Hinduism Glossary of terms

This Glossary / Dictionary of Hinduism would be helpful for those who want the understand the Hindu technical terms better furthering their understanding of Hinduism.


Term Indicates
A Symbol of Siva, short form of anuttara (the Supreme); the letter pervading all the other letters of the alphabet.
Abeda Onness; one; not different
Abhasana appearance; esoteric meaning - srsti- emanation
Abhava A term used in Logic to denote one of the seven categories, meaning non-existence. Non-ens; void.
Abhinna Non-different, identical
AbhiSheka anointment, holy bathing
Abhiyoga Backward reference of awareness
Abhoga Expansion; camatkara or spiritual delight.
Abuddha What is known as the awakened state for the common man is from the standpoint of the Yogi abuddha or unawakened state i.e. a state of spiritual ignorane.
Achalam Immovable; permanent
AchAra observance, discipline
Achit Non-intelligent; non Ego; matter; Asat.
Adhah-kundalini the field of Kundalini from Lambika to one-three-fourths of its folds in the Muladhara
AdhAra base, any of the six mystical chakras
Adhikara Office, prerogative, right
Adhikarana A complete argument dealing with one question; a thesis.
Adhisakti The Original Divine Power or Light identified with the Divine Light of Gayatri.
Adhisthana Substratum, support
Adhisukshuma Least of the least ; most subtle.
Adhisthatr The superintending, governing, presiding principle. Anu-One that breathes i.e. the limited, conditioned experient.
Adho-vaktra Medhra-Kanda, situated at the root of the rectum
Adhva Adhva literally means course or path. Suddha Adhva is the intrinsic course, the supramundane manifestation. Asuddha adhva is the course of mundane manifestation.
Adhvan (Adhva) journey, way, course
Adi koti The first edge or point i.e. the heart from which the measure of breath is determined.
Advaya One without a second
Advaita non-dualism, a Hindu philosophy
Agama Revealed text, traditional knowledge, Dynamic scripture, Scripture explaining the implementation aspects of spirituality
Agama Pramana One of the four proofs employed by Hindu Logicians, meaning the Highest authority or word of God, Sabda Pramana, Sruthi Pramana.
Aghora The merciful Siva
Aghora Saktis The Saktis that lead the conditioned experients to the realization of Siva
Aghoresa An aspect of Isvara below Suddha vidya giving rise to asuddha tattvas like maya; Anantanatha.
Agni kArya the fire ritual
Agni (symbolic) Pramata-knower or subject.
Agnisomatmika The parasakti (highest sakti) that brings about srsti (manifestation) and samhara (withdrawal) of the universe.
Agnisomamayam The universe which is of the nature of pramana (knowledge) and prameya (objects).
Agnja Authority
Agnja Sakti The Divine Power.
AGYA chakra mystic centre at the brow junction, sixth centre
AGYAna unwisdom, ignorance
Ahadyan Inner worship ; esoteric worship ; true worship.
Aham I, absolute I
Aham-bhava I-feeling; I-consciousness
AhaMkAra the "I" feeling, I-making principle, ego
Ahankara One of the four Andakaranas ; Pride of self ; self knowledge.
Ahanta I-consciousness; I-ness
Ahimsa non-violence
Ajnanam The primal limitation (mala); Ajnana in this system does not mean absence of knowledge, but contracted or limited knowledge. Being inherent in Purusa on account of which he considers himself as of limited knowledge and limited activity, it is known as Paurusa-Ajnana. Being inherent in Buddhi, it leads one to form all kinds of asuddha vikalpas (thought-constructs devoid of essential Reality) and is thus known as Bauddha Ajnana.
Akala The experient established in Siva tattva and identified with Siva.
Akamia Karma See under Karma.
Akas The highest of the five elements ; Ether.
Akasa Space, ether; the sky; the infinite;
Akhyati ignorance
Akrama Successionless manifestation of the essential nature; Sakta Yoga.
Akrtrima Natural; inartificial
Akhyati Primal Ignorance; Mahamaya
Akshara, Axara letter
Akshata, Axata rice grains (usually in the context of worship or blessing)
Akula Siva
Alamgrasa 'Alam' in this context means , atyartham i.e., to the utmost, and grasa means swallowing, consuming i.e., completely reducing to sameness with Self. Bringing experienced object completely to sameness with the consciousness of the Self, when no impression of samsara as separate from consciousness is allowed to remain.
Alayam temple, kOvil, mandir
Amayiya Beyond the scope of Maya; Amayiya sabda is one which does not depend on convention, in which the word and the object are one.
Amba The highest Sakti of the Divine.
Amrta Ambrosia; the spiritual state in which further involution in matter is annulled.
Amrta varna the letter 'sa'
Amudha Sentient
AnAhata The mystic centre at the heart, fourth centre
Anacka Sounding the consonants without the vowels; esoteric meaning-'concentrating on any mantra back to the source where it is unuttered'.
Ananda Bliss; Happiness ; the nature of Sakti; the essential nature of Parama Siva along with Cit; the letter 'a'.
Anandamayakosa The sheath of bliss
Annamayakosa The gross physical sheath
Ananda-upaya Realization os Siva-nature without any yogic discipline. Also known as Ananda Yoga or Anupaya.
Anasrita-siva The state of Siva in which there is no objective content yet, in which the universe is negated from Him.
Anantabhattaraka The presiding deity of the Mantra experients.
Anava See under Pasa, ego.
ANavam ego
Anava mala Mala or limitation pertaining to anu or the empirical individual; innate ignorance of the jiva; primal limiting condition which reduces universal consciousness to a jiva, depriving consciousness of sakti and sakti of consciousness and thus bringing about a sense of imperfection.This limitation works in two ways-(1) while the sense, of doership is present, there is loss of bodha or prakasa, i.e. considering inconscient thngs like sunya, buddhi, prana, or body as the Self. (2) While there is bodha or prakasa, there is loss of the sense of activity or doership.
Anavopaya The means whereby the anu or the empirical individual uses his own karanas or instruments i.e. senses, prana and manas for self-realization. It includes disciplines concerning the regulation of prana, rituals, japa, concentration, etc.
Anava Samavesa Identification witht the Divine by the above means.
Anava upaya The Yoga whereby the individual utilizes his senses, prana and manas for Self-realization. It consists generally of uccara, karana, dhyana, varna, and sthanakalpana. It is also known as Anava yoga, Bhedopaya and Kriya-yoga or Kriyopaya
Andakarana A generic name to denote all the four internal senses, Manas, Bhuddhi, Chittam and Ahankara.
Anekesvara Vadi The School of Thinkers who hold that there are many Gods.
Antakoti The last edge or point; it is dvadasanta a measure of twelve fingers.
Antahkarana The innerorgan, comprising manas (mind), buddhi (intellect or determinative faculty), citta (pleasure-seeking faculty), and, ahamkara (ego).
Antahstha Lit; standing in between, the letters ya, ra, la, va are known as antahsta letters. According to Siksa (Phonetics) and Vyakarana (Grammar), they are called antahstha, because they stand between vowels and consonants, they are neither purely vowels, nor purely consonants or they are so called, because they stand between letters.
According to Ksemaraja, they are called antahstha because they are determined by Maya and her kancukas which operate from within the mind of man.
Abhinavagupta, however, says that since the formation of the antahstha letters is due to iccha and unmesa saktis which are inner forces and are identified with the pramata (subject), they are rightly called antahstha
Antaratma The conditioned inner soul consisting of puryastaka or subtle body. It is called inner as contrasted with the gross body which is the outer covering of the soul.
Antarmukhibhava Introversion of consciousness.
Antarvyoma The interior space where prana and apana are dissolved.
Anu An atom ; very small ; Soul ; 'Aniti svasiti iti anuh'- one who breathes i.e. the jiva- the empirical individual; the limited, conditioned experient, conditioned by the body, puryastaka and prana; the nature is the empirical mind; the Maya-pramata, the experient dominated by Maya.
Anubhava ; Anubhuthi Experience.
Anugraha blessing, grace,
AnumAna inference ; one of the four proofs of Hindu Logicians.
Anupaya Spontaneous realization of Self without any special effort.
Anusandhana Lit; investigation; tracking a matter to its source. In Yoga, repeated intensive awareness of the Source or essential Reality.
Anusandhata One who joins the succeeding experience into a unity.
Anusvarva Nasal sound on the top of a letter; representation of Siva.
Anusyuta Strung together; connected uninterruptedly.
Anuttara (1) The Highest; the Supreme; Parama Siva; the Absolute (lit. one than whom nothing is higher). (2) The vowel 'a'
Apana The vital vayu that goes in downwards towards the anus; the inhaled air. soma and jiva are synonyms of apna
Apara Lower; lowest, immanent
Apasusakti One whose bondage has disappeared and who has become a free being (pati) like Sadasiva.
apaurusheya not man-made
Apavarga Liberation
Apavedya susupti Profound sleep in which there is absolutley no awareness of any object whatsoever
archana salutation, praise
archaka priest
ArAdana worship
AraNyaka class of religious and philosophical writings (associated with brAhmaNa)
Ardhacandra Lit., demi-lunar; the second stage in the ardhamatra (half of a mora) in the japa or recitation of Aum; subtle energy of sound.
Arhata Jaina
Arivu Intelligence ; Soul.
Artha object; end; sense-object; meaning; notion; aim; wealth
aruL Grace ; Divine Grace.
Arul Sakti The Power of Divine Grace.
aShTAnga with eight limbs (parts)
aShTottara (satanAma) 108 names
Asana Exoteric meaning- 'A particular posture of the body.'
Esoteric meaning- 'Being established in the Self.' sitting posture
Asat Non-ego ; Matter, other that Sat ; Achit, other than Souls, and God. Non-being
Asaya Disposition of mind, antah-karana or the psychic apparatus; mental deposits lying in the unconscious.
Ashrama 1. hermitage, 2. Stage of life (The four stages are brahmacharya, gArhasthya, vAnaprastha, sanyAsa)
Asuddha vidya Knowledge of a few particulars; limited knowledge; empirical knowledge.
Asuddhi Impurity, limitation
Asunya Non-void
Asyanata shrunken state; dried state; congealment; solidification
Atharva-veda One of the section of the Vedas
Atisanta padam The state of Parama Siva beyond the tattvas.
Atmaboddha (Lit., Self-Knowledge) The name of a sanskrit work written by Sankaracharya
Atma This word is invariably to denote the Soul, in all Siddhantha works ; In Vedantha works, this word is used to denote the Soul, Jivatma, and God, Paramatma
Atman Self
Atma-labha Realization of Self
Atmasatkr Reducing to sameness with the Self.
Atma-visranti Resting in the Self
Atma-vyapti Realization of the Self without the realization of the all-inclusive Siva-nature.
AtmArtha spiritual, self intended
Aunmukhya Because of His inherent ananda, the intentness of Siva towards manifestation; the rising of Iccha Sakti towards creativity.
Avadhana Constant attentiveness.
Avastha One of the conditions or states of the Soul's existence. State; condition
Avatar Incarnation
Avesa Entry; absorption
Aviddhei Ignorance.
Avikalpa Intuitive apprehension, free of all thought-construct.
Avikalpa (Nirvikalpa) Jnana Direct realization of Reality without any mental activity.
Avikalpa (Nirvikalpa) pratyaksa Sensuous awareness without any perceptual judgement, unparticularised awareness.
Aviveka Non-awareness of the Real, moha or delusion; ignorance; non-discernment
AvuDaiyAr gomukhi, the base of the shiva linga (circular or square) facing north regulating the thIrtha out
Avyakta Non-manifest; unmanifest
bahir (pUja, mukha ......) outside
Bahirmukhata Externalization, extroversion of consciousness
Baindavi kala Baindavi-pertaining to Bindu or the knower, Kala -will power. Baindavi kala is that freedom of Parama Siva by which the knower always remains as the knower and is never reduced to the known, svatantrya sakti
Bala Cid-bala, power of the true Self or Universal Consciousness.
Bandha (1) Bondage; (2) Limited knowledge (3) Knowledge founded on primal ignorance (4) Yogic practice in which certain organs of the body are contracted and locked.
Bandham Bond ; fetters.
Bala Cid-bala, power of Universal Consciousness or true Self.
Bauddha ajnana The ignorance inherent in Buddhi by which one considers his subtle or gross body as the Self on account of asuddha vikalpas
Bauddha jnana Considering oneself as Siva by means of suddha vikalpas
Bethabetham Being nondual and dual.
bhAga part
bhagavan glorious, divine
bhakta devotee
Bhakti (apara) Devotion; intense feeling and will for being united with Siva.
Bhakti (para) The constant feeling of being united with Siva and the supreme bliss of that consciousness.
Bharita plenitude, fulness
bhasma, thiruniiru ash, vibhUti
bhAShya commentary, elucidation
Bhava Existence both internal and external; object
Bhavana The practice of contemplating or viewing mentally oneself and everything else as Siva; jnana yoga; Sakta upaya; creative contemplation; apprehension of an inner, emergent divine consciousness.
Bhava-sarira Consideration of sound, etc. as one's Self.
Bhairava (apara) Siddhas who have unity-consciousness and consider the whole world as identical with Self.
Bhairava (para) Parama Siva; the Highest Reality. This is an anacrostic word, bha, indicating bharana, maintenance of the world, ra, ravana, or withdrawal of the world, and va, vamana or projection of the world.
Bhairava Agama Sixty-four Saiva Agamas that teach non-dualism.
Bhairava (Teachers) Liberated Sivas who are established in unity-consciousness and teach the sixty-four non-dualistic sastras
Bhairavi Sakti of Bhairava
Bhairava mudra or Bhairavi mudra This is a kind of psycho-physical condition brought about by the following practice 'Attention should be turned inwards; the gaze should be turned outwards, without the twinkling of the eyes'.
Bhairava Samapatti Identity with Parama Siva
Bheda ; Betham difference ; Duality.
Bhoga experience, sometimes used in the narrow sense of 'enjoyment'.
Bhokta experient
Bhrumadhya the centre or middle of the eye-brows.
Bhucari Sub-species of Vamesvari, connected with the bhavas or existent objects. Bhu means existence; hence existent objects are the sphere of 'bhucari'
Bhumika Role
Bhuta Gross physical element
Bhutakaivalya Withdrawal of the mind from the elements.
Bhuta-jaya Control over the elements.
Bhuta-prthaktva Detachment of the essential Self from the elements.
Bhuta-sarira Consideration of the gross physical body as the Self
Bhuvana becoming; place of existence; world; place of being, abode.
Bhuvana adhva The third spatial existence, namely world. There are 108 bhuvanas
Bija (1) Visva Karanam sphurattatma parasaktih i.e., the active light of the highest Sakti which is the root cause of the universe. (2) vowel. (3) The mystical letter forming the essential part of the mantra of a deity. (4) The first syllable of a mantra.
bIja (mantra) seed (mantra)
Bijavasthapana setting of the seed, esoteric meaning, 'vilaya'-concealment of true nature.
Bindu or Vindu (1) A point, a metaphysical point. (2) Undivided Ligth of Consciousness. (3) The compact mass of sakti gathered into an undifferentiated point ready to create (4) Parah pramata, the Highest Self or Consciousness. (5) Anusvara or nasal sound , suggesting the fact that Siva in spite of the manifestation of the universe is undivided. (6) A specific teja or light appearing in the centre of the eye-brows by the intensity of meditation.
Bindu written also as Vindu, a point; a metaphysical point; ghanibhuta sakti,- the compact mass of Sakti gathered into pramata-the highest Self or Consciousness; the anusvara or nasal sound indicated by a dot on a letter indicating the fact that Siva in spite of the manifestation of the universe is undivided.
Bodha Enlightenment; spiritual awakening.
Bhoga Enjoyment
Bhouddam Buddhism, exoteric as it is now called, denying the existence of the Soul and God, and proclaiming the supremacy of the human Reason of Buddhi alone.
Brahm (Neuter gender) ; (Literally) means Great ; Supreme Being ; The Omnipresent Being.
Brahma The deva of creation. One of the trimUrti (In Sankara Vedanta) Pure foundational Consciousness without activity; unlimited knowledge devoid of activity. (In Saiva Philosophy) Pure foundational consciousness full of svatantrya sakti i.e. unimpeded power to know and do any and every thing; parama Siva
Brahmajnana The knowledge of Brahman
Brahmanadi Susumna or the central pranic channel or nerve.
Brahmanirvana Resting in pure jnana tattva devoid of activity; the state of Vijnanakala
Brahmarandhra The Sahasrara Cakra ; the pranic centre at the top of the head.
Brahma-sutra An authoritative treatise on Vedanta philosophy ascribed to Vyasa. Same as Vedanta-sutras
Brahmavada Sankara Vedanta
Brahmananda The fourth stage of ananda (joy) in anavopaya experienced by resting of consciousness on Samana prana resulting from the unified combination of multifarious objects.
brahman Supreme Being, Absolute
brAhmaNa 1. one pursuing brahman, one of the four sections of society
2. portion of vedas describing the application of the mantras
brahmarandhram aperture in the head of the head through which the soul is said to escape on leaving body
Buddha One awakened to the light of consciousness
Buddhi Reason ; one of the four Andakaranas ; Sometimes the higher mind; the super-personal mind; the ascertaining intelligence; the intuitive aspect of consciousness by which the essential Self awakens to truth.
buddi intellect
Buvana The whole material universe.
Caitanya The foundational Consciousness which has absolute freedom of knowing and doing, of jnana and kriya sakti<
Cakra The group or Collective whole of saktis
Cakresvara The master or lord of the group of saktis
Camatkara Bliss of the pure I-consciousness; delight of artistic experience.
Candra Prameya or object of knowledge; the apana prana or nadi (channel or nerve)
Caramakala The highest phase of manifestation known as Santyatita or Santatita Kala
Carvaka the materialist
Carvaka Darsana materialistic philosophy
Cetana Parama Siva, Self, Conscious individual.
Cetya Knowable, object of consciousness.
Chaitanyam Intelligence.
charyA practice, observance
Cheda Cessation of prana and apana by sounding of anacka (vowel-less) sounds.
Chit Intelligence ; consciousness, perception
Chit Sakti Divine Intelligence or Energy ; Gnana Sakti.
Chittam Sence of Perception ; one of the four Andakaranas.
Cidakasa The ether of consciousness
Churnika A brief abstract ; a style of expression.
Cidghana Mass of consciousness
Cidananda lit., consciousness and bliss, (1) The nature of ultimate Reality consisting of consciousness and bliss. (2) The sixth stratum of ananda in uccara yoga of anava upaya
Cidanandaghana Mass of Consciousness-bliss
Cinta thought; idea
Cit The Absolute; foundational consciousness; the consciousness that is the unchanging principle of all changes.
Citi The consciousness-power of the Absolute that brings about the world-process.
Citi-cakra Samvit-Cakra- the senses
Citkala Energy of consciousness
Citprakasa Light of consciousness
Citta the individual mind, the limitation of Citi or Universal Consciousness manifested in the individual mind, the mind of the empirical individual, consisting mainly of Sattva, the mind of the Maya-pramata
Citta pralaya Dissolution of the empirical mind in the higher consciousness
Citta sambodha Awakening of the individual mind
Citta visranti Repose of the empirical mind in the higher consciousness
Damaru a small drum
Dardhya Firmness of mind or concentration.
Darsana Seeing; system of philosophy
dEvAram, tEvAram The great Tamil hymns sung by saints sambandar, appar & sundarar on Lord shiva, first seven parts of thirumuRai, specifically 4th to 6 th thirumuRai - appar dEvAram
Desa Space; region
Desa adhva Kala, tattva, and bhuvana
deva 1. divine, 2. essentials, elements
devi divine (feminine)
dharma righteousness, virtue, law, duty
Dharana Meditation; contemplation
Dhruva (1) Anuttara stage
dhUpa fragrant smoke, incense
dhvaja flag
Dhvani Yoga A dharana of anava upaya consisting of concentration on anahata nada (unstruck sound) arising within through prana sakti. This is also known as Varna Yoga
Dhyana meditation
Dhyani meditator
Dhyana Yoga The highest dharana of anava upaya in which pramana (knowledge), prameya (object of knowledge) and pramata (knower) are resulted as aspects of Samvid or foundational consciousness.
Dik Space
Dikcari Sub-species of Vamesvari, connected with bahiskaranas or outer senses.
Diksa (1) The gift of spiritual knowledge (2) The initiation ceremony pertaining to a disciple by which spiritual knowledge is imparted and the residual traces of his evil deeds are purified.
dIpa light
Dis Direction
Divya mudra Khecari mudra
Drdha Stable in concentration
Drsti Comprehensive vision
dyAna meditation
dvaita dualism
Dvadasanta Distance or end of 12 fingers. This is measured in various ways: (1) A distance of 12 fingers from the tip of the nose in outer space is known as bahya dvadasanta (2) A distance of 12 fingers from the bahya dvadasanta to the centre (hrdaya) of the body is known as antara dvadasanta (3) A distance of 12 fingers from hrdaya upto Kantha. (4) There is a dvadasanta from the palate to the middle of the eye-brows. (5) There is a dvadasanta from the middle or centre of the eye-brows upto Brahmarandhra. This is known as urdhva dvadasanta. This distance is of use only when the kundalini awakens.
dvAdashAnta mystic place twelve units above the head
Dvaitham Dualism.
Ekanava Pasyanti vak
Ekam One
ekAtma vAda, Ekatma Vadam the philosophy that only one soul exists (in the entire world) ; Monism ; the theory according to which there is only one Intelligent entity and that there are no such entities as Souls or matter ; the theory of Idealism.
Gaganangana Cit-sakti, consciousness-power
ganga The river Ganges, the holy river that flows down from himAlayam
gaNapati, gaNesh The chief of the organised forces, Often refers to vignEshwara - the eldest son of Lord shiva
Garbha Akhyati, primal, ignorance; Mahamaya
garbhagR^iham sactum sanctorum, the main and core abode in the temple, mUlasthAnam
gAyatri one of the chandas (meters), a famous mantra
Ghora Saktis The Saktis or deities that draw the jivas towards worldly pleasures.
Ghoratari saktis The Saktis or deities that push the jivas towards a downward path in samsara
Gnanam Intelligence ; knowledge ; wisdom.
Gnana Sakti The Divine Intelligence.
Gnathuru The Knower
Gneya Knowable.
Gocari Sub-species of Vamesvari, connected with the antahkarana of the experient, 'Go' means sense; antahkarana is the seat of the senses; hence Gocari is connected with antahkarana.
gomukhi AvuDaiyAr, the base of the shiva linga (circular or square) facing north regulating the thIrtha out
gOpura tower
Grahaka Knower; Subject; Experient
Grahya Known; object of experience.
grantha composition, book, a script
Granthi Psychic tangle; psychic complex.
Guna-traya Satva, rajas, tamas
Guru (Literally.) The dispeller of darkness ; The teacher who removes the ignorance of his pupil ; guide, teacher, preceptor
guru pUja The anniversary day of a saint or n^AyanmAr attaining liberation in Lord shiva
Guru-vaktra Lit. the mouth of the guru, anugraha sakti; Grace
guNa characters, the three often referred guNas are satva (peaceful), rajas (fierce) and thamas (dull)
GYAna wisdom
Ha Symbol of Sakti or divine power.
Hamsa the jiva, the soul
Hamsajapa The consciousness of nada-kala
Hara The Supreme Energy ; God ; Siva ; Iswara.
Hathapaka Persistent process of assimilating experience to the central consciousness of the experient.
havis Clarified butter, ghee, oblation
Hetu The reason ; one of the propositions in the Syllogism of the Hindu Logician ; Cause
Hetumat Effect
Homam Sacrifice
Hrada Lit., Lake; the Supreme Spiritual awareness; It is called a lake, because it is clear, uncovered by anything, deep, and infinite
Hrdaya Lit., heart; the central consciousness; Light of Central Consciousness which is the substratum of all manifestation; citprakasa
Iccha Will, Representing the letter (i), the Sakti of Sadasiva
Ichha upaya Sambhava-upaya, also known as ichhayoga.
Ichha-Sakti The inseparable innate Will Power of Parama Siva intent on manifestation; that inward state of Parama Siva in which jnana and kriya are unified; the predominant aspect of Sadasiva.
Idam This, object
Idanta This-consciousness; objective consciousness.
Indrajala Lit., the net of Indra; magic; Illusion
Indriya Organ of sense
Indu Prameya or object; apana; kriya-sakti
Isa Hara ; Siva ; God ; Brahm.
Isana Representing the letter 'i'. The first inner Sakti of Siva that acts as the teacher of Saiva Sastra
Isvara This word as used by Siddhanthis is Synonimous with Brahm but as used by Sri Sankaracharya, it means the Lower Brahm and the distinction of Higher and Lower Brahm finds no place in the Siddhantha School.
Isvara-bhattaraka The presiding deity of the Mantresvaras residing in Isvara tattva
Isvara-tattva The fourth tattva of the system, counting from Siva. In this the consciousness of 'I' and 'This' is equally prominent. The consciousness of Sada-Siva is 'I am this'. The consciousness of Isvara is 'This am I.' Jnana is predominant in this tattva
Jagadananda The bliss of the Self or the Divine appearing as the universe, the bliss of the Divine made visible.
Jagat The universe ; the world ; matter ; The world-process.
Jagrat Esoteric meaning-Enlightenment, undeluded awakening of consciousness at all levels.
Jagrat avastha The waking condition.
Jagrat jnana Objective knowledge common to all people in waking condition. Jagrat: Esoteric meaning-'Jnanam Jagrt'-Enlightenment, undeluded awakening of consciousness at all levels.
Japa Recitation; chanting
jaTa matted hair
Jiva The Soul ; the embodied Soul ; The individual soul; the empirical self whose consciousness is conditioned by the samskaras, of his experience and who is identified with the limitations of his subtle and gross constitution.
Jivanmukta The liberated individual who while still living in the physical body is not conditioned by the limitation of his subtle and gross constitution and believes the entire universe to be an expression of Siva or his highest Self.
Jivanmukti Experience of liberation while still living in the body.
Jnana knowledge, the Sakti of Isvara
Jnana Spiritual wisdom; limited knowledge (which is the source of bondage)
Jnanakanda The part of the Vedas that teaches philosophical wisdom
Jnanin The gnostic; one who has obtained spiritual realization
Jnana Yoga Sakta upaya
Jnana Sakti The power of knowledge of the Absolute
Jyestha The Sakti of Siva that inspires the jiva for Self-realization or Siva-Consciousness.
jyoti Light ; flame
Kaivalya Aloneness; isolation; aloofness from the influence of prakrti or maya
Kala limited agency; creativity; phase of manifestation; part letter or word (in ha-kalaparyantam)
Kala time; Sakti or power that determines succession.
Kala (1) The Sakti of consciousness by which all the thirty-six principles are evolved. (2) Part; particle, aspect (3) Limitation in respect of activity (Kincitkartrtva). (4) The subtlest aspect of objectivity, viz., Sastyatita, santa, Vidya, Pratistha, and Nivrtti
Kala pada The toe of the right foot.
Kala tattva Time-past, present, and future determined by the sense of succession.
Kala-adhva Temporal course of manifestation, viz., Varna, mantra and pada
Kalacakra Matrcakra, Sakticakra, Devicakra; the group of letters from 'a' to 'ksa'.
Kalagni Kalagni-bhuvanesa-a particular Rudra in Nivrtti kala
Kala sakti the Sakti or power of the Divine that determines succession.
Kalasarira That of which the essential nature is activity; Karma mala
Kalpa Periodic evolution
kAma desire, lust
Kancuka The covering of Maya, throwing a pall over pure consciousness (Suddha Samvid) and thus converting Siva into jiva. They are (1) kala, (2) (asuddha) Vidya, (3) Raga (4) Niyati and (5) Kala.
Kanda Muladhara psychic centre
Kantha The cakra at the base of the throat
Karana (1) The means of jnana and kriya-antahkarana and bahiskarana (2) One of the anava upayas in which the aspirant contemplates over the body and the nervous system as an epitome of the cosmos.; cause
kArana Cause.
kArana SarIra See Sarira
karaNam instrument, antaHkaraNam (internal performers) are four - mind, intellect, subconcious mind, ego (manas, buddi, chitta, ahaMkAra)
Karana Sarira The body in profound sleep and in two other higher avasthas.
Karanesvari Khecari, gocari, dikcari and bhucari cakra
Karanesvaryah Khecari, Gocari, Dikcari and Bhucari cakra
Karika A commentary or a philosophical, grammatical work in concise statements
Karma One of the three Bandam or Mala or Pasa which fetters the Soul. The sum total of human action, involved as cause and effect, producing pleasure and pain and causing rebirths.
Karmakanda The part of the Vedas that deals with rituals and scarifices
Karma mala Mala due to vasanas or impressions left behind on the mind by Karma or motivated action.
Karmendriya The five powers and organs of action-speaking (Vak), handling(hasta), locomotion (pada), excreting (payu), sexual action(upastha)
Karta Creator ; the Lord ; God.
Kartrtva The state of being the subject.
Karya Effect; objectivity
kanmam, karma Deeds, The effect of deeds, The accumulation of the good, bad or any deeds one (pashu - soul) has done during this and previous births
kashmiri shaivam trika philosophy, The shaivite philosophy that ruled the Kashmir
Kevala Alone. isolated
Kevala avastha The avastha named last is Kevala Avastha. The other four avasthas constitute Sakala avastha. The state of the Jivanmukta is the Sutta avastha.
Kevali One whose sole essence of Self consists in ebing pure consciousness; One who is established in Self.
Kha-traya Kha-akasa, symbol of consciousness. Kha-traya-The three akasas,, viz; Sakti, vyapini, and samana situated in the head from the Vindu between the eye-brows up to Brahmarandhra. Concentrating in the head, one should rise higher by means of the above three khas
Khecari Sub-species of Vamesvari Sakti, connected with the pramata, the empirical self; Khecari is one that moves in 'Kha' or 'akasa', the vast expanse of consciousness.
Khecari-cakra The cakra or group of the saktis that move in the expanse of consciousness of the empirical subject.
Khecari Mudra The bliss of the vast expanse of spiritual consciousness, also known as divya mudra or Sivavastha (the state of Siva).
Khyati Jnana; knowledge; wisdom;
Kosa (Lit., sheath or covering) The following are the five kosas as described in Vedanta philosophy: (1) the annamayakosa, or gross physical sheath, made of and sustained by food; (2) the pranamayakosa, or vital sheath, consisting of the five pranas or vital forces; (3) the manomayakosa, or mental sheath; (4)the vijnanamayakosa, or sheath of intelligence; (5) the anandamayakosa, or sheath of bliss. These five sheaths cover the Soul, which is the innermost reality or the jiva and is untouched by the characteristics of the sheaths.
Koti Point, initial or final
kOvil, kOyil temple, Alayam
Krama Realization of Self by means of Kriya Yoga
Kramamudra A successive occurrence of nimilana and unmilana samadhi; the condition in which the mind by the force of samavesa swings alternately between the internal (essential Self) and the external (the world which now appears as Siva)
Krida Play or sport of the Divine.
Kriya action, the Sakti of Suddha-vidya Activity; the power of activity.
Kriya Sakti The Divine Energy. God as conceived as the author of evolution
Kriya Yoga Anava upaya, also known as Kriyopaya
Kriya Sakti The power of assuming any and every form (Sarvakarayogitvam Kriyasaktih)
Krtrima Constructed by vikalpa or determinate idea; pseudo reality.
Ksema Preservation of what is obtained
Ksetrajna The empirical subject
Ksobha Identification of 'I' with the gross or subtle body.
Ksetra Holy place; place of pilgrimage.
Ksetrajna The empirical Subject
Kuhana Magic or tickling of the arm-pit
Kula Sakti manifesting herself in 36 tattvas
Kulamarga The discipline for attaining to the Supreme
Kulamnaya The Sakta system or doctrine of realizing the Supreme by means of all the letters from (a) to (ksa)
Kumari One who carries on the play of the world-process or one who brings about an end to the difference-creating Maya
Kumbhaka Retention of prana
kumara, subrahmaNya, muruga The second son of Lord shiva
Kundali or Kundalini The creative power of Siva. A distinct sakti that lies folded up in three and a half folds in Muladhara.
Kutilakrti A curved form in which prana flows before the awakening of Kundalini
Kuta-bija The letter (ksa)
Laya Interiorization of consciousness; dissolution
Lina absorbed
linga symbol, neither form nor formless used to represent the formless God through a symbol, representation of flame using solid material (The Supreme Flame is Lord Shiva, Who stood as infinite column of flame in front of braHma and viShNu)
Loka Plane of existence
lOkAyAtha The materialist ; the artheist.
Madhya (1) The central Consciousness; the pure I-consciousness. (2) The Susumna or central pranic nadi.
Madhyadhama The central nadi in the pranamayakosa, also known as brahmanadi or Susumna
Madhyama Sabda in its subtle form as existing in the antahkarana prior to its gross manifestation.
Madhyama-pada the central or middle state.
Madhyamaka Buddhist philosophy that teaches that Reality lies in the middle and not in any of the tetralemma;
Madhyamika The follower of the Buddhist Madhyamaka philosophy.
Madhyasakti Samvit-sakti, the central Consciousness-power.
Mahabodha the great awakening, the grand illumination.
Mahamantra The great mantra of pure consciousness, of Supreme I-consciousness.
Mahamaya (apara) The state below Suddha Vidya and above Maya in which resides the vijnanakala. In this state there is only prakasa without vimarsa.
Mahahrada The highest, purest I-consciousness. It is called mahahrada or the great lake because of its limpidity and depth.
Mahamaya (para) The lower stratum of Suddha vidya in which reside the vidyesvaras who, though considering themselves as of the nature of pure consciousness take the world to be different from the Self.
Mahananda In anavopaya, the fifth stage of ananda resulting from the resting of consciousness on udana agni that devours all the pramanas and prameyas
Mahanaya Krama discipline
Mahartha The greatest end; the highest value; the pure I-consciousness; the Kaula discipline.
Mahasatta the Highest Reality which is absolute Light and freedom and the source of all existence.
Mahasunya the great void
Mahavyapti the grand fusion; the grand pervasion
Mahesvara The highest lord; parama Siva- the Absolute
Mahesvarya The power of Maheshvara, the supreme lord;
Maheswaryadayah Mahesvari and other deities presiding over the groups of letters.
Mala Impurity ; impurity of the Soul ; the coverings or fetters of the Soul ; Dross; limitation; ignorance that hampers the free expression of the spirit.
Mala Bandham Bond of ignorance, and of matter.
Malini Sakti of letters which holds the entire universe within itself and in which the letters are arranged in an irregular way from 'na' to 'pha'.
Manas That aspect of mind which co-operates with the senses in building perceptions, and which builds up images and concepts, intention and thought-construct.
Manomayakosa The sheath of the mind
Manthana Bhairava Bhairava that churns i.e. dissolves all objects into Self-consciousness; Svacchanda Bhairava.
Mantra (1) Sacred word or formula to be chanted (2) In Saktopaya that sacred word or formula by which the nature of the Supreme is reflected on as identical with the Self. It is called mantra, because it induces manana or reflection on the Supreme and because it provides trana or protection from the whirlgig of transmigratory life. In Saktopaya, the citta itself assumes the form of mantra. (3) The experient who has realized the Suddha Vidyatattva
Mantra-mahesvara The experient who has realized Sasasiva tattva
Mantra-virya The perfect and full I-consciousness; Siva-Consciousness, the experience of para-vak
Mantresvara The experient who has realized Isvara tattva
maNipUrakam mystic chakra at naval
Marici Sakti
Marut Breath (exhalation or inhalation)
Mati understanding; intuitive intelligence.
Matrka (1) The little unknown mother, the letter and wordpower which is the basis of all knowledge (2) The paravak sakti that generates the world.
Matrka-cakra The group of Saktis pertaining to Matrka
Mathika The four traditions of Saiva religion.
Maya Mala (Literally). That which is evolved and resolved ; matter; cosmic matter ; non ego ; object. It does not mean Mitya or delusion or illusion. I find the word invariably so translated in all the existing translations of Sanskrit works into English. This is forcing into the word the views of a particular school of Philosophers, namely the Hindu Idealists.
Maya from 'ma' to measure, the finitising or limiting principle of the Divine; a tattva below Suddha vidya, the principle of veiling the Infinite and projecting the finite; the source of the five kancukas; the finitising power of Parama Siva
mAya (mAyai) illusion
Maya (In Samkara Vedanta) The beginningless cause that brings about the illusion of the world.
Maya pramata The empirical self, governed by Maya.
Maya-sakti The sakti of Siva that displays difference in identity and gives rise to maya tattva; the finishing power of the Infinite.
Maya tattva The principle that throws a veil over pure consciousness and is the material cause of physical manifestation, the source of the five kancukas.
mAyAvAdam Idealism. The doctrine that regards the Souls and the material universe as non-existent a mere myth, a delusion or illusion. The Saiva, Ramanuja, and Madhawa are all agreed in applying the term to denote the Hindu Idealist, though the Hindu Idealist does not relish the term and the usage itself is very old. The same as EkAtmavAdam.
mAyAvAdi An Idealist.
Mayiya mala The limitation due to Maya which gives to the soul its gross and subtle body, and brings about a sense of difference.
Meya (prameya) Object
Mimamsaka the follower of the Mimamsa system of philosophy
Mitya Illusion or delusion. Could this word have been confounded with Maya ?
Moha Delusion by which one regards the body as the self; Maya.
Moksa liberation, same as mukti.
moxa, moksha liberation
Mudra (1) Mud (joy), ra (to give); it is called mudra, because it gives the bliss of spiritual consciousness or because it seals up (mudranat) the universe into the being of turiya consciousness (2) Yogic control of certain organs as help in concentration.
Mudra-krama or Krama-mudra The condition in which the mind by the force of samavesa swings alternately between the internal (Self or Siva) and the external (the world which now appears as the form of Siva).
Mudra-virya The power by which there is emergence of the Supreme I-consciousness; mantra-virya; khecari state.
Mukta The finally emancipated and beatified Soul. (Lit :) freed.
Mukta-siva The classes of experients who have acquired Siva-Consciousness Mantra, Mantresvara, Mantramahesvara, and experients known as Siva, Rudra and Bhairava
Mukti, mOksha Liberation from bondage; acquisition of Siva-consciousness: Jivan-mukti-Liberation while living i.e acquisition of Siva-consciousness while the physical, biological and psychic life are still going on. Videha-mukti- establishment in Siva-consciousness after the mortal body has been dissolved.
Murti Most manifest Kriya-sakti
mUlasthAnam sactum sanctorum, the main and core abode in the temple, garbhagruham
Muladhara the pranic centre below the genitals
mUlAdhAram root-support, the first mystic center (chakra) on the kuNDalini nADi
mUlaprakriti Same as Maya ; undifferentiated cosmic matter.
mUrti manifestation, embodiment, statue
Nada (1) Metaphysical- The first movement of Siva-sakti towards manifestations. (2) In Yoga- The unstruck sound experienced in susumna. (3) When Sakti fills up the whole universe with Nadanta she is designated as Nada. This is also Sadasiva tattva because of the apposition of I and this is in the same principle.
Nada interior spontaneous sound
Nada-bindu The first creative pulsation and its compact mass; the creative sound and light; Sakti and Siva.
Nadanta Subtle energy of pranava
Nadi subtle channel of prana
Nadi-samhara Dissolution of prana and apana into susumna.
naivedyam offering (eatables)
Naiyayika the follower of Nyaya philosophy; logician; dialectician.
namaskAra salutation, prostrating down
n^andhi, nandi Birth-deathless, Often refers to the chief guard of Lord shiva
Nasika Pranasakti flowing in a zigzag way in Prana, Apana and Susumna channels.
nAsthikam Atheism
nAtham The sound of Pranava. The deity as representing the sound of the Pranava ; God, as present in the universe, when at the very beginning of evolution, the great Sound or Subdam or Natham bursts forth ; cosmic matter in the state of Sound.
nAyanmAr (the people of the Lord), The 63 great devotees who excelled in their love for the Lord shiva (lived in thamiz nadu and nearby lands)
Navavargaka Letters pertaining to nine classes
Navatma Of nine forms.
Nibhalana Perception; mental practice.
Nigraha kriya Siva's act of Self-veiling.
Nijananda In anava upaya, the first stage of ananda arising from concentration on prana leading to the resting of the mind on the subject or experient.
Nimesa Lit; Closing of the eye-lid, (1) dissolution of the world; (2) the inner activity of spanda by which the object is merged into the subject; (3) the dissolution of the Sakticakra in the Self; (4) the involution of Siva in matter.
Nimilana Samadhi The inward meditative condition in which the individual consciousness gets absorbed into the Universal Consciousness.
Nimitha kArana Efficient cause.
Nirananda The second stage of ananda in anava upaya resulting from the fixation of prana-sakti on sunya
Niradhara without support-objective or subjective
Nirasraya without any prop or base
Nirmala or Ninmala The Perfect Being ; The Pure Being.
Nirodhika or nirodhini a subtle energy of pranava
Nirvana Dissolution in Sunya; liberation
Nirvikalpa Devoid of all thought-construct or ideation.
Nirvikalpasamadhi The highest state of samadhi, in which the aspirant realizes his total oneness with Brahman
NirvikArI The unchangeable.
Nirvrti Ananda
Nirvyutthana Samadhi Samadhi (absorption into the Universal Consciousness) which continues even when is not engaged in formal meditation.
niShkAmya not seeking any favour
Niskala partless; undivided, Siva above manifestation or creation.
Nistaranga free of undulation or commotion.
Nityatva eternity
Nivesa or nivesana entry into the Universal Consciousness
niyama ritual
Niyati Limitation by cause-effect relation; spatial limitation, limitation of what ought to be done and what ought not to be done.
Om The most sacred word of the Vedas; also written Aum. It is a symbol of both the personal God and the Absolute
A sweet mixture of cow's milk, curd, ghee (boiled butter), sugar and honey. (cardamom like nice smelling spices could also be added.)
In the above if the fruits like mango, jack, banana are added this fruit pa~nchamR^itam could be got
PadArtha An entity of category.
pa~nchagavyam The mixture of the cow's milk, curd, ghee, water and dung.
pa~nchAxara, panchAkshara Holy Five Letters (Syllables) ; The Mystic Mantra, formed out of Pranava and used by Saivas in Divine contemplation ; the mantra of Lord shiva held sacrad most by shaivites, five different forms there - most common being namaH shivAya and shivAya namaH
Pancakrtya The ceaseless five-fold act of Siva, viz. manifestation (srsti), maintenance of manifestation (sthiti), withdrawal of amnifestation (samhara), veiling of Self (vilaya); Grace (anugraha), or the five-fold act of abhasana, rakti, vimarsana, bijavasthapana, and vilapana
Panca mantra Isana, Tatpurusa, Sadyojata, Vamadeva, and Aghora
Pancaratra the philosophy of Vaisnavism, the follower of such philosophy
Pancaratrika followers of Pancaratra system.
Panca-sakti The five fundamental saktis (powers) of Siva, viz, Cit, Ananda, Iccha, Jnana, and Kriya
pApam Sin or Sinful acts ; acts tending to cause pain to sentient beings.
Para The Highest; the Absolute ; The Supreme.
Para pramata The highest experient; Parama Siva
Paramarsa Seizing mentally; experience; comprehension; remembrance
Paramartha The highest reality; essential truth; the highest goal.
Parama Siva The Highest Reality, the Absolute
paramAtma Supreme Self
Parananda In anava upaya the joy of the third stage that ensues by the practice of resting on prana and apana in uccara yoga
Parapara The intermediate stage, both identical and different; unity in diversity
parArtha (pUja) outward / social (worship)
Parasakti The Highest Sakti of the Divine; Citi; Paravak
parashu axe
Paravak The vibratory movement of the Divine Mind that brings about manifestations; Logos; Cosmic Ideation.
Paricchinna limited
Parinama Transformation
ParipUranam Omnipresence.
parivAra devata retinue of the main deity in a temple
Pasa A bond or fetters or impurity or darkness ; Bondage
pAsham (pAcham) bond, impurities (ANavam, kanmam, mAyai) which bind the pashu
pashu (pachu) creature, any life, all of us - any living being
Pasu The empirical individual bound by avidya or spiritual nescience
Pasu matarah Mahesvari and other associated saktis active in the various letters, controlling the life of the empirical selves.
Pasyanti The divine view in undifferentiated form; Vak sakti, going forth as seeing, ready to create in which there is no difference between vacya (object) and vacaka (word).
pati (pathi) The Lord, Siva Supreme, Master, Eternal; The experient of Suddha adhva; the liberated individual
PathignAna Sivagnana.
Pati-dasa the status of the highest experient; the state of liberation
Paurusa ajnana The innate ignorance of Purusa regarding his real Self.
Paurusa jnana Knowledge of one's Siva nature after the ignorance of one's real Self has been eliminated.
Pidhana Krtya The act of Self-veiling; same as vilaya
pradaxiNa, pradakshiNa circumambulation, coming around (a deity) taking right turns
PillayAr The Divine Child ; God Ganesha.
PillaiyAr Suli The Symbol of Ganesha ; Pranava.
Prakasa Lit. light; the principle of Self-revelation; consciousness; the principle by which every thing else is known.
Prakrti or Pradhana The source of objectivity from buddhi down to earth
Pralaya Dissolution of manifestation
Pralayakala or Pralayakevali One resting in Mayatattva, not cognizant of anything; cognizant of sunya or void only.
Pralaya Kalars Souls with the fetters of Karma Mala and Anava Mala.
Prama Exact knowledge
Pramana Mode of Proof ; Proof ; Knowledge; means of knowledge
Pramata the knower; subject; experient
Pramatrta knowership
Prameya Known; object of knowledge; object
Prana Generic name for the vital power; vital energy; life energy; specifically it is the vital vayu in expiration.
Pranamayakosa The vital sheath
Pranana the animating principle, the principle of all the pranas
Prana-pramata The subject considering prana to be the Self
Prana-bija The letter 'ha'
Pranasakti Vital energy; bioplasma
praNava Om
PranavAyu The breath of Life as distinct from the Soul. Yet, ludicrously enough some Missionaries and Oriental Scholars think that we mistake the breath for the Soul and that we have no idea of the Soul !
Pranayama Breath control
Prapancha The universe ; Jagat ; the seen universe.
Prarabdha karma Action done in a previous life which had begun to bear fruit in the present life.
Prasada The mantra Sauh
Prasara Expansion; manifestation of Siva in the form of the universe through His sakti
Prath To expand; unfold; appear; shine
Pratha The mode of appearance
Pratibha (1) Ever creative acitivity of consciousness; (2) The spontaneous Supreme I-consciousness; (3) Para Sakti
Pratimilana Both nimilana and unmilana i.e. turning of the consciousness both within i.e into Siva and outside i.e. the Sakti of Siva, experience of divinity both within and outside.
pratyAhara drawing back, withholding (from material ties) (1) Comprehension of several letters into one syllable effected by combining the first letter of a sutra with its final indicatory letter. (2) In yoga, withdrawal of the senses from their objects.
Pratyavamarsa Self-recognition
Prabuddha One greatly awakened to the higher spiritual consciousness
Pratyabhijna Recognition
prANAyAma breath control/exercise
prAyashchittam atonement, expiation
Prithivi The earth tattva
Pumstattva or Purusa tattva Pasu pramata; jiva, the empirical Self
Puja Worship ; contemplation.
purANa religious legend (There are eighteen in number)
Purna perfect; full of divine consciousness
Purnatva Perfection
Purnahanta The perfect I-consciousness; non-relational I-consciousness.
Purusa the Self ; The Soul.
Puryastaka Lit., the city of the group of eight i.e the five tanmatras, buddhi, ahamkara and manas; the suksma sarira (subtle body)
puruShArtha objectives of human, four in number - dharma, artha, kAma, moxa
pUja worship
puShkariNi pond, temple tank
Raga One of the kancukas of Maya on account of which there is limitation by desire; passionate desire.
Rajas The principle of motion, activity and disharmony-a constituent of Prakrti.
Rakti relish; enjoyment esoteric meaning-'sthiti'- maintenance.
Rasa Flavour; aesthetic rapture.
Rasmi Sakti
Raudri The sakti that induces the pleasure-seeking souls to be confined to their pleasures.
Ravi Pramana (knowledge); prana
Rekhini The sakti that forms a straight line in the formation of the letter.
Rig-Veda One of the four Vedas
RiShi, rushi sage, seer
Rodhini The sakti that obstructs the passage to moksa
rudra A form of Lord shiva, as deva of destruction. One of the trimUrti
Rudra (kalagni) Rudra residing in the lowest plane of Nivrtti kala.
Rudrah The deities that are responsible for manifestation, maintenance of manifestation, and withdrawal of manifestation of the world-process; the souls that have evolved to the status of pati or selves that have realized Siva-consciousness.
Rudrah (teachers) Exponents of 18 Saivagamas who are mukta Siva
Rudra pramata Mukta Siva
rudrAxa, rudrAksha beed held sacrad by shaivtes, appeared fromthe eye of rudra
Rudrayamala intimate union of Rudra and His Sakti
Rupa Form; essence.
Sabda sound; word.
Sabda-brahma Ultimate Reality in the form of thought-vibration in which state thought and word are identical.
Sabda-rasi The group of letters from a to ksa
Sadadhva The six forms of manifestation-three on the subjective side viz., mantra, varna and pada and three on the objective side, viz., Kala, tattva and bhuvana
Sadasiva (Sadakhya tattva) The third tattva, counting from SIva. At this stage, the I-experience is more prominent than this experience-This tattva is also known as Sadakhya in as much as sat or being is posited at this stage. Ichha or Will is predominant in this tattva.
sAdhaka accomplisher, practitioner
sAdhana accomplishment, practice
Sadvidya Suddha Vidya
Saguna Brahman (Lit., Brahman with attributes) The Absolute conceived as the Creator, Preserver, and Destroyer of the universe; corresponds to Isvara, or the Personal God.
Sahaja Innate essential nature
Sahaja-vidya Knowledge of the innate essential nature; unmana; pure divine consciousness in which mental consciousness ceases, pervasion into Siva-consciousness (Siva-vyapti).
sahasrAra, sahasra dala padma thousand patal mystic lotus beyond the six chakras
Sakalar Souls of the last order possessing all the three Mala Banthams, and includes, all sentient beings and Devas.
Sakta-japa The constant remembrance of the Supreme I-consciousness.
Sakta-samavesa Identification with Supreme Consciousness by means of Sakta-upaya
Sakta-upaya (Saktopaya) the means of approach to the Divine through Sakti, the ever-recurring contemplation of the pure thought-construct of oneself being essentially Siva or the Supreme I-consciousness.
Sakta-Yoga Same as Sakta-upaya, jnana-yoga
Sakti (1) The power of Siva to manifest, to maintain the manifestation and to withdraw it (2) The spanda or creative pulsation of Siva or foundational consciousness.
Sakti-cakra The group of the twelve mahakalis; the goddesses responsible for creation, etc; the group of Saktis of the senses; group of mantras; the group of Khecari, etc., the group of the goddess Srsti, etc.
Saktiman Mahesvara; Siva
Sakti-pancaka The five foundational saktis of Siva, viz., cit, ananda, iccha, jnana, and kriya.
Sakti-prasara Sakti-vikasa; emergence from Samadhi and retaining that experience.
Sakti-pata Descent of divine Sakti; Divine grace by which the empirical individual turns to and realizes his essential divine nature.
Sakti-sankoca withdrawal of attention from sense-activity and turning it towards the inner reality.
Sakti tattva The vimarsa aspect, or the foundational I-consciousness of SIva; the intentness of Siva's I-consciousness to manifest in the form of the universe; the second of the 36 tattvas.
Sakti-vikasa concentration of attention on the inner consciousness even when the senses are open to their respective objects.
Sakti-visranti Merging back into Samadhi and resting in that condition.
Samacara Sam-samyak; a-isat; cara-prasarana- external expansion of the property evolved prana
Samarasya Unison of Siva; identity of Consciousness; identical state in which all differentiation has disappeared.
Samavaya One of the seven categories of the Hindu Logicians. Inseparable coinherence of attributes.
samayak kuravar The four stalwarts samban^dhar, appar, sun^dharar, mANikka vAchakar who by their glorious hymns (which are part of thirumuRai) gave an excellent energy and vitalisation to the Shaivam in Tamil Nadu
Samadhi Collectedness of mind in which there is cessation of the fluctuations of the mind.
Samadhi-sukha The bliss that is experienced in being established in pramatr-pada i.e in the state of the essential Self or subject.
samAdi complete absorption of thoughts (into the Supreme Being), the final stage of aShTAnga yoga
Samana When the unmana sakti begins to display herself in the form of the universe with sunya and ending with earth, then descending from the highest state of Pramata (knowing Self), she is known as Samana in as much as she has started the mentation of all that is thinkable (asesa-mananamatrarupatvat samana-Udyota, p.286)
Samana The vital vayu that helps in the assimilation of food etc., and brings about equilibrium between prana and apana
Samapatti Sometimes a synonym of samadhi; consummation; attainment of psychis at-onement.
Samarasa One having the same feeling or consciousness.
Samaveda One of the four Vedas
Samavesa Being possessed by the Divine, absorption of the individual consciousness in the Divine.
Sambhava-pramata One established in Siva-Consciousness, also known as Siva-pramata
Sambhava-samavesa Identification with Siva without any thought-construct born out of profound insight or sambhava upaya
Sambhava upaya Sudden emergence of Siva-Consciousness without any thought-construct (vikalpa) by a mere hint that one's essential Self is Siva; also known as Sambhava Yoga or Icchopaya or Iccha-Yoga
Sambhu An epithet of Siva
samhAra dissolution
samhita 1. Compilation
2. The mantra part of the vedas
samsAraH circuit of worldly life
Sambodha Samyak bodha, full or perfect knowledge of the essential nature of Reality as a mass of consciousness and bliss which is the essential nature of Self.
Samghatta Meeting; mental union; concentration.
Samhara ; Samharam Assimilation to the Highest Consciousness ; Decay ; Reabsorption ; Resolution ; Dissolution.
Samhara krtya The withdrawal or reabsorption of the Universe into Siva
Samsara or samsrti Transmigratory existence, the world process
Samsarin Transmigratory being.
Samskara the residual traces of the mind lying in the unconscious.
Samvid-samvitti Consciousness; universal consciousness.
Samvit Supreme consciousness in which there is complete fusion of prakasa and vimarsa, jnana-sakti; svatantrya-sakti; the supreme I-consciousness.
Samvit-devata From the macrocosmic point of view Samvitdevatas are khecari, gocari, dikcari and bhucari. From the microcosmic point of view, the internal and external senses are said to be samvit-devata.
sAmIpam residing next (to Lord shiva)
Samkalpa resolve; the synthetic activity of thought
Samvahya One who is carried from one form of existence to another: karmatma, pasu
Sandhana Lit., joining; union, union of the individual consciousness with the universal Consciousness through fixed, intensive awareness or one-pointedness.
Sankoca Contraction, limitation.
Sanatana Dharma (Lit., Eternal Religion) The religion of the Hindus, formulated by the Rishis of the Vedas.
Sandha-bija The four letters- which are unable to give rise to any other letter.
Sankara The Doer of Good ; God ; Siva.
sAnkhya one of the six systems of Hindu philosophy, attributed to sage kapila, the system of philosophy that believes in two fundamental realities, viz., Purusa and Prakrti; the follower of such system.
sannyAsa (ascetic) practice, renunciation
Sara quintessence
Saiva agama The ten dualistic sastras, eighteen sastras which teach identity in difference, and sixty-four non-dualistic sastras expounded by Siva
Saiva yoga or Sadhana Anava upaya, Sakta upaya and Sambhava upaya
Sakala All the jivas from gods down to the mineral who rest in maya tattva. They have no knowledge of the real self and their consciousness is only that of diversity.
Saksat upaya Sambhava upaya
Sksatkara Direct intuitive experience of the essential Self.
sAlOkam residing in the same world (of Lord shiva)
Salokya The state in which the aspirant lives on the same plane with his chosen deity.
Sarguru or Satguru The true Teacher ; the Divine Teacher.
Sarguru Darsan The sight of the Divine Guru.
Sarira Body.
sArUpam having the same form (of Lord shiva)
Sarupya The state in which the aspirant realizes complete identity with the Divine.
Sarvaga omnipenetrant
Sarvakartrtva Omnipotence
Sarvajna omniscient
Sarvajnatva Omniscience
Sasana Sastra; philosophical text.
Sastha-vaktra Lit., the sixth organ or medhra-kanda, near the root of the rectum.
Sat Existence which is consciousness
Sat Chit Same as Sadasivam or Siva Sat. God regarded as Sat when it is not manifest to the World and as Chit whe it is manifest to the World.
Satasat Atma.
Satchidananda God when known by the Mukta ; when God appears as Love.
Satta existence; ultimate reality
Sattamatra pure existence, maha satta-transcendental reality.
Sattva (1) The principle of being; light and harmony, a constituent of Prakrti (2) The inner essential Self.
Satya pramata Para Siva
Saugata Follower of Buddha, a Buddhist
Sausupta Srsti The srsti in which pralayakalas remain
Savikalpa jnana Knowledge which is acquired through the judgement of Buddhi
Savikalpa samadhi Communion with God in which the distinction between subject and object is retained
Sayujya The state in which the aspirant realizes identity with the Divine in the midst of difference.
sAyujyam absorption (into Lord shiva)
shaiva, saiva related to Shiva
shaiva sidhdhantha The shaivite philosophy that bloomed in thamiznAdu.
shakti Power, The Goddess (The female part of the God)
shaktipAda, saththinipAdham descend of divine Grace
sharaNaru The set of remarkable devotees who in karnataka spread the vIra shaivam movement
shAstra instructional scripture
shiva Perfect, Auspicious, The Supreme God
shivAchArya priest, who shows the way to Lord shiva
shloka verse
shrauta vedic
Siddhantham The True End ; the Saiva Adwaitha Philosophy.
Siddhanti A Saiva ; a follower of the above school.
Siddhi Supernormal power
siddi attainment
Sikhanta Brahmarandhra
Siva The good; the name of the Divine in general; the foundational prakasa or divine light.
Siva (parama) The Absolute; the transcendent divine principle.
Sivajnana Siddhi The second of the 14 Siddhantha Sastras and the largest and most comprehensive work of the series.
Siva Tattva The first of the 36 tattvas; the primal divine light, the source of all manifestation.
Siva-Vyapti fusion with Siva; absorption of the universe in Siva.
smArta follower of smR^iti
smR^iti, smruti remembrance, social law book
Soham It is I ; God is myself ; One of the Sadanas required for elevating the Soul to the Presence of God ; used also as Hamsa.
Soham bavana Imagining God as oneself.
Soma (symbolic) Prameya or object, apana
Soma nadi The Pingala nadi carrying apana
Sorupam Form.
Spanda Apparent motion in the motionless Siva which brings about the manifestation, maintenance and withdrawal of the universe; Svatantrya Sakti, creative pulsation.
Sphuratta Gleam; a throb-like gleam of the absolute Freedom of the Divine bringing about the world-process; spanda; the light of the spirit.
Srsti ; Srishti letting go; emanation; manifestation ; Creation ; origination.
Srsti-bija Mantra-bija, the Supreme I-consciousness which brings about manifestation.
Sruti The Vedas
Stabdha immovable.
sthala purANa history of the place/temple
sthala vR^ixa abode tree
Sthana-Kalpana A mode of anava upaya concerned with concentration of external things.
Sthiti ; Sthithi gross ; Development ; sustentation.
Sthiti Krtya Maintenance of manifestation
Sthula bhutani Gross elements-ether, air, fire, water and earth.
Sthula Sarira Gross physical body ; The body of the Soul in the waking state or Jagra avastha.
Sugata The Buddha
Suddha Adhva The course of extra-mundane manifestaion from Siva upto Suddha Vidya
Suddha tattva Parama Siva
Suddha Vidya The fifth tattva, counting from Siva. In this tattva, the consciousness of both I and This is equally prominent. Though the germinal universe is seen differently, yet identity runs through it as a thread. There is identity in diversoty at this stage. Kriya is predominent in this tattva. The consciousness of this state is 'I am I and also this.'
Suddha Vikalpa The thought of one's self being essentially Siva
Suksma or Linga Sarira The body of the Soul in the Swapna avastha or Dream condition ; The inner subtle body, puryastaka
Sunya void; the state in which no object is experienced.
Sunya (Bauddha) A state in which there is no distinct consciousness of knower, knowledge and known; an indefinable state of Reality.
Sunya-pramata The experient who is identified with objectless consciousness; pralayakala
Sunya (Saiva) A state in which no object is experienced.
Sunyata vacuity
Sunyatisunya absolute void
Suprabuddha One who has awakened to the transcendental state of consciousness and in whom that consciousness is constantly present.
Surya (symbolic) Prana, pramana (knowledge)Jnana-sakti
Surya nadi The Ida nadi carrying prana
sthApana installation
sushumnA central nADi very important in yoga
Susuptata or sausuptam Delusive condition caused by primal ignorance.
Susupti Sound, dreamless sleep.
Sushupthi avastha State of dead sleep.
Susupti (apavedya) Very deep sleep in which there is complete absence of all objective consciousness.
Susupti (savedya) Sound sleep in which there remains a slight trace of the sense of pleasure, lightness etc.
Svacchanda The absolutely Free Being, Siva; Bhairava
Svacchandya Absolute Freedom of the Supreme
Svalaksana An object limited in its particular space and time.
Svaprayojanam Selfish end ; one's own good.
Svasamvedana An intuitive apprehension of oneself without the aid of internal and extenal sense.
Svapna Dream; dreaming condition; vikalpas or fancies limited to particular individuals;
Svapna srsti The plane of existence in which the bhuvana, body and objects are subtle like dream.
Svarupa one's own form; real nature; essence; essential nature
Svarupapatti Attaining one's essential nature or true Self.
Svasthiti or Svastha staying in one's essential state.
Svathanthryam A free right.
Svatma one's own Self.
Svatantra The Absolute, of unimpedede Will
Svatantrya Absolute Freedom of Will; Vimarsa Sakti
Svatma-satkr To assimilate to oneself; to integrate to oneself
Sveccha Siva's or Sakti's own Will, synonymous with svatantrya
svAdhiShTAnam own base, second mystical circle (chakra)
Swapna avastha Dreaming state.
Tamas One fo the constituents of Prakrti- the principle of inertia and delusion.
Tantrika follower of Tantra; pertaining to Tantra.
Tanmatra Lit. that only; the primary elements of perception; the general elements of the particulars of sense-perception, viz. sabda, sparsa, rupa, rasa, gandha
Tantra A scripture in general; Science of the cosmic spiritual forces, revealed work.
Tanu Animal Body.
Tanuta becoming gradually less; reduction; a state of subtleness.
Tapas Sariya, Kriya and Yoga ; Religious and ascetic practices ; Devotion.
Tapoloka Heavens ; conditions or states of the Souls undergoing rest after death, the condition being pleasurable.
Tarka sastra Logic and dialectics
Tatparam Supreme Lord ; Lord of all.
Tattva fact, philosophy ; Thatnesss; principle; reality; the very being of a thing;
Tattva-traya The three tattvas, viz; Nara, Sakti and Siva or Atma, Vidya and Siva
Tatpurusa One of the five aspects of Siva
Tatvas Component parts of the body and Soul.
TEgAnmavAdi Materialist ; those who deny the existence of a mind and Soul.
thamiz One of the very old language spoken in the southern most state of India, called Tamilnadu
thirumuRai The hymns composed by the famous thamiz shaivite devotees during the first millenium. Highly adored text of thamiz shaivites
Thuriya avastha State of the Soul breathing in bodies, in which consciousness is not yet developed.
Thripadartha The three entities, postulated by Saivas,and Vaishnavas.
tIrtha holy water
Tirodhana sakti Power that obscures Reality
Trika The system of philosophy of the tirad- Nara, Sakti and Siva or (1) Para,, the highest, concerned with identity (2) parapara, identity in difference, and (3) apara, difference and sense of difference.
Trika (para) Prakasa, Vimarsa and their samarasya
Trika (parapara) Iccha, Jnana and Kriya
trimUrti The Hindu holy trinity - brahma, viShNu, rudra - involved in creation, sustainance and destruction
trishUla trident
Turiya or Turya The fourth state of consciousness beyond the states of waking, dreaming and deep sleep and stringing together all the states; the Metaphysical Consciousness distinct from the psychological or empirical self; the Saksi or witnessing consciousness; the transcendental Self.
Thunai kArana or Sahakari kArana Instrumental cause.
Turyatita The state of consciousness transcending the turiya, the state in which the distinction of the three, viz; waking, dreaming and deep sleep states is annulled; that pure blissful consciousness in which there is no sense of difference, in which the entire universe appears as the Self.
Thuriyathithum The state of the Soul in its original, unevolved and undeveloped state.
Uccara A particular technique of concentration on Pranasakti under Anava upaya. Various aspects of ananda (bliss) are experienced in this concentration.
Ucchalatta The creative movement of the Divine ananda in waves bringing about manifestation and withdrawal
Udana The vital vayu that moves upwards. The Sakti that moves up in Susumna at spiritual awakening.
Udarana An analogy ; illustration or upamana.
Udaya Rise, appearance, creation
Udyama The sudden spontaneous emergence of the Supreme I-consciousness.
Udyantrta -do-
Udyoga -do-
Udvamanti Lit. Opening of the eye; (1) The externalizing of Ichha Sakti; the start of the world-process. (2) In Saiva-yoga-unfolding of the spiritual consciousness which comes about by concentrating on the inner consciousness which is the back-ground of the rise of ideas. (3) Representing the letter 'u'.
Uma The Iccha Sakti of the Supreme; U=Siva; ma=Sakti- the Sakti of Siva.
Unmana The Supramental Sakti of Parama Siva in its primal movement towards manifestation, though inseparable from Him is known as unmana or unmani. Literally it means that which transcends manas. This Sakti is amatra, measureless and beyond time.
Ksemaraja in Udyota commentary on Necratantra says about unmana mana utkramya gata anavacchinnaprakasasphuratta. It is the Sakti that transcends mind and is an uninterrupted Light.
Unmesa lit., opening of the eye-the start of the world process;
(1) From the point of view of svabhava or the essential nature of the Divine, it means the emergence of the Divine I-consciousness.
(2) From the point of view of manifestation, it means the externalizing of Iccha sakti, the start of the world process.
(3) From the point of view of Saiva yoga, it means the emergence of the spiritual consciousness which is the background of the rise of ideas.
(4) Representing the letter 'u'.
Unmilana Unfolding; manifestation.
Unmilana samadhi that state of the mind in which, even when the eyes are open, the external world appears as Universal Consciousness or Siva.
Unata Representing the letter U
Upadana limiting adjunct or condition
Upadhi Limiting adjunct or condition
Upalabhdr The Experient, knower or subject
Upalabdhi Cognition, awareness
upachAra honour, courtesy
upadesha close advice, initiation
Upamana Poli False analogy.
upaniShad philosophy of vedas, vedanta
upAsana service, attendance
Upathana kArana Material cause.
Urdhva-Kundalini the risen up kundalini when the prana and apana enter the Susumna
Urdhva marga Upward path; susumna
Usma The letters Sa, sa, sa, ha
Vacaka Word; indicator; mantra, varna and pada
Vacya Object, indicated; kala, tattva, bhuvana
Vaha Flow; channel; the prana flowing in the ida nadi on the left and apana flowing in the pingala nadi on the right of susumna are together known as vaha
Vahni a technical word of Saiva-Yoga, meaning 'entering completely' into the root and half of the middle of adhah kundalini (from the root Vah to carry)
Vaikhari Sakti as gross physical word.
Vaisamya difference, disquietude of duality.
Vaisnava the follower of Visnu; follower of Vaisnava philosophy.
Vama or Vamesvari The divine Sakti that emits (from vam to emit) or projects the universe out of the Absolute and produces the reverse (vama consciousness of difference (whereas there is non-difference in the divine).
Vapus (bhairavasya) form; the nature of Bhairava, cosmic essence.
Varga Classes of letters like kavarga, cavarga etc.
Varna (1) Letter (2) Object of concentration known as dhvani in anavopaya; anahata nada (unstruck sound experienced in susumna).
Vartikam A concise explanatory note.
Vasana Residual traces of actions and impressions retained in the mind; habit energy.
Vasana Mala Evil of association, or habit.
veda 1. knowledge
2. The sacrad book of vaidika dharma (Hinduism) from which the name is arrived)
Vedaka Experient
Vedya Object
vedAnta conclusion of veda, upanishad
Vibhuti splendour; power
vidhAnam procedure
vidi order, system, fate
Vidya (1) Suddha vidya tattva; (2) Unmana sakti, Sahaja vidya (3) Limited knowledge, a kancuka of Maya.
Vidyasarira Sabdarasi-the group of letters and words (sutra, Section II)
Vigraha Individual form or shape; body.
Vigrahi The embodied
Vijnana consciousness; supreme consciousness
Vijnanamayakosa The sheath of intelligence
Vijnanakala The experient below Suddha Vidya but above Maya who has pure awareness but no agency. He is free of karma and maytya mala but not free of anava mala
vimAna aeroplane, superstructure over sanctum sanctorum
Vikalpa Difference of perception; distinction; option; an idea as different from another idea; ideation; fancy; imagination, thought-construct.
Vikalpa-Ksaya The dissolution of all vikalpas
Vikalpanam The differentiation-making activity of the mind;
Vikalpa(suddha) The fixed idea that I am Siva.
Vikasa Unfoldment; development
Vilapana dissolution; esoteric meaning-anugraha-grace.
Vilaya concealment
Vimarsa Self-consciousness or awarenes of Parama Siva full of jnana and kriya which brings about the world-process.
Vimarsana intuitive awareness; esoteric meaning-samhara absorption.
Vinayakah Beings who create obstacles in spiritual progress by offering temptations.
Vinthu The form of Pranava.
Vijnanakalar The highest of the three order of Souls. They have only Anava Mala.
Virat Consciousness limited or conditioned by the upadhi of the aggregate of gross bodies.
Viresa The lord or amster of the senses that are intent on removing all sense of difference in as much as the lord of the senses has now experienced the delight of the transcendental consciousness. The senses are called vira, because they are now saktis.
vIrashaivam The movement that strengthened the shaivite roots in the masses of karnataka. Revolutionary in thrashing away some of the old customs like caste etc.
Virya virility, vitality; mantra-virya the virility of mantra
Visa a technical word of Saiva Yoga, meaning 'entering into the remaining half and wholly into the top of adhah-kundalini right upto the position where urdhva-kundalini ends (from the root vis, to pervade).
vishuddi fifth mystic chakra
viShNu The Lord of sustainance. Worshiped by vaiShNavam
Visarga Emanation; creation
Visargabhumi Two dots simultaneously, representing Sakti's external manifestation of the universe and the internal assimilation of the same into Siva
Visishtadvaitam Qualified non-dualism.
Visranti rest; peace.
Visva The universe; the all.
Visvamaya Visvatmaka: Immanent.
Visvatmaka immanent
Visvottirna Transcendent
Vitarka The thought that I am SIva, the Self of the universe
Vivarta (In Sankara Vedanta) Appearance of the Real as something different.
Viveka Philisophical discrimination
Viyat space; sky
vrata penance
Vrtti mode, fluctuation
Vyamohitata delusion
Vyana the vital Vayu that is everywhere or the pervasive prana
Vyapaka All container.
Vyapini all-pervasive energy of pranava
Vyappiya The contained.
Vyapta completely pervaded.
Vyapati pervasion; fusion in the whole, in Siva.
Vyapakatva All-pervasiveness
Vyapti Associated with the contained.
Vyamohitata Delusion
Vyoma sky; the infinite sky of consciousness; antar vyoma, the space in the mystic centre.
Vyutthana Lit., rising, coming to normal consciousness after samadhi or meditative absorption.
Yajur-Veda One of the four Vedas
yama personal discipline
Yoga (1) Acquisition of what is not yet acquired. (2) Communion, Communion of the individual soul with the Supreme; discipline leading to this communion (3) (In Patanjali) Samadhi, cessation of mental fluctuations (yuji samadhau).
Yogi One who is seeking to or has been able to unite with the Universal consciousness.
Yogindra the great yogi who has attained the sambhava state.
Yogini the divine energy of Bhairava.
Yoginyah The saktis-Khecari, Gocari, Dikcari, Bhucari etc.
Yoni (1) womb, source. (2) The nine classes of consonants; in the context of letters, sakti is yoni, and Siva is bija. (3) The four saktis, viz., Amba, Jyestha, Raudri, Vama (4) Maya-sakti
Yonivarga Maya and its progeny; mayiya mala
Yugapat simultanelusly

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