rupastu varna varnaddhvasamjitah.
They are the 50 letters from "A" to 'Ksha'
34. What is "Padam"?
Anekabhedasampannah padaddhva samudahrutah.
They are the 31 Pada from Vyoma Vyapini.
35. What is Mantra?
Saptakotimahamantra mantraddhva samutahrutah.
They are the seven crores of Maha-mantras; also the 11 great mantras.
36. How are they related to each?
They are related as Vyapaka Vyappya. Mantras are pervaded by Pada, Padas by Varna, Varna by Bhuvana, Bhuvana by Tatva, Tatva by Kala.
Mantras sarve padair vyapta vakyabhavatpadani cha Varnaivarna samuhamhi padamahur vipaschitah Bhuvananyapi tatvou ghairandasyantar bahih kramat. Vyaptani karanais tatvairarabdhatvadanekasah. Kala. bhis tani tatvani vyaptanyeva yatha tatham.
37. What are the tatvas pervaded by Nivirtikala?
38. By Prathishta Kala?
From water to Prakriti.
39. By Vidya Kala?
From Purusha to Maya.
40. By Santi Kala?
Vidya and the two next.
41. By Santyatita Kala?
Sakti and Siva tatvas.
42. What circle (chakara) does Nivrti Kala form? Who rules it?
Niviruttirupamakhyatam srushdi chakramidambudhaih Pitamahadhishthitancha padametaddhi so bhitam. Etadevapadam prapya brahmmarpita dhyam nirnam.
Srishti chakra. Brahma. They who meditate on Brahma reach this circle.
43. What circle does Prathishta Kala form? Who rules it?
Sthitichakramidam brahman pratishtha rupamuttamam. Janardanadhishthitancha paramampatamuchyayate. Ramasaktiutovame sarvarakshakararomahan. Asyaiva vasudvadi chatushkam vyashtitam gatam. Vasudevoniruddhascha tatas sankarshanahparah. Pratyumnaschedi vikhyatam sthiti chakramitam param. Sthitis srushtasya jagatas tatkartrunancha palanam. Etadeva padam prapyam vishnupadaprasevinam.
Sthithi Chakra. Vishnu.
He is possessed by Rama-Sakti and protects all and is great. He has four Vyuha, called Vasudeva. Aniruddha, Pradhumna, and Sankarshana. He protects Brahma, and the rest. Devotees of Vishnu reach this Prathista Kala circle.
44. What circle does Vidya Kala form?
Samhara Chakra. Rudra. His devotees reach this Pada.
Samharakhyamidam chakram vidyarupakalamayam.
Adhishdthitanch rudrena padametanniramayam. Etadevapadamprapyam rudraradhana kankshinam.
45. What circle does Santi Kala form?
Tirobhavatmakam chakram bhavech chantikalamayam. Maheshvaradhishthitam chapadametadanuttamam Etadeva padam prapyam mahesapadasevinam.
Droupava chakra. Maheshwara. His devotees reach His Supreme Abode.
46. What circle does Santiyatita Kala form?
Anugrahamayam chakram santiyatita kalamayam. Sadasivadhish thitam cha paramampadamuchyate. Etadevapadam prapyam yathinam bhavitatmanam Sadasiapasakanam pranavasakta chetasam. Etadevapadamprapya tenasakam munivarah. Bhuktva vipulan bhogan devenabruhmarupina. Mahapralayasambutau bhogan devenabruhmarupina. Mahapralayasambhutau siva samyam bhajanti hi. Tebruhmaloka iti cha srutiraha sanatani. Aisvarye na sampanna ityahatharvani sikha.
Anugraha Chakra. Sadasiva. His devotees, whose mind is merged in Pranava, reach this Abode; and from there reach the Highest Union with the Supreme Siva.
Hence the text of Munduka.
"Debruhmalokeshu" (parantakaleparamrutah parimuchyanti sarve),
47. How is Maya classified?
Maya is divided into Maha Maya, Maya and Prakriti, according to the Sivagamas.
Mayamayacha maya vai trividha smruta.
Mahamayacha mayacha prakrutis triguneticha
48. What are their other names?
Mahamaya is called also Para Prakriti Maya has sukshuma Prakriti, and Prakriti as Sthula Prakriti.
Prakrutistesham sthula sukshma paretyasau. Mahamayabhavettridha tatrasthula qunatmika. Buddhiyati bhogya janani prakrutihpurushasya sa. Sukshma kaladi tatvanamavibha gasvarupini.
50. What are the other names of Maha Maya?
Vindhu and Kundalini, according to Pushkara; and Vidya, Maya, Parai, Paravakisvari according to Chintyam, Visvam, Sadahkiram and other Agamas.
51. What is the Siva-tatva?
Srushtikaletu kutilah kundalyakaraye sthitah. Tanmaddhyegnanamutpannam tadrupam nadamuchyate Tadatitanvararoge paratatvam niarmayam. Suddhasphatikasankasam sivatatvantu yat smurutam. Aprameyamanirdis yamanaupamamanamayam Shukshman sarvagatam nityam dhuruvamavyaya mishvaram. Sivatatvamidam proktam sarvorddhvo pari samsthitam. Onkaratmatmatayabhati santiyatitah parassivah.
Says Gnana Siddhi on Agama:
"When Srishti began, Kudilai (Siva tatva) became of the form of Kundali: In its midst, Nadam arose as Intelligence. This is pure, Supreme Tatva, pure as crystal is Siva Tatva."
According to Swayambhu Agama:
"This is past measure and past description and past comparison; Nameless, all pervasive, eternal, and permanent, and Supreme is Siva Tatva. In it dwells Parasiva, as Santyatita, and is of the form of Omkara.
52. How are the Sivatatva evolved?
Siddhanta Saravali states:
Udiyogachchaktitatvam prasaraticha vibhostatkaladhyam sisrukshor hindoh pragdrukkryabhyam sadrusamadhikrutadyatsadesakhyatatvam. Adhikyenesatatvam manuvati sahitam tatkriyasaktiyogat gnakhya sakhyoganmanunivahamukhais suddhavidyakhyatatvam.
From the Will of Paramasiva, Kudilai arose, and from it arose the Sakti tatva filled with Kala Bhuvana. From the Will of the Lord again, did rise Sadakkiam clothed with Gnana and Kriya, from the above said Sakti tatva. By the power of Kriya Sakti did arise Iswara tatva with countless Mantreshwarar. By the Power of the Gnana Sakti did arise Suddha Vidya tatva with seven crores of Mahamantrar."
53. What is the Upa Brahmanam supporting this?
Says Kailasa Samhita:
Nijechchayajagatasrushdumudiyuktasya mahesituh. Prathamoyahparispandassivatatvam tatuuchyate. Eshaivechcha saktitatvam sarvakrutyanuvartanat. Gnanakriyasasantiyugme gnanadhikye sadasivah. Mahesvaram kriyodreke tatvam viddhi munisvara. Gnanakriyasaktisamyam suddhavidyatmakam matam.
54. Who dwells in these five Tatvas?
Trividhampara mesasya vapurloke prasasyate. Nishkalam prathamanchaikantatassakala nishkalam. Trutiyam sakalam chaiva nanyathetidvijottamah. Ekam sthulam sukshmamekam susukshmam murtta murtta mekamhiyamurtham -
"Of the forms of Parameshwara, He who dwells in Siva and Sakti tatva is the Sukshuma Nishakala Siva. In the Sadakkya tatva dwells the Sukshuma Sakala, Nishkala Sadasiva. In Iswaram and Vidya tatvas dwells the Sthula Sakala Maheshwara."
55. What is the meaning of 'tatva'?
The agama definition is:
Apralayam yattishti sarvesham bhogadayibhutanam, Tatvamiti khyatam tanna sariraghataditatvatah.
Unlike the bodies which perish, these 36 tatvas endure till the great Pralaya and hence are called 'Tatvas'.
56. Why are the tatvas and the dwellers therein called by the same name?
Saiva Gnanothara says:
Yaninamanitatvanamtani tatvadhipeshvapi, Gnatvaivam yojayenmantram yasmin yah praptumihata.
By whatever names the tatvas are called, by the same name are called the dwellers therein.
57. How are the Vidya and Atma tatvas evolved?
Mayatonantayogatprasarati cha kalakalatatvam niyatya vidya rakahkalatah prakruti sakhamito rudra yuggaunamastat. Buddhischatopyaham kru trividha gunayuta dimdriyair manasam prakkarmakshanyevamatras svaguna gatabhidah pancha bhutani tebhyah.
From Maya or Sukshuma Prakriti, by the action of Ananteshwara of Ishwara tatva, do arise Kala, Time and Niyati. From Kala, did arise Vidya and Raga tatvas. From the above Maya, Purusha tatva clothed with the five coats of Kala, Time, Niyati, Vidya and Ragam along with Rudras. From Kala, did arise again Prakriti, and from it, Guna tatva (of Satva Rajas and Tamas) and from the latter did rise, Buddhi, and Ahankara, and from Satva. Taijasa Ahankara arose Manas and (Chittam) and the five Gnanendryas; from the Rajasa Vaikari Ahankara arose the Karmendryas; from the Tamasa Butha Ahankara did arise the five Tanmatras, and from the Tanmatras arose the gross elements so says the Siddhanta Saravali.
58. What is the nature of Pasu (Soul)?
Says Paushkara Agama:
Pasuh pasutva samyogannamuktah pasuruchyate. Yasmatsvadrukkriyasali kalahinopyanisvarah. Vyapakas chinmas sukshmas sivavat samvyava sthitan.
"As he is connected with mala, he is called Pasu, and not a Mukta: He is not united to kala, yet posseses, Gnana and Kriya (intelligence and action). He is not Isa, yet possesses all pervasiveness, and intelligence and subtleness in appearance like Siva.
59. How many kinds of souls are there?
Pasavastrividha gnayas sakalah pralayakalah. Vignana kala itiyesam srunuddhwam lakshanam kramat. Maloparuddha druk saktis tatprasruttyai kaladi man. bhogaya karmasambadhas sakalah paripathyate.
Pasu (souls) are divided into three classes Vignanakalar Pralayakalar, and Sakalar .... Of these, Sakalar possess powers of intelligence, and will and action dimmed by Mala, and for these partial manifestations, these powers uniting with Kala, Ragam and Viddei, the souls are bound by Karma for the purpose of undergoing pain and pleasure.
60. Who are Sakalars?
Vide definition given above.
Maloparuddhadruk saktis tatprasrutyai kaladiman. Bhogaya karmasambandhas sakalah pari pathyate.
61. How are Kala and other tatvas which induce Bhoga in the soul called?
They are styled Pancha Kanchuka. (The five-fold coat).
62. How is this Pasu (Atma) called by Mayavadis following their own upanishads?
As stated in the table at D... they call it Nirguna Brahmam, Kutastha Brahmam, Siva, Paramasiva, &c.
63. Is this usage found also in Saiva Upanishads and Upabrahmanas?
As stated in D2, soul is called Siva, Parabrahma, Hara, Kshetragna, &c.
64. Give a text for this soul styled Siva, getting the Panchakanchuka?
The Kailasa-Samhita says.
Sarvakarttrutwa rupacha, sarvajgnatva swarupini. Purnatva rupanityatva vyapakatva svarupini. Sivasya saktayah pancha sankuchadrupabhaskarah. Apisankocharupena vibhantya itinityasah. Pasoh kalakhya vidyeti raga kalau niyatyapi. Tatvapanchaka rupena bhavantiyatra kaleti sa. Knichit kartrutva hetus syat knichit tutvaika sadhanam. Savidya ti bhaved ragovishayeshvanuranjakah. Kalohi bhavabhavanam bhasana bhasanatmakah. Krumavachchedako bhutva bhutadirti kathyate. Edantu mama karttavyamidam neti niyamika. Nyatis syad vibhos saktis tadakshepat patet pasuh.
The atma (soul) who is Siva, and possessed of the five powers of perfect action, full intelligence, and fulness, omnipresence, eternality unites itself for the better manifestation of itself, (1) with Kala, inducing action, (2) Viddei inducing intelligence, (3) and Ragam inducing Desire and (4) Time, inducing knowledge and ignorance of things existent and non-existent and both (5) Niyati, inducing perceptions of fitness in one's doing or not doing a thing; and being clothed in this Panchakanchuka is called Purusha.
65. By what mark is the position of the atma, called, Jiva and Panchakanchuki indicated in the table?
66. Where is the circle of the Anantar who created the Panchakanchuka out of Maya for the Jiva?
They dwell in Iswara tatva No. 33 in the table.
67. Is the Jiva called Siva as he is Panchakanchuki alone or for any other reason also?
Yes. Kailasa Samhita says:
Svankarupeshubhaveshu mayatatva vibhedadhih. Sivoyada nijam rupam paramaisvarya purvakam. Niguhyamayayakhilapadarttha graha kobhavet. Tada purusha ityakhya tatsrushtvetyabhavachchrutih. Ayamevahi samsuri mayayamohitah pasuh. Sivadabhinnam na jugadatmanam bhinnamityapi. Janatosya pasor deva moho bhavati na prabhoh. Yathaindra jalikasyapi yogino na bhaved bhramah. Guruna gnapitaisvaryas sivo bhavati chidghanah.
When the contemplating Siva, concealing its form of Supreme Powers in Maya, proceeds to understand the object sensations, he becomes Purusha. Hence the Sruti says "Tat Sristva." This Purusha becomes the Pasu covered by Maya. To understand himself as different from the world and as different from Siva will always leave him in delusion. This Delusion is not found in Siva. As the magician is not subject to delusion so also, the yogi is free from delusion. After the Guru imparts the truth, he becomes Siva of immaculate Powers and Intelligence."
68. How is the Brahman denoted in the Table?
By the letter D1.
69. How is the Jiva subject to Upadhis denoted?
By the letter E1.
70. Is there difference between this Jiva denoted by E1 and the Panchakanchuka Jiva denoted by E2.?
Though derived in different ways, there is no difference in substance.
71. What is the authority?
Advaita saivavedoyam dvaitam na sahate kvachit. Sarvajgnas sarva karti cha siva eva sva mayaya. Sankuchadrupa ivasan purusha sam babhuvaha. Kaladi panchakenaiva bhoktrutvena prakalpitah. Prakrutisthuh pumanesha bhunkte pra krutijan gunan. Itisthana dvayantusthch parusho navirodhakah.
Says Kailasa Samhita: Adwaita Saivam will not accept Dwaita in any form: The Supreme Intelligence and Supreme Cause, Siva, by his own Maya dwindled into a being of small form, Jiva. By the union with Kaladi Panchakanchuka, he became created as the enjoyer. This very Purusha dwelling in Maya eats the fruits of Maya. These two Purushas of different places are not different.
72. Do the two kinds of Jivas above described really differ, before they are enveloped in the Panchakanchuka and the Upadhis respectively?
73. If so, can the Ideal of the Mayavadi is be said to be the Final One?
No; in as much as the True Brahman is above these Upadhis, and far above the Vidya and Siva Tatvas.
74. Is the Pathi, Isa with His consort dwelling in the Paraprakriti tatvas of Siva and Sakti, the same as the Isa dwelling in the Mulaprakriti?
No. According to Saraswati Rahasyopanushad, Rudrak itayopanishad and Annapurni Upanishads, this Mulaprakriti is pronounced as Anirvachaniya and false, and the reflection of Isa in the Satva and other Gunas is equally regarded as imaginary. But the Highest Lord, transcending the 36 tatvas, is regarded as eternal and not transitory, according to Isa and Kena and other Upanishads, as for instance in the text: "Nityonityanam chetanaschetananam."
So the two Isas cannot be the same.
75. Is the Jiva (of Mayavada School), the reflection of Rajoguna in Maya and the marked E1 and the Jiva marked D2 the same?
No. The Mahanarayanopanishad texts "Andakae ranopadika sarve Jivah: Mal Jivatvam Ishatvam Kalpitam."
Speak of this Jiva as imagined. But the atma, as spoken of in the following texts of Chandogya and Katha.
"Na mryate jivah Najayate nryate vipaschit"
is not mortal, neither is it born.
Hence the two are not the same. (In the simile of the crystal and colours, the Rajoguna Jiva will be analogous to the Red colour or picture reflected in the crystal, which should be distinguished from the real crystal, the true Jiva).
76. Is the Mayasakti attached to Brahman, (D1) the same as the Sakti of Siva attached to the 35 and 36 tatvas?
No. They are different, the colours reflected in a crystal are different from the Light of the Sun. The Light is indistinct from the Sun itself and is in Samavaya relation; and thought it enables the colours to shine and be reflected, is yet distinct from the colours.
Consider the text.
Aparetu parasaktis sivasya samavayini. Tadatmyamanayor nityam vanni dahakyoriva. Atas taddharmadharraitvat para saktih paratmanah. Prabhayahi vinayadvadbhanu resha na vidyate. Na sivena vina saktir na sakyacha vina sivah.
77. Are the illustrations of a mirage, son of a barren woman, Post mistaken for a man, Betala, Gandarva City, Rope and Snake, and the terms Adhyasa, Arupam, Swapna-Loka, Kalpana found in Sarvasara, Niralamba, Tejobindu, Saharahasya Mahopanishad, Varaham, Rudra-Hridayam, Anna Purni, Sandilya Yoga ika, &c., are found in the Principal twelve Upanishads?
78. In these principal Upanishads are the Jiva and Ishwara spoken of as imaginary as in the first set of Upanishads?
No. Besides, these Upanishads speak of Gargi Akasam (Chidambaram) (Dahara Akasam) Vyomam, Parasakti, Devatma Sakti, Grace of Siva, Brahma Loka and Siva Loka. These terms do not find a place in the Mayavada Upanishads.
79. Why should the 12 Upanishads be of greater authority than the others?
For the principal reason, that the Vedanta Sutras refer to these as authoriative and do not refer to the others at all.
80. What are the Buvana (worlds) in which these 36 tatvas are contained?
There are 1000 worlds in Prithvi (earth) tatva.
From water to the 4th tatva, there are 56 Buvana.
In the 7 Vidya tatvas, there are 27 Buvana.
In the Sudda Veddei, Ishwaram and Sadahkiam, there are 18 worlds. In the Sakti and Sivatatva, there are 15 Buvanas.
81. What are the Buvanas in the Sakti tatvas?
Indika, Deepika, Rochika, Mosika, Urdhvaka, Vyapini, Vyomaruoini, Anandai, Anadai, Anasruthai are the Buvanas.
The names of other Buvanas must be studied in the Agamas.
82. Why is the term 'Brahmalokeshu' used in the plural, in the Mundaka (Brihadaranayaka and Kaivalya and Taittriya, and Chandogya and T. Mahanarayam &c.,?
For the reason that there are several lokas in the Sakti and Siva Tatvas as above.
83. Can this 'Brahmalokeshu' be identified with the Heavens of Trimurties?
No, for the reason, that these heavens of the Gods are found far below in the scale of the tatvas and they are not the Supreme Goal from which there is no return. But the Upanishads mentioned speak of the 'Brahmalokeshu' as not inducing future births.
"Brahma lokamabhi Sampadhyate. Nagapunaravertate, Nagapunaravartate." (Changodya).
84. What is the Siva Tatva?
See answer to question No. 51.
85. What is Sakti Tatva?
Gnana Siddhi says, "By means of Gnanam (Nada), Kriya arose. The form of this is Bindhu."
86. What is Sadasiva Tatva?
Guana Siddhi Agama says,
"Where Gnana and Kriya are in equal proportion, it is Sadahkya form. This tatva is both Sakala and Nishkala."
Gnanakriyasamavyaptam kartru satukhyarupakam. Sadasivakhyatatvamtu sakala nishkalam bhatvet.
87. What is Ishwara tatva?Gnana Siddhi says, "where Gnana is less and Kriya is more, this is Maheshwara Tatva."
Gnananyunam kriyadhikyam mahesastatva vigraham
88. What is Suddha Vidya tatva?
Chintya-Agama says "Where Gnana is more and Kriya less, this is Vidya tatva.
Kriyasaktiyapaharshancha gnanasaktiydbanan tatha.
Vidya tatvasya chotnattir gnagorbha bhavat tada.
89. What is Asudha Maya?
Paushkara says "It is Maya that changes everything in the world into its own form. This is eternal, one, all pervasive, real, subject of Karma, cause of Men's Samasara from Maya, there are two kinds of Srishti, Sthula and Sukshma.
The Sukshma Srishti comprises the clothing of the Atma in Kaladi-tatvas, giving rise to the manifestation of the Higher intellectual Powers. The Sthula, Srishti comprieses the visible worlds, and body and senses.
Mayatyasmajjadvisam mayatena samirita. Nityeka vyapinivastu rupa karmasraya siva. Sadharanicha sarvesham sakalanam munisvarah. Mayaya dvividha srushdis sthula sukshmatmiketyapi. Druk sakti vyanjika sukshma sthita tatvatmanatmani, stulabhuvana rupena sariratyatmana sthita.
90. What are the five tatvas from Maya?
Kala, Vidya, Raga, Kala (Time) and Niyati.
Kalavidya cha ragascha kaloniyatirevacha. Panchai tanitatvani mayeyani dvijottamah.
91. What is Kala?
Says Paushkara - 'For the manifestation of Intelligence, it removes the Mala a little and brightens the intelligence. This is Kala tatva."
Malan sarvatmanabhitva chaitanya prasaratmanah.
92. What is Time?
Chintya Agama says: "From the Maya of illimitable powers. Time arose. This is Past, Present and Future. This matures Mala."
Anandasakti rupaya mayatah kalasambhavah. Bhutahhavya bhavisbyascha tridha rupobhavetpunah. Mulunamparipakvarttham kalatatvasya sambhavah.
93. What is Vidya?
The following Text: "For the enjoyment of Atma, the Vidya tatvam arose from Kala. On the man, made agent by Kala, is induced intelligent action by means of Vidya tatva."
Tatovidya kalatatvadabhudbogartthamatamanah. Kalayukarttru bhutasya bhuddhilaksana karmanah. Alokane yatkaranam savidya siva sasane.
94. What is Ragam?
The text says: "The man whose mind involved in desire is further led into desire. This is done by Ragatatva."
Pravruttasya pravrut yartthamapi ragah pravarttate.
95. What is Niyati?
The authority says: What impels man to action is Niyati."
Nyatischa tatha karma phaleniyamayatyanwh.
96. What is Purusha tatva?
The following is the text: "He who is clothed in the Kaladi Panchuka, and who is united to Avidya and who is ready to enjoy the Prakriti Bhogya is called, Purusha."
Panchakanchukasumyaktah prakrutim bhoktumudyatah. Avidyadi samayuktah purushah parikirthithah.
97. Where did Prakriti rise from?
The Maya which arose in a gross form from Kala is Mulaprakriti and comprises from earth to Guna.
Tatcha mayodhhavam yasmat kalutas sthulatam gatam. Gunadiskhiti paryantam tatva jatam yato bhavet.